Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 18, 2021

Effect of Bi dopant on morphological and optical properties of ZnO semiconductor films produced by the sol-gel spin coating process

Tülay Yıldız, Nida Katı and Kadriye Yalçın
From the journal Materials Testing

Abstract

In this study, undoped semiconductor ZnO thin film and Bi-doped ZnO thin films were produced using the sol-gel spin coating method. By changing each parameter of the spin coating method, the best conditions for the formation of the film were determined via the trial and error method. When the appropriate parameter was found, the specified parameter was applied for each film. The structural, superficial, and optical properties of the films produced were characterized via atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and the effects of Bi dopant on these properties were investigated. When the morphological properties of the undoped and Bi-doped ZnO films were examined, it was observed that they had a structure in a micro-fiber shape consisting of nanoparticles. When the surface roughness was examined, it was observed that the surface roughness values became larger as the rate of Bi dopant increased. By examining the optical properties of the films, it was determined that they were direct band transition materials and Bi-doped thin films were involved in the semiconductor range. In addition, optical properties changed positively with Bi dopant. Since Bi-doped ZnO thin film has a wide bandgap and good optical properties, it is a material that can be used in optoelectronic applications.


Faculty Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Fırat University Technology 23119, Elazığ, Turkey

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by the Fırat University Scientific Research Projects Unit (Project No: TEKF.18.26).

References

1 L. J. Zhou, C. Li, X. Zou, J. Zhao, P. P. Jin, L. L. Feng, M. H. Fan, G. D. Li: Porous nanoplate-assembled CdO/ZnO composite microstructures: A highly sensitive material for ethanol detection, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 197 (2014), pp. 370-375 DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2014.02.086 Search in Google Scholar

2 O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, H. W. Schock: Texture etched ZnO:Al coated glass substrates for silicon based thin film solar cells, Thin Solid Films 351 (1999), pp. 247-253 DOI:10.1016/S0040-6090(99)00085-1 Search in Google Scholar

3 S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah: Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: Temperature-induced morphological changes, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 86 (2005), pp. 385-397 DOI:10.1016/j.solmat.2004.08.002 Search in Google Scholar

4 C. Agashe, O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, H. Siekmann, J. Hüpkes, B. Rech: Optimization of the electrical properties of magnetron sputtered aluminum-doped zinc oxide films for opto-electronic applications, Thin Solid Films 442 (2003), pp. 167-172 DOI:10.1016/S0040-6090(03)00966-0 Search in Google Scholar

5 R. Khan, H. W. Ra, J. T. Kim, W. S. Jang, D. Sharma, Y. H. Im: Nanojunction effects in multiple ZnO nanowire gas sensor, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 150 (2010), pp. 389-393 DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2010.06.052 Search in Google Scholar

6 I. E. Titkov, L. A. Delimova, A. S. Zubrilov, N. V. Seredova, I. A. Liniichuk, I. V. Grekhov: ZnO/GaN heterostructure for LED applications, Journal of Modern Optics 56 (2009), pp. 653-660 DOI:10.1080/09500340902737051 Search in Google Scholar

7 Q. A. Xu, J. W. Zhang, K. R. Ju, X. D. Yang, X. Hou: ZnO thin film photoconductive ultraviolet detector with fast photoresponse, Journal of Crystal Growth 289 (2006), pp. 44-47 DOI:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.11.008 Search in Google Scholar

8 G. Bandoli, D. Barreca, E. Brecacin, G. A. Rizzi, E. Tondello: Pure and mixed phase Bi2O3 thin films obtained by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, Chemical Vapor Deposition 2 (1996), pp. 238-242 DOI:10.1002/cvde.19960020605 Search in Google Scholar

9 Pan, A. Ghosh: New family of lead-bismuthate glass with a large transmitting window, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 271 (2000), pp. 157-161 DOI:10.1016/S0022-3093(00)00111-3 Search in Google Scholar

10 B. K. Singh, S. Tripathi: Performance analysis of Schottky diodes based on Bi doped p-ZnO thin films, Superlattices and Microstructures 120 (2018), pp. 288-297 DOI:10.1016/j.spmi.2018.05.054 Search in Google Scholar

11 B. K. Singh, S. Tripathi: p-n homojunction based on Bi doped p-type ZnO and undoped n-type ZnO for optoelectronic application in yellow-red region of visible spectrum, Journal of Luminescence 198 (2018), pp. 427-432 DOI:10.1016/j.jlumin.2018.02.072 Search in Google Scholar

12 T. K. Pathak, H. C. Swart, R. E. Kroon: Influence of Bi doping on the structure and photoluminescence of ZnO phosphor synthesized by the combustion method, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 190 (2018), pp. 164-171 DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2017.09.026 Search in Google Scholar

13 S. H. Bougharraf, K. Bouchouit, Z. Sofiani, B. Derkowska-Zielinska, M. S. Aida, B. Sahraoui: Influence of Bi doping on the electrical and optical properties of ZnO thin films, Superlattices and Microstructures 85 (2015), pp. 370-378 DOI:10.1016/j.spmi.2015.06.008 Search in Google Scholar

14 N. Sadananda Kumar, K. V. Bangera, G. K. Shivakumar: Effect of annealing on the properties of Bi doped ZnO thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique, Superlattices and Microstructures 75 (2014), pp. 303-310 DOI:10.1016/j.spmi.2014.07.019 Search in Google Scholar

15 S. Syed Zahirullah, P. Immanuel, S. Pravinraj, P. Fermi Hilbert Inbaraj, J. Joseph Prince: Synthesis and characterization of Bi doped ZnO thin films using SILAR method for ethanol sensor, Materials Letters 230 (2018), pp. 1-4 DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2018.07.067 Search in Google Scholar

16 E. F. Keskenler, S. Aydin, G. Turgut, S. Dogan: Optical and structural properties of bismuth doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel method, Urbach rule as a function of crystal defects, Acta Physica Polonica A 126 (2014), pp. DOI:10.12693/APhysPolA.126.782 Search in Google Scholar

17 B. K. Singh, S. Tripathi: Influence of Bi concentration on structural and optical properties of Bi doped p-type ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 27 (2016), pp. 2360-2366 DOI:10.1007/s10854-015-4033-9 Search in Google Scholar

18 J. Tauc: Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Springer US, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (1974) DOI:10.1007/978-1-4615-8705-7 Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-08-18
Published in Print: 2021-08-31

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany