Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 18, 2021

Mitigation of heat treatment distortion of AA 7075 aluminum alloy by deep cryogenic processing using the Navy C-ring test

Tushar Sonar, Visvalingam Balasubramanian and Sudersanan Malarvizhi
From the journal Materials Testing


Heat treatment is a promising approach to advance the mechanical properties of AA 7075 aluminum alloy for aerospace structural applications. Quenching is commonly performed after solutionizing of AA 7075 aluminum alloy to impart supersaturated solid solution condition. It involves rapid cooling of the previously solutionized part to room temperature with water as a quenching medium. It leads to severe distortion of the structural part and deteriorates its surface integrity due to the high thermal residual stresses. This paper reports the distortion behavior of heat-treated AA 7075 aluminum alloy by implementing the standard Navy C-ring test. For precise measurements, the coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was used. Deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) was executed after conventional heat treatment (CHT) to reduce the tensile residual stresses and mitigate the distortion potential of AA 7075 aluminum alloy. Results showed significant improvement in surface finish and hardness of deep cryogenically treated AA 7075 aluminum alloy. It is attributed to the precipitation of fine spherical second phase particles distributed uniformly in the matrix. The distortion potential of heat-treated AA 7075 aluminum alloy is minimized by 30.7 % by deep cryogenic processing. It is correlated to the counterbalancing of tensile residual stresses in the heat treated part by compressive residual stresses ensued by deep cryogenic quenching.

Centre for Materials Joining and Research (CEMAJOR) Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002, Tamil Nadu State, India


The authors express their gratitude to Kry-ospace, Kharadi for providing Cryogenic Treatment facility. The authors are thankful to Upturn Precision Pvt. Ltd. and Meas-urewell technologies, Waluj, for Navy C-ring manufacturing and for providing the CMM measurement facility.


1 G. E. Totten, S. D. Mackenzie: Handbook of aluminium – Physical metallurgy and processes, Marcel Dekker, New York, USA (2003), pp. 305-350 Search in Google Scholar

2 M. Reimann, J. Goebel, J. F. dos Santos: Microstructure and mechanical properties of keyhole repair welds in AA 7075-T651 using refill friction stir spot welding, Materials Design 132 (2017), pp. 283-294 DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2017.07.013 Search in Google Scholar

3 H. W. Zoch: From single production step to entire process chain – The global approach of distortion engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Technology 37 (2006), pp. 6-10 DOI:10.1002/mawe.200500958 Search in Google Scholar

4 G. Bellows: Introduction to surface integrity, General Electric Aircraft Engine Group, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA (1970), pp. 1-12 Search in Google Scholar

5 A. R. Natasha, J. A. Ghani, C. H. C. Haron, J. Syarif: The effect of cryogenic application on surface integrity in manufacturing process: A Review, Journal of Applied Science Research 8 (2012), pp. 4880-4890 Search in Google Scholar

6 W. M. Sim: Challenges of residual stress and part distortion in the civil airframe industry, International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties 5 (2010), pp. 446-454 DOI:10.1504/IJMMP.2010.037621 Search in Google Scholar

7 T. L. Teng, P. H. Chang, W. C. Tseng: Effect of welding sequences on residual stresses, Computers and Structures 81 (2003) No. 5, pp. 273-286 DOI:10.1016/S0045-7949(02)00447-9 Search in Google Scholar

8 D Klein, M. Seifert, K. D. Thoben: Taking the distortion of component parts along a manufacturing chain into consideration during planning, Materials Science and Engineering Technology 40 (2009), pp. 349-353 DOI:10.1002/mawe.200900458 Search in Google Scholar

9 T. Sonar, S. Lomte, C. Gogte: Cryogenic treatment of metal – A review, Materials Today Proceedings 5 (2018), pp. 25219-25228 DOI:10.1016/j.matpr.2018.10.324 Search in Google Scholar

10 F. Diekman: Cryogenic processing: Myths, methods and processes, Moldmaking Technology, Cincinnati, Ohio (1999), pp. 27-31 Search in Google Scholar

11 K. Amini, S. Nategh, A. Shafyei, A. Rezaeian: Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on the properties of 80CrMo12 5 tool steel, International Journal of Minerals Metallurgy and Materials 19 (2012), pp. 30-37 DOI:10.1007/s12613-012-0511-8 Search in Google Scholar

12 V. Leskovesk, B. Ule: Influence of deep cryogenic treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties and dimensional changes of vacuum heat-treated high-speed steel, International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering 2 (2008), No. 3, pp. 155-161 DOI:10.1179/174951508X446385 Search in Google Scholar

13 F. J. Da Silva, S. D. Franco, A. R. Machado, E. O. Ezugwu, A. M. Souza: Performance of cryogenically treated HSS tools, Wear 261 (2006), No. 5-6, pp. 674-685 DOI:10.1016/j.wear.2006.01.017 Search in Google Scholar

14 P. Chen, T. Malone, R. Bod, P. Torres: Effects of cryogenic treatment on the residual stress and mechanical properties of an aerospace aluminium alloy, Proceedings of 4th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology, NASA, Huntsville, Alabama, USA (2001) Search in Google Scholar

15 C. L. Gogte, A. Likhite, D. Peshwe, A. Bhokarikar, R. Shetty: Effect of cryogenic processing on surface roughness of age hardenable AA6061 alloy, Materials and Manufacturing Processes 29 (2014) No. 6, pp. 710-714 DOI:10.1080/10426914.2014.901526 Search in Google Scholar

16 T. Sonar, S. Lomte, C. L. Gogte, V. Balasubramanian: Minimization of distortion in heat treated AISI D2 tool steel: Mechanism and distortion analysis, Procedia Manufacturing 20 (2018), pp. 113-118 DOI:10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.016 Search in Google Scholar

17 F. Kara, A. Takmaz: Optimization of cryogenic treatment effects on the surface roughness of cutting tools, Materials Testing 61 (2019), No. 11, pp. 1101-1104 DOI:10.3139/120.111427 Search in Google Scholar

18 L. Singh, J. Singh: Effect of cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and wear behavior of a T-42 tool steel, Materials Testing 57 (2015), No. 4, pp. 306-310 DOI:10.3139/120.110720 Search in Google Scholar

19 S. Solic, F. Cainer, V. Leskovsek: Effect of deep cryogenic treatment on mechanical and tribo-logical properties of PM S390 MC high-speed steel, Materials Testing 54 (2012), No. 10, pp. 688-693 DOI:10.3139/120.110380 Search in Google Scholar

20 p. Raja, R. Malavalamurthi: Effects of deep cryo treatment of high speed steel on the turning process of a medium carbon steel, Materials Testing 59 (2017), pp. 763-768 DOI:10.3139/120.111069 Search in Google Scholar

21 N. Vasudevan, G. B. Bhaskar, T. Srinivasa Rao, M. Mohandass: Mechanical properties of cryogenically treated AA5083 friction stir welds, Materials Testing 61 (2019), No. 61, pp. 1129-1134 DOI:10.3139/120.111430 Search in Google Scholar

22 C. Liu, D. Northwood, S. Bhole: Tensile fracture behavior in CO2 laser beam welds of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, Materials and Design 25 (2004), No. 7, pp. 573-577 DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2004.02.017 Search in Google Scholar

23 J. A. Wert: Identification of precipitates in 7075 Al after high-temperature aging, Scripta Metallurgica 15 (1981) No.4, pp. 445-447 DOI:10.1016/0036-9748(81)90228-3 Search in Google Scholar

24 G. E. Totten: Residual stress distortion and cracking, Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA (1993), pp. 439-492 Search in Google Scholar

25 D. Senthilkumar: Tensile and residual stress behaviour of deep cryogenically treated EN31 steel, Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies 6 (2019) No.1, pp. 1-12 DOI:10.1080/2374068X.2019.1636189 Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-08-18
Published in Print: 2021-08-31

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany