Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 11, 2021

Strength of carbon fiber/epoxy in sea water

Ercüment Uğur Yüncüoğlu, Serdar Turgut Ince and Eyup Bağcı
From the journal Materials Testing

Abstract

Composite materials are widely used in the marine industry. The marine environment, on the other hand, has a significant impact on the strength of composite materials. The tensile strength is adversely affected because the matrix material absorbs water. In this study, the effect of orientation, number of layers and different mediums over time on the tensile strength of the woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite material was investigated experimentally from a comprehensive perspective. The findings of the experiments were subjected to variance analysis. The repeated tests and cross-results of the experimental parameters were found to be compatible with each other. Seawater reduces the tensile strength of composite materials in any case. The tensile strength increased with increasing the number of layers. However, it has been observed that the seawater medium reduces strength when the number of layers increases. At the same time, as orientation angle rises, the seawater medium’s negative effect on strength rises.


Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Department Naval Architecture and Maritime Faculty Yildiz Technical University Istanbul, Turkey,34349

Funding statement: The seawater used in the experiment was analyzed in the Environmental and Fuel Analysis Laboratory within the Environmental Protection Directorate of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. This work was supported by the Research Fund of Yildiz Technical University. Project Number: FBA-2020-3750

References

1 S. Mortazavian, A. Fatemi: Effects of fiber orientation and anisotropy on tensile strength and elastic modulus of short fiber reinforced polymer composites, Composites Part B: Engineering 72 (2015), pp. 116-129 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.11.041 Search in Google Scholar

2 P. Banakar, H. K. Shivananda, H. B. Niranjan: Influence of fiber orientation and thickness on tensile properties of laminated polymer composites, International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology 9 (2012), No. 1, pp. 1-9 Search in Google Scholar

3 E. Yüncüoğlu, S. T. İnce: Parametric evaluation of strength of fiber/epoxy composites, Fırat University Journal 33 (2021), pp. 243-249 DOI:10.35234/fumbd.789873 (in Turkish) Search in Google Scholar

4 B. C. Ray: Effects of changing seawater temperature on mechanical properties of GRP composites, Polymers and Polymer Composites 15 (2007), pp. 59-63 DOI:10.1177/096739110701500108 Search in Google Scholar

5 M. Dawson, P. Davies, P. Harper, S. Wilkinson: Effects of conditioning parameters and test environment on composite materials for marine applications, Proceedings of the 2nd Ifremer – Durability of Composites in a Marine Environment, Brest, France, (2016), pp. 1-9 Search in Google Scholar

6 Z. Feng, M. Zhenyu, X. Haolei, T. Gong: Hygrothermal environment effects on mechanical properties of T700/3228 CFRP laminates, Materials Testing 61 (2019), No. 9, pp. 857-863 DOI:10.3139/120.111397 Search in Google Scholar

7 N. Tual, N. Carrere, P. Davies, T. Bonnemains, E. Lolive: Characterization of sea water ageing effects on mechanical properties of carbon/ epoxy composites for tidal turbine blades, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 78 (2015), pp. 380-389 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.08.035 Search in Google Scholar

8 A.-H. I. Mourad, B. M. Abdel-Magid, T. El-Maaddawy, M. E. Grami: Effect of seawater and warm environment on glass/epoxy and glass/polyurethane composites, Applied Composite Material 17 (2010), pp. 557-573 DOI:10.1007/s10443-010-9143-1 Search in Google Scholar

9 T. D’Antino, M. A. Pisani, C. Poggi: Effect of the environment on the performance of GFRP reinforcing bars, Composites Part B: Engineering 141 (2018), pp. 123-136 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.12.037 Search in Google Scholar

10 L. Wu, K. Murphy, V. M. Karbhari, J. S. Zhang: Short-term effects of sea water on E-glass/ vinylester composites, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 84 (2002), pp. 2760-2767 DOI:10.1002/app.10571 Search in Google Scholar

11 R. Karakuzu, H. Kanlioglu, M. E. Deniz: Environmental effects on mechanical properties of glass-epoxy composites, Materials Testing 56 (2014), No. 5, pp. 355-361 DOI:10.3139/120.110576 Search in Google Scholar

12 M. Meng, H. Le, S. Grove, M. Jahir Rizvi: Moisture effects on the bending fatigue of laminated composites, Composite Structures 154 (2016), pp. 49-60 DOI:10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.06.078 Search in Google Scholar

13 B. G. D. Penn: Effects of seawater and deionized water at 0 to 80 deg C on the flexural properties of a glass/epoxy composite (1986), https:// ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R = 19860015287, accessed October 16, 2018 Search in Google Scholar

14 F. Gomes da Silva, R. C. S. F. Junior: Influence of moisture on e-glass fiber composites, Proceedings of the 20th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering COBEM 20, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, (2009), pp. 1-9 Search in Google Scholar

15 I. Kafodya, G. Xian, H. Li: Durability study of pultruded CFRP plates immersed in water and seawater under sustained bending: Water uptake and effects on the mechanical properties, Composites Part B Engineering 70 (2015), pp. 138-148 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.10.034 Search in Google Scholar

16 K. A. Imran, M. K. Hossain, M. V. Hosur, S. Jeelani: Seawater effect on mechanical properties of conventional and nanophased carbon/epoxy composites, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Composite Structures ICCS 16, Porto, Portugal (2016), pp. 1-2 Search in Google Scholar

17 Y. Zhao, Z. Wang, L. K. Seah, G. B. Chai: Evaluation of seawater exposure on mechanical properties and failure behavior of E-glass/BMI composite for marine use, Proceedings of the International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Singapore, Singapore, (2014), pp. 1-9 DOI:10.1117/12.2084674 Search in Google Scholar

18 A. P. Chakraverty, U. K. Mohanty, S. C. Mishra, A. Satapathy: Sea water ageing of GFRP composites and the dissolved salts, IOP Conference Series, Materials Science and Engineering 75 (2015), pp. 1-16 DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/75/1/012029 Search in Google Scholar

19 Ü. Esendemir: Effect of seawater on pin-loaded joint with clearance woven-glass-epoxy composite, Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Science 20 (2013), pp. 549-554 Search in Google Scholar

20 W. Ouarhim, H. Essabir, M.-O. Bensalah, D. Rodrigue, R. Bouhfid, A. K. Qaiss: Hybrid composites and intra-ply hybrid composites based on jute and glass fibers: A comparative study on moisture absorption and mechanical properties, Materials Today Communications 22 (2020), pp. 100861 DOI:10.1016/j.mtcomm.2019.100861 Search in Google Scholar

21 A. Kootsookos, A. P. Mouritz, N. A. S. John: Comparison of the seawater durability of carbon and glass polymer composites, Proceedings of the International Conference on Composite Materials, Beijing, China (2001), pp. 1-10 Search in Google Scholar

22 D. K. Jesthi, R. K. Nayak: Improvement of mechanical properties of hybrid composites through interply rearrangement of glass and carbon woven fabrics for marine application, Composites Part B Engineering, 168 (2019), pp. 467-475 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.03.042 Search in Google Scholar

23 J. Li, S. Hou, P. Zhao, P. Jia, G. Ge, Y. Liu, D. Wen, Z. Li: Properties variation of carbon fiber reinforced composite for marine current turbine in seawater, MATEC Web of Conferences 67 (2016), pp. 6-24 DOI:10.1051/matecconf/20166706024 Search in Google Scholar

24 J.-B. Moon, S.-H. Kim, C.-G. Kim: Effects of salt water environment on the mechanical behavior of composites, Journal of The Korean Society for Composite Materials 23 (2010), pp. 44-50 DOI:10.7234/kscm.2010.23.1.044 Search in Google Scholar

25 E. Pérez-Pacheco, J. I. Cauich-Cupul, A. Valadez-González, P. J. Herrera-Franco: Effect of moisture absorption on the mechanical behavior of carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites, Journal of Material Science 48 (2013), pp. 1873-1882 DOI:10.1007/s10853-012-6947-4 Search in Google Scholar

26 M. E. Deniz, R. Karakuzu: Seawater effect on impact behavior of glass–epoxy composite pipes, Composites Part B: Engineering 43 (2012), pp. 1130-1138 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.11.006 Search in Google Scholar

27 S. Sayer: Mechanical performance of polyamid 66 and influence of glass fiber content on moisture absorption, Materials Testing 56 (2014), No. 4, pp. 325-330 DOI:10.3139/120.110563 Search in Google Scholar

28 C. Ji, H. He, Y. Yang: Moisture absorption process of epoxy resin and mechanical properties of its fiber composites, Materials Testing 61 (2019), No. 1, pp. 23-26 DOI:10.3139/120.111276 Search in Google Scholar

29 A. Gunoz, Y. Kepir, M. Kara: Effect of hydrothermal aging on the mechanical properties of nanocomposite pipes, Materials Testing 63 (2021), No. 3, pp. 253-258 DOI:10.1515/mt-2020-0037 Search in Google Scholar

30 C. Humeau, P. Davies, F. Jacquemin: An experimental study of water diffusion in carbon/epoxy composites under static tensile stress, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 107 (2018), pp. 94-104 DOI:10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.12.016 Search in Google Scholar

31 D. Miller, J. Mandell, D. Samborsky, B. Hernandez-Sanchez, D. T. Griffith: Performance of composite materials subjected to salt water environments, Proceedings of the Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Honolulu, Hawaii (2012), pp. 1-13 DOI:10.2514/6.2012-1575 Search in Google Scholar

32 J. D. Garcia-Espinel, D. Castro-Fresno, P. Parbole Gayo, F. Ballester-Muñoz: Effects of sea water environment on glass fiber reinforced plastic materials used for marine civil engineering constructions, Materials and Design 66 (2015), pp. 46-50 DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2014.10.032 Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-09-11
Published in Print: 2021-09-30

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston, Germany