Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 30, 2021

Optimization of casting parameters for improved mechanical properties of eggshell reinforced composites

Shashi Prakash Dwivedi, Nagendra Kumar Maurya, Manish Maurya, Ambuj Saxena and Ashish Kumar Srivastava
From the journal Materials Testing

Abstract

The tensile strength, hardness and toughness of any materials are the most important mechanical properties in the selection of materials for varied industrial applications. In the development of aluminum based composite material, tensile strength and hardness were significantly improved by adding various ceramic reinforcement particles. However, toughness was reduced. In this research work, an attempt was made to enhance tensile strength, hardness and toughness simultaneously by using carbonized eggshell as reinforcement material developed via electromagnetic stir casting. The process parameters used in this study are the matrix pouring temperature, wt.-% of the reinforcement; preheat temperature, stirring current and stirring time. Response surface methodology (RSM) is used for conducting the experiment. The multi-objective optimization technique utility theory is employed to optimize the combined mechanical properties viz. tensile strength, hardness and toughness. Microstructure results show that at the optimum level of process parameters, eggshells are uniformly distributed. Confirmation tests are conducted to validate the experimental results. Experimental results revealed that at optimum process parameters, hardness and tensile strength are significantly improved without affecting the toughness property of the composite. The optimum level of process parameters to enhance all mechanical properties (tensile strength, hardness and toughness) were found to be a reinforced preheating temperature of about 448.32 °C, a stirring current of about 11.64 A, a stirring time of about 63.64 s, a maximum pouring temperature of about 800.24 °C and a percentage of eggshells of about 9.16 %. The novelty of this work lies in the fact that no attempt was made to optimize these electromagnetic process parameters. Corrosion loss, thermal expansion behavior and a wear test were investigated to observe the effect of adding eggshell at optimum electromagnetic stir casting parameters.


Manish Maurya Department of Mechanical Engineering Accurate Institute of Management and Technology Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar U. P. 201308, India

References

1 P. Toro, R. Quijada, M. Y. Pedram, J. L. Arias: Eggshell, a new bio-filler for polypropylene composites, Materials Letters 61 (2007), pp. 4347-4350 DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2007.01.10210.1016/j.matlet.2007.01.102Search in Google Scholar

2 L. Severa, J. Nemecek, S. Nedomova, J. Buchar: Determination of micromechanical properties of a hen’s eggshell by means of nanoindentation, Journal of Food Engineering 101 (2010), pp. 146-151 DOI:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.06.01310.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.06.013Search in Google Scholar

3 X. Chen, C. Li, J. Wang, J. Li, X. Luan, Y. Li, R. Xu, B. Wang: Investigation on solar photo-catalytic activity of TiO2 loaded composite, TiO2/eggshell, TiO2/clamshell and TiO2/CaCo3, Materials Letters 64 (2010), pp. 1437-1440 DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2010.03.04810.1016/j.matlet.2010.03.048Search in Google Scholar

4 S. Lunge, D. Thakre, S. Kamble, N. Labhsetwar, S. Rayalu: Alumina supported carbon composite material with exceptionally high defluoridation property from eggshell waste, Journal of Hazardous Materials 237-238 (2012), pp. 161-169 DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.08.02310.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.08.023Search in Google Scholar

5 M. C. Yew, N. H. R. Sulong, M. K. Yew, M. A. Amalina, M. R. Johan: The formulation and study of the thermal stability and mechanical properties of an acrylic coating using chicken eggshell as a novel bio-filler, Progress in Organic Coatings 76 (2013), pp. 1549-1555 DOI:10.1016/j.porgcoat.2013.06.01110.1016/j.porgcoat.2013.06.011Search in Google Scholar

6 Manish Maurya, Sudhir Kumar, and Vivek Bajpai, Assessment of the mechanical properties of aluminium metal matrix composite: A review, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 38 (2019), pp. 267-298 DOI:10.1177/073168441881637910.1177/0731684418816379Search in Google Scholar

7 S. P. Dwivedi, N. K. Maurya, M. Maurya: Effect of uncarbonized eggshell weight percentage on mechanical properties of composite material developed by electromagnetic stir casting technique, Revue des Composites et des Matériaux Avancés, 29 (2019), pp. 101-107 DOI:10.18280/rcma.29020510.18280/rcma.290205Search in Google Scholar

8 E. Mosaddegh, A. Hassankhan: Application and characterization of eggshell as a new biodegradable and heterogeneous catalyst in green synthesis of 7, 8-dihydro-4h-chromen-5(6H)-ones, Catalysis Communications 33 (2013), pp. 70-75 DOI:10.1016/j.catcom.2012.12.01310.1016/j.catcom.2012.12.013Search in Google Scholar

9 M. Imran, A. R. Anwar Khan, S. Megeri, S. Sadik: Study of hardness and tensile strength of aluminium-7075 percentage varying reinforced with graphite and bagasse-ash composites, Resource-Efficient Technologies 2 (2016), pp. 81-88 DOI:10.1016/j.reffit.2016.06.00710.1016/j.reffit.2016.06.007Search in Google Scholar

10 G. Narasaraju, DL. Raju: Characterization of hybrid rice husk and fly ash-reinforced aluminum alloy (AlSi10Mg) composites, Materials Today: Proceedings 2 (2015), pp. 3056-3064 DOI:10.1016/j.matpr.2015.07.24510.1016/j.matpr.2015.07.245Search in Google Scholar

11 K. K. Alaneme, M. O. Bodunrin, A. A. Awe: Microstructure, mechanical and fracture properties of groundnut shell ash and silicon carbide dispersion strengthened aluminium matrix composites, Journal of King Saud University- Engineering Sciences 30 (2018), pp. 96-103 DOI:10.1016/j.jksues.2016.01.00110.1016/j.jksues.2016.01.001Search in Google Scholar

12 R.Ilandjezian, S.Gopalakannan: Tensile fracture & compression failure behavior of cenosphere reinforced AA 6061 MMC, Procedia Engineering 173 (2017), pp. 1239-1245 DOI:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.12.13710.1016/j.proeng.2016.12.137Search in Google Scholar

13 K. K. Alaneme, O. J. Ajayi: Microstructure and mechanical behavior of stir-cast Zn-27Al based composites reinforced with rice huskash, silicon carbide, and graphite, Journal of King Saud University-Engineering Sciences 29 (2017), No. 2, pp. 172-177 DOI:10.1016/j.jksues.2015.06.00410.1016/j.jksues.2015.06.004Search in Google Scholar

14 B. N.Sarada, P. L. S. Murthy, G.Ugrasen: Hardness and wear characteristics of hybrid aluminium metal matrix composites by stir casting technique, Materials Today: Proceedings 2 (2015), No. 4-5, pp. 2878-2885 DOI:10.1016/j.matpr.2015.07.30510.1016/j.matpr.2015.07.305Search in Google Scholar

15 M. Ravichandran, S. D. kumar: Experimental investigations of Al-TiO2-Gr hybrid composites fabricated by stir casting, Materials Testing 58 (2016), No. 3, pp. 211-217, DOI:10.3139/120.11083910.3139/120.110839Search in Google Scholar

16 D. Ramasamy, M. K. Subramanian, G. V. Kaliyannan, J. Durairaj, R. Rathanasamy, S. K. Palaniappan: Tribo mechanical behavior of B4Cp reinforced Al 359 composites, Materials Testing 59 (2017), No. 2, pp. 172-177 DOI:10.3139/120.11097910.3139/120.110979Search in Google Scholar

17 S. Magibalan, P. Senthilkumar, C. Senthilkumar, R. Palanivelu, M. Prabu: Microstructure and mechanical properties of fly ash particulate reinforced AA8011 aluminum alloy composites, Materials Testing 60 (2018), No. 7-8, pp. 765-771 DOI:10.3139/120.11121110.3139/120.111211Search in Google Scholar

18 K. Sudarshan, M. K. Surappa: Dry sliding wear of fly ash particle reinforced A356 Al composites, Wear 265 (2008), pp. 349-360 DOI:10.1016/j.wear.2007.11.00910.1016/j.wear.2007.11.009Search in Google Scholar

19 M. Maurya, S. Kumar, V. Bajpai: N. K. Maurya: Process parameters, development and applications of stir cast composite: A review, Materials Testing 62 (2020), No. 2, pp. 196-208 DOI:10.3139/120.11147210.3139/120.111472Search in Google Scholar

20 N. K. Maurya, M. Maurya, A. K. Srivastav, S. P. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, S. Chauhan: Investigation of mechanical properties of Al 6061/SiC composite prepared through stir casting technique, Materials Today Proceeding 25 (2020), pp. 755-758 DOI:10.1016/j.matpr.2019.09.00310.1016/j.matpr.2019.09.003Search in Google Scholar

21 S. B. Hassan, V. S. Aigbodion: Effects of eggshell on the microstructures and properties of Al-CuMg/eggshell particulate composites, Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences 27 (2015), No.1, pp. 49-56 DOI:10.1016/j.jksues.2013.03.00110.1016/j.jksues.2013.03.001Search in Google Scholar

22 T. A. Hassan, V. K. Rangari, R. K. Rana, S. Jeelani: Sonochemical effect on size reduction of CaCO3 nano-particles derived from waste eggshells, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 20 (2013), pp. 1308-1315 DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.01.01610.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.01.016Search in Google Scholar

23 M. Bootklad, K. Kaewtatip: Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch/eggshell powder composites, Carbohydrate Polymers 97 (2013), No. 5, pp. 315-320 DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.05.03010.1016/j.carbpol.2013.05.030Search in Google Scholar

24 B. Ashok, S. Naresh, K. O. Reddy, K. Madhukar, J. Cai, L. Zhang, A. V. Rajulu: Tensile and thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/eggshell powder composite films, International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization 19 (2014), No. 3, pp. 245-255 DOI:10.1080/1023666X.2014.87963310.1080/1023666X.2014.879633Search in Google Scholar

25 G. Parande, V. Manakari, S. D. S. Kopparthy, M. Gupta: Utilizing low-cost eggshell particles to enhance the mechanical response of Mg-2.5Zn magnesium alloy matrix, Advanced Engineering Material 09 (2017), No. 5, pp. 1-9 DOI:10.1002/adem.20170091910.1002/adem.201700919Search in Google Scholar

26 H. K. Durmus, C. Meric: Age-hardening behavior of powder metallurgy AA 2014 alloy, Materials & Design 28 (2007), No. 3, pp. 982-986 DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2005.11.02210.1016/j.matdes.2005.11.022Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-11-30

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston