Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 8, 2018

Being Realistic about International Trade Justice

Christian Neuhäuser

Abstract

The current philosophical debate on just international trade has moved away from purely idealistic theorizing into the direction of non-ideal theory. At the same time most philosophical thought on just trade is still rather idealistic and the main argument of the paper is that some philosophical reasoning about international trade justice should be more realistic. The paper develops in three steps. In a first step I will give a short overview over normative questions that arise with respect to international trade. I will then highlight a proposal brought forward by Leif Wenar, because he is aware of the realist challenge and tries to counter it. In a second step I will discuss why it is important to integrate a realist perspective into philosophical considerations of international trade justice. Trade agreements are embedded in political contexts that influence the normative perspective one should take on trade justice. This leads to the third part of the article, where I will explore how a realist approach can go along with more idealistic perspectives, which leads to a weakly realist perspective on trade justice.

References

Arendt, H. (1951/1979). The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace).Search in Google Scholar

Barry, C. (2014). ‘The Regulation of Harm in International Trade: A Critique of James’s Collective Due Care Principle’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 44 (2): 255–263.Search in Google Scholar

Barry, C. and Øverland, G. (2012). ‘Are Trade Subsidies and Tariffs Killing the Global Poor?’, Social Research 4: 865–896.Search in Google Scholar

Barry, C. and Reddy, S. (2008). International Trade and Labor Standards: A Proposal for Linkage (New York: Columbia University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Barry, C. and Wiens, D. (2016). ‘Benefiting from Wrongdoing and Sustaining Wrongful Harm’, Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (5): 530–552.Search in Google Scholar

Barry, C. and Wisor, S. (2015). ‘International Trade’, in D. Moellendorf and H. Widdows (eds.). The Routledge Handbook of Global Ethics (Abington: Routledge), pp. 216–229.Search in Google Scholar

Bell, D. (2009). ‘Introduction: Under an Empty Sky – Realism and Political Theory’, in D. Bell (ed.). Political Thought and International Relations: Variations on a Realist Theme (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 1–25.Search in Google Scholar

Bhagwati, J. (2002). Going Alone: The Case for Relaxed Reciprocity in Freeing Trade (Cambridge: MIT Press).Search in Google Scholar

Bhagwati, J. (2005). In Defense of Globalization (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Brandi, C. (2014). ‘On the Fairness of the Multilateral Trading System’, Moral Philosophy and Politics 1 (2): 227–247.Search in Google Scholar

Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie e.V. (2017). ‘Stellungnahme: Die EU Dual-Use-Reform: Der Verordnungsvorschlag der EU-Kommission COM(2016)0616’, (accessed on August 25, 2018)Search in Google Scholar

Carmody, P. (2016). The New Scramble for Africa (Cambridge: Polity Press).Search in Google Scholar

Carr, E.H. (1945/2001). The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 1919–1939 (New York: Harper Perennial).Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, J. and Sabel, C. (2006). ‘Extra Rempublicam Nulla Justitia?’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (2): 147–175.Search in Google Scholar

de Bres, H. (2014). ‘Risse on Justice in Trade’, Ethics and International Affairs 28 (4): 489–499.Search in Google Scholar

de Bres, H. (2016). ‘Justice and International Trade’, Philosophical Compass 11 (10): 570–579.Search in Google Scholar

De Ville, F. and Siles-Brügge, G. (2016). TTIP. The Truth about the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (Cambridge: Polity Press).Search in Google Scholar

Drescher, S. (2009). Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (New York: Cambridge University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Dyson, T. and Cetorelli, V. (2017). ‘Changing Views on Child Mortality and Economic Sanctions in Iraq: A History of Lies, Damned Lies and Statistics’, BMJ Global Health 2017: 1–6.Search in Google Scholar

European Commission (2016). ’Commission Staff Working Document, Impact Assessment, Report on the EU Export Control Policy Review SWD(2016)315 Final’, (accessed on July 25, 2018)Search in Google Scholar

Galston, W.A. (2010). ‘Realism in Political Theory’, European Journal of Political Theory 9 (4): 385–411.Search in Google Scholar

Geuss, R. (2008). Philosophy and Real Politics (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Hassoun, N. (2009). ‘Free Trade and the Environment’, Environmental Ethics 31 (1): 51–66.Search in Google Scholar

Hassoun, N. (2011). ‘Free Trade, Poverty, and Inequality’, Journal of Moral Philosophy 8 (1): 5–44.Search in Google Scholar

Hassoun, N. (2012). Globalization and Global Justice: Shrinking Distance, Expanding Obligations (New York: Cambridge University Press).Search in Google Scholar

James, A. (2012). Fairness in Practice: A Social Contract for A Global Economy (New York: Oxford University Press).Search in Google Scholar

James, A. (2014). ‘A Theory of Fairness in Trade’, Moral Philosophy and Politics 1 (2): 177–200.Search in Google Scholar

Kavka, G.S. (1983). ‘Hobbes’s War of All against All’, Ethics 93 (2): 291–310.Search in Google Scholar

Kavka, G.S. (1986). Hobbesian Moral and Political Theory (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Krugman, P. (1993). ‘The Narrow and Broad Arguments for Free Trade’, American Economic Review 83 (2): 362–366.Search in Google Scholar

Kurjanska, M. and Risse, M. (2008). ‘Fairness in Trade II: Export Subsidies and the Fair Trade Movement’, Politics, Philosophy, and Economics 7 (1): 29–56.Search in Google Scholar

Mearsheimer, J. (2003). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (New York: W. W. Norton & Company).Search in Google Scholar

Moellendorf, D. (2005). ‘The World Trade Organization and Egalitarian Justice’, Metaphilosophy 36 (1/2): 145–162.Search in Google Scholar

Morgenthau, H.J. (1948/1954). Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace (New York: Alfred A. Knopf).Search in Google Scholar

Mouffe, C. (2013). Agonistics: Thinking The World Politically (London: Verso Books).Search in Google Scholar

Niebuhr, R. (1932/1960). Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons).Search in Google Scholar

Pogge, T. (2007). World Poverty and Human Rights (Cambridge: Polity Press).Search in Google Scholar

Polanyi, K. (2001). The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press).Search in Google Scholar

Rawls, J. (1971). A Theory of Justice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Rawls, J. (1999). The Law of Peoples (Cambridge: Harvard University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Risse, M. (2007). ‘Fairness in Trade I: Obligations from Trading and the Pauper Labor Argument’, Politics, Philosophy, and Economics 6 (3): 355–377.Search in Google Scholar

Risse, M. (2009). ‘Common Ownership of the Earth as A Non-Parochial Standpoint: A Contingent Derivation of Human Rights’, European Journal of Philosophy 17 (2): 277–304.Search in Google Scholar

Risse, M. (2012). On Global Justice (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Risse, M. and Wollner, G. (2013). ‘Critical Notice of Aaron James, Fairness in Practice: A Social Contract for A Global Economy’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (3): 382–401.Search in Google Scholar

Risse, M. and Wollner, G. (forthcoming). On Trade Justice: A Philosophical Plea for A New Global Deal. (unpublished manuscript).Search in Google Scholar

Rodrik, D. (2011). The Globalization Paradox (New York: W. W. Norton & Company).Search in Google Scholar

Rossi, E. and Sleat, M. (2014). ‘Realism in Normative Political Theory’, Philosophy Compass 9 (10): 689–701.Search in Google Scholar

Sachs, J. and Warner, A. (1995). ‘Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth’, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. w5398.Search in Google Scholar

Sangiovanni, A. (2008). ‘Justice and the Priority of Politics to Morality’, Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (2): 137–164.Search in Google Scholar

Satz, D. (2010). Why Some Things Should Not Be for Sale: The Moral Limits of Markets (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz, A. (1982). ‘Meaningful Work’, Ethics 92: 634–646.Search in Google Scholar

Sen, A. (2004). Rationality and Freedom (Cambridge: Harvard University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Sen, A. (2006). ‘What Do We Want from a Theory of Justice?’, Journal of Philosophy 103 (5): 215–238.Search in Google Scholar

Simmons, A.J. (2010). ‘Ideal and Nonideal Theory’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 38 (1): 5–36.Search in Google Scholar

Stiglitz, J. and Charlton, A. (2006). Fair Trade for All: How Trade Can Promote Development (New York: Oxford University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, A. (2014). ‘Sen on Rawls’s ‘Transcendental Institutionalism’: An Analysis and Critique’, European Journal of Political Theory 13 (3): 241–263.Search in Google Scholar

Valentini, L. (2012). ‘Ideal Vs. Non-Ideal Theory. A Conceptual Map’, Philosophy Compass 7 (9): 654–664.Search in Google Scholar

Waldron, J. (2013). ‘Political Political Theory’, Journal of Political Philosophy 21 (1): 1–23.Search in Google Scholar

Waltz, K. (1979/2010). Theory of International Politics (Long Grove: Waveland Press).Search in Google Scholar

Waltz, K. (1990). ‘Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory’, Journal of International Affairs 44: 21–38.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, W. (2015). ‘Impact of Western Sanctions on Russia in the Ukraine Crisis’, Journal of Politics and Law 8 (2): 1–6.Search in Google Scholar

Weber, M. (1919/1946). Politics as Vocation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Wenar, L. (2008). ‘Property Rights and the Resource Curse’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 36 (1): 2–32.Search in Google Scholar

Wenar, L. (2016). Blood Oil: Tyrants, Violence, and the Rules that Run the World (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Williams, B. (1985). Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Williams, B. (2005). In the Beginning Was the Deed: Realism and Moralism in Political Argument (Princeton: Princeton University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Wisor, S. (2012). ‘Property Rights and the Resource Curse: A Reply to Wenar’, Journal of Philosophical Research 37: 185–204.Search in Google Scholar

Wollner, G. and Risse, M. (2014). ‘Three Images of Trade: On the Place of Trade in a Theory of Global Justice’, Moral Philosophy and Politics 1 (2): 201–225.Search in Google Scholar

Young, I.M. (2004). ‘Responsibility and Global Labor Justice’, Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (4): 365–388.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2018-11-08
Published in Print: 2018-11-27

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston