AISI 410 martensitic stainless-steel specimens were austenitized at 1253 K then oil quenched and tempered at 573, 673, 773 and 923 K for 3600 s. The impact energy of the specimens was tested at 298, 253, 223, 213 K and measured using ASTM E23 standard. After austenitizing and tempering, the microstructure of the specimens showed carbide precipitation. Tempering at 773 K resulted in the highest hardness due to secondary hardening, while tempering at 923 K resulted in the lowest hardness due to brittle carbide precipitation at the grain boundary which caused softening of the matrix by decreasing the solute carbon content. By contrast, the change in impact energy is inversely proportional to the hardness values. The impact surface of specimens tempered at 573, 673 and 773 K revealed transgranular fracture; on the other hand, the impact surface of the specimen tempered at 923 K revealed intergranular fracture. From our experimental results, the appropriate hardening and tempering procedure of AISI 410 for low temperatures applications is selectable.
About the authors
Kittipat Suwanpatcharakul, born in 1996, is agraduate student at the Department of Metallurgical Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. He received his Bachelor’s degree in Nanomaterial Engineering from King Mongkut’s University of Technology – North Bangkok in Bangkok, Thailand in 2017. His current research theme involves an electrochemical corrosion test.
Dr. Nithi Saenarjhan, born in 1990, is a Lecturer in the Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. He received his PhD in Ferrous Technology from The Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology in 2019. His research areas of expertise include stainless steel, advanced high strength steel and the high temperature behavior of stainless steel.
Nathi Nakthong, born in 1978, has worked with the PTT gas separation plant at Khanom, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand, since 1982. He received his Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from Prince of Songkla University, Songkla, Thailand. He is serving as the Section Manager of Maintenance at the PTT GSP, Khanom plant. He is interested in the metallurgical effect on material behaviors for mechanical engineering applications.
Prof. Dr. Anchaleeporn W. Lothongkum, D. Eng. (Kyoto University), born in 1961, is a Professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology – Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand. She was the President of the Thai Institute of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry (TIChE) from 2013 to 2017 and the Chairperson of Chemical Engineering & Petrochemicals, the Engineering Institute of Thailand under H. M. The King’s Patronage from 2014 to 2019. Her expertise is Chemical Engineering, Safety Engineering, and Catalysis.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gobboon Lothongkum, born in 1960, is Professor and a Member of the Innovative Metals Research Unit, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. He served as Head of Department from 2015 to 2019. He received his Dr.-Ing. degree from the University of the Federal Armed Force Hamburg, Germany and the International Welding Engineer Certificate of the International Institute of Welding in 1994 and 2006, respectively. His areas of expertise include corrosion of metals and alloys, welding and metal joining, stainless steel and high temperature materials.
1 X. Wang, M. Economides: Advanced natural gas engineering, Gulf Publishing Company, Boston, USA (2013)Search in Google Scholar
2 J. G. Speight: Handbook of Industrial hydrocarbon processes, Gulf Professional Publishing, Boston, USA (2011)Search in Google Scholar
3 J. Ezechidelu, S. Enibe, D. Obikwelu, P. Nnamchi, C. Obayi: Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a welded AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel, IARJSET 3 (2016), pp. 6-12 DOI:10.17148/IARJSET.2016.340210.17148/IARJSET.2016.3402Search in Google Scholar
4 L. Tsay, Y. Chang, S. Torng, H. Wu: Improved impact toughness of 13Cr martensitic stainless steel hardened by laser, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 11 (2002), pp. 422-427 DOI:10.1361/10599490277034395310.1361/105994902770343953Search in Google Scholar
5 A. Stormvinter, A. Borgenstam, and P. Hedström: Investigation of lath and plate martensite in a carbon steel, Solid State Phenomena 172 (2011), pp. 61-66 DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.172-174.6110.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.172-174.61Search in Google Scholar
6 M. F. McGuire: Stainless Steels for Design Engineers, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA (2008)10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.9781627082860Search in Google Scholar
7 A. Inoue, T. Masumoto: Formation of nonequi-librium Cr3C carbide in CrC binary alloys quenched rapidly from the melt, Scripta Metallurgica 13 (1979), No. 8, pp. 711-715 DOI:10.1016/0036-9748(79)90142-X10.1016/0036-9748(79)90142-XSearch in Google Scholar
8 M. Mirzaee, A. Momeni, N. Aieni, H. Keshmiri: Effect of quenching and tempering on micro-structure and mechanical properties of 410 and 410 Ni martensitic stainless steels, Journal of Materials Research 32 (2017), No. 3, pp. 687-696 DOI:10.1557/jmr.2016.48510.1557/jmr.2016.485Search in Google Scholar
9 H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, S. Honeycombe: The tempering of martensite, pp. 183-208 DOI:10.1016/B978-075068084-4/50011-X10.1016/B978-075068084-4/50011-XSearch in Google Scholar
10 P. Lacombe, B. Baroux, G. Beranger, L. Colombier, J. Hochmann: Stainless Steels, Les Editions de Physique, Paris, France (1993)Search in Google Scholar
11 E. Mabruri, Z. Syahlan, Sahlan, S. Prifiharni, M. Anwar, S. Chandra, T. Romijarso, B. Adjiantoro: Influence of austenitizing heat treatment on the properties of the tempered type 410-1Mo stainless steel, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 202 (2017), p. 012085 DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/202/1/01208510.1088/1757-899X/202/1/012085Search in Google Scholar
12 E. Mabruri, S. Prifiharni, M. Anwar, T. Romijarso, B. Adjiantoro: Mechanical properties optimization of the modified 410 martensitic stainless steel by heat treatment process, Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018), pp. 14918-14922 DOI:10.1016/j.matpr.2018.04.03010.1016/j.matpr.2018.04.030Search in Google Scholar
13 E. Mabruri, Z. Syahlan, Sahlan, M. Anwar, T. Romijarso, B. Adjiantoro: Effect of tempering temperature on hardness and impact resistance of the 410-1Mo martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades, International Journal of Engineering and Technology 8 (2018), No. 6, pp. 2547-2551 DOI:10.21817/ijet/2016/v8i6/16080620810.21817/ijet/2016/v8i6/160806208Search in Google Scholar
14 G. Chakraborty, C. R. Das, S. K. Albert, A. K. Bhaduri, V. Thomas Paul, G. Panneerselvam, A. Dasgupta: Study on tempering behaviour of AISI 410 stainless steel, Materials Characterization 100 (2015), pp. 81-87 DOI:10.1016/j.matchar.2014.12.01510.1016/j.matchar.2014.12.015Search in Google Scholar
15 J. Li, C. Zhang, B. Jiang, L. Zhou, Y. Liu: Effect of large-size M23C6-type carbides on the low-temperature toughness of martensitic heat-resistant steels, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 685 (2016), pp. 248-257 DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.05.29410.1016/j.jallcom.2016.05.294Search in Google Scholar
16 ASTM E23-18: Standard Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA (2018) DOI:10.1520/E0023-1810.1520/E0023-18Search in Google Scholar
17 J. H. Chen, R. Cao: Micromechanism of Cleavage Fracture of Metals, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, USA (2015)10.1016/B978-0-12-800765-5.00005-8Search in Google Scholar
18 C. J. Scheuer, R. A. Fraga, R. P. Cardoso, S. F. Brunatto: Effects of heat treatment conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 420 steel, Proc. of the 21st Conf. CBECIMAT, Cuiba, Brazil (2014), pp. 5857-5867Search in Google Scholar
19 Y. Yu, S. Shironita, K. Souma, M. Umeda: Effect of chromium content on the corrosion resistance of ferritic stainless steels in sulfuric acid solution, Heliyon 4 (2018), No 11, pp. e00958 DOI:10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e0095810.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00958Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
20 G. Kirtiratan, D. Chittaranjan, P. Bharat: Tailoring of mechanical properties of AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel through tempering, Proc. of the Conf. Metal, Brno, Czech Republik (2017), pp. 705-710Search in Google Scholar
21 G. R. Speich and W. C. Leslie: Tempering of steel, Metallurgical Transactions 3 (1972), No. 5, pp. 1043-1054 DOI:10.1007/BF0264243610.1007/BF02642436Search in Google Scholar
22 J. D. Verhoeven: Steel metallurgy for the non-metallurgist, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA (2007)10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.9781627082648Search in Google Scholar
© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany