Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access December 30, 2021

Nanofabrication route to achieve sustainable production of next generation defect-free graphene: analysis and characterisation

Shikhar Misra, Nirmal Kumar Katiyar, Arvind Kumar, Saurav Goel and Krishanu Biswas
From the journal Nanofabrication

Abstract

In the past two decades, graphene has been one of the most studied materials due to its exceptional properties. The scalable route to cost-effective manufacture defect-free graphene has continued to remain a technical challenge. Intrinsically defect-free graphene changes its properties dramatically, and it is a challenging task to control the defects in graphene production using scaled-down subtractive manufacturing techniques. In this work, the exfoliation of graphite was investigated as a sustainable low-cost graphene manufacturing technique. The study made use of a simple domestic appliance e.g., a kitchen blender to churn graphene in wet conditions by mixing with N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). It was found that the centrifugal force-induced turbulent flow caused by the rotating blades exfoliates graphite flakes to form graphene. The technique is endowed with a high yield of defect-free graphene (0.3 g/h) and was deemed suitable to remove 10% fluoride content from the water and color absorption from fizzy drinks.

References

[1] Yu X, Cheng H, Zhang M, Zhao Y, Qu L, Shi G. Graphene-based smart materials. Nat Rev Mater. 2017;2(9):17046.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Liu M, Weston PJ, Hurt RH. Controlling nanochannel orientation and dimensions in graphene-based nanofluidic membranes. Nat Commun. 2021 Jan;12(1):507.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Khan S, Achazhiyath Edathil A, Banat F. Sustainable synthesis of graphene-based adsorbent using date syrup. Sci Rep. 2019 Dec;9(1):18106.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Andrei EY, MacDonald AH. Graphene bilayers with a twist. Nat Mater. 2020 Dec;19(12):1265–75.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Wang L, Sofer Z, Pumera M. Will Any Crap We Put into Graphene Increase Its Electrocatalytic Effect? ACS Nano. 2020 Jan;14(1):21–5.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Akinwande D, Huyghebaert C, Wang CH, Serna MI, Goossens S, Li LJ, et al. Graphene and two-dimensional materials for silicon technology. Nature. 2019 Sep;573(7775):507–18.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Romagnoli M, Sorianello V, Midrio M, Koppens FH, Huyghebaert C, Neumaier D, et al. Graphene-based integrated photonics for next-generation datacom and telecom. Nat Rev Mater. 2018;3(10):392–414.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Bhuyan MS, Uddin MN, Islam MM, Bipasha FA, Hossain SS. Synthesis of graphene. Int Nano Lett. 2016;6(2):65–83.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Bueno RA, Martínez JI, Luccas RF, Del Árbol NR, Munuera C, Palacio I, et al. Highly selective covalent organic functionalization of epitaxial graphene. Nat Commun. 2017 May;8(1):15306.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Vecera P, Chacón-Torres JC, Pichler T, Reich S, Soni HR, Görling A, et al. Precise determination of graphene functionalization by in situ Raman spectroscopy. Nat Commun. 2017 May;8(1):15192.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Rius G, Perez-Murano F, Yoshimura M. Graphene crystal growth by thermal precipitation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon precursor via patterned-iron thin layers. Nanofabrication. 2014;1(1).Search in Google Scholar

[12] Thakur S, Verma A, Alsanie WF, Christie G, Thakur VK. On the graphene and its derivative based polymer nanocomposites for glucose sensing. Mater Lett. 2022;307:130971.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Sharma B, Thakur S, Trache D, Yazdani Nezhad H, Thakur VK. Microwave-Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Gum Tragacanth Hydrogel Nanocomposite for Heavy Metal Ions Adsorption. 2020;10(8):1616.Search in Google Scholar

[14] Paton KR, Varrla E, Backes C, Smith RJ, Khan U, O’Neill A, et al. Scalable production of large quantities of defect-free few-layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids. Nat Mater. 2014 Jun;13(6):624–30.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Kosynkin DV, Higginbotham AL, Sinitskii A, Lomeda JR, Dimiev A, Price BK, et al. Longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to form graphene nanoribbons. Nature. 2009 Apr;458(7240):872–6.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Marcano DC, Kosynkin DV, Berlin JM, Sinitskii A, Sun Z, Slesarev A, et al. Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano. 2010 Aug;4(8):4806–14.Search in Google Scholar

[17] Devi MM, Sahu SR, Mukherjee P, Sen P, Biswas K. Graphene: a self-reducing template for synthesis of graphene–nanoparticles hybrids. RSC Advances. 2015;5(76):62284–9.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Choucair M, Thordarson P, Stride JA. Gram-scale production of graphene based on solvothermal synthesis and sonication. Nat Nanotechnol. 2009 Jan;4(1):30–3.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Wu ZS, Ren W, Gao L, Zhao J, Chen Z, Liu B, et al. Synthesis of graphene sheets with high electrical conductivity and good thermal stability by hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation. ACS Nano. 2009 Feb;3(2):411–7.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Mattevi C, Kim H, Chhowalla M. A review of chemical vapour deposition of graphene on copper. J Mater Chem. 2011;21(10):3324–34.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Paton KR, Anderson J, Pollard AJ, Sainsbury T. Production of few-layer graphene by microfluidization. Mater Res Express. 2017;4(2):025604.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Varrla E, Paton KR, Backes C, Harvey A, Smith RJ, McCauley J, et al. Turbulence-assisted shear exfoliation of graphene using household detergent and a kitchen blender. Nanoscale. 2014 Oct;6(20):11810–9.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Yi M, Shen Z. Kitchen blender for producing high-quality few-layer graphene. Carbon. 2014;78:622–6.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Meyer JC, Geim AK, Katsnelson MI, Novoselov KS, Obergfell D, Roth S, et al. On the roughness of single- and bi-layer graphene membranes. Solid State Commun. 2007;143(1):101–9.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Gupta A, Chen G, Joshi P, Tadigadapa S, Eklund PC. Raman scattering from high-frequency phonons in supported n-graphene layer films. Nano Lett. 2006 Dec;6(12):2667–73.Search in Google Scholar

[26] Zhang L, Yu J, Yang M, Xie Q, Peng H, Liu Z. Janus graphene from asymmetric two-dimensional chemistry. Nat Commun. 2013;4(1):1443.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-10-11
Accepted: 2021-11-04
Published Online: 2021-12-30

© 2021 Shikhar Misra et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Scroll Up Arrow