## Abstract

We propose a simple method for generating spin squeezing of atomic ensembles in a Floquet cavity subject to a weak, detuned two-photon driving. We demonstrate that *the weak squeezing of light inside the cavity can, counterintuitively, induce strong spin squeezing*. This is achieved by exploiting the anti-Stokes scattering process of a photon pair interacting with an atom. Specifically, *one photon of the photon pair is scattered into the cavity resonance by absorbing partially the energy of the other photon whose remaining energy excites the atom*. The scattering, combined with a Floquet sideband, provides an alternative mechanism to implement Heisenberg-limited spin squeezing. Our proposal does *not* need multiple classical and cavity-photon drivings applied to atoms in ensembles, and therefore its experimental feasibility is greatly improved compared to other cavity-based schemes. As an example, we demonstrate a possible implementation with a superconducting resonator coupled to a nitrogen-vacancy electronic-spin ensemble.

## 1 Introduction

In analogy to squeezed states of light, spin squeezing in atomic ensembles [1], [2], [3], [4] describes the reduction of quantum fluctuation noise in one component of a collective pseudospin, at the expense of increased quantum fluctuation noise in the other component. This property is an essential ingredient for high-precision quantum metrology and also enables various quantum-information applications [4], [5]. For this reason, significant effort has been devoted to generating spin squeezing; such effort includes exploiting atom–atom collisions in Bose–Einstein condensates [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], and atom–light interactions in atomic ensembles [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21]. In particular, cavity quantum electrodynamics [22], [23], which can strongly couple atoms to cavity photons, is considered as an ideal platform for spin squeezing implementations [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34]. Here, we propose a fundamentally different approach to prepare atomic spin-squeezed states in cavities and demonstrate that the weak squeezing of the cavity field can induce strong spin squeezing.

One-axis twisting (OAT) and two-axis twisting (TAT) are two basic mechanisms to generate spin-squeezed states [1], [4]. In high-precision measurements, TAT is considered to be superior to OAT [4] because TAT can reduce quantum fluctuation noise to the fundamental Heisenberg limit *N* refers to the number of atoms in an ensemble. Note that both mechanisms depend on controlled unitary dynamics, such that they are extremely fragile to dissipation and also require high-precision control for time evolution. Alternatively, dissipation, when treated as a resource [35], [36], [37], [38], [39], has also been exploited to implement Heisenberg-limited squeezing [40], [41], [42], [43]. In dissipative protocols, atomic ensembles can be driven to a spin-squeezed steady state. However, these TAT and dissipative schemes have not been experimentally demonstrated because of their high complexity. This is partially attributed to the need for multiple classical and cavity-photon drivings applied to atoms. For example, various approaches for spin squeezing in cavities rely on a double off-resonant Raman transition (i.e., the double-Λ transition) [25], [31], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45]. It is generally difficult to realize such a transition for each atom in ensembles for spin squeezing.

In this manuscript, we propose a simplification by introducing a weak and detuned two-photon driving for a Floquet cavity and demonstrate the dissipative preparation of steady-state spin squeezing (SSSS), with Heisenberg scaling. Remarkably, light squeezing inside the cavity in our proposal is very weak and can be understood as *a seed for strong spin squeezing*. This is essentially different from the process that directly transfers squeezing from light to atomic ensembles [15], [16], [17], [46], [47]. Such weak squeezing of light avoids two-photon correlation noise and thermal noise, which can give rise to the so-called 3 dB limit in degenerate parametric amplification processes [48] and can greatly limit spin squeezing.

Furthermore, in contrast to other cavity-based proposals for Heisenberg-limited spin squeezing, our method does *not* require multiple classical and cavity-photon drivings on atoms, thus significantly reducing the experimental complexity. The key element underlying our method is the absorption of a detuned-driving photon pair: one of these photons is absorbed by the cavity and the other one by an atom. This process can be understood as *anti-Stokes scattering, of one photon of the driving photon pair, into the cavity resonance by absorbing part of the energy of the other photon, which excites the atom with its remaining energy*. As opposed to typical Raman scattering [49], *the scattered photon* in the description above *absorbs the energy of another photon*, rather than the excitation of matter, e.g., atoms, molecules, or mechanics.

## 2 Physical model

We consider an ensemble consisting of *N* two-level atoms in a single-mode cavity of frequency *ω*_{c}, as shown in Figure 1. For simplicity, these atoms are assumed to be identical, such that they have the same transition frequency *ω*_{q} and their transitions from the ground state *g* to the cavity photon. This atomic ensemble can be described using collective spin operators *α* = *x*, *y*, *z*) are the Pauli matrices for the *j*th atom. The cavity mode is driven by a weak, detuned two-photon driving, e.g., with amplitude Ω, frequency *ω*_{L}, and phase *θ*_{L}. Such a parametric driving can produce photon pairs at *ω*_{L}/2 and induce a squeezing sideband at *ω*_{L} − *ω*_{c} [see Figure 2(a)]. If this sideband is tuned to the atomic resonance *ω*_{q} (i.e., *ω*_{q} ≈ *ω*_{L} − *ω*_{c}), one photon of the driving photon pair is then scattered into the cavity resonance by absorbing a small part of the energy of the other photon; at the same time the main part of the absorbed-photon energy resonantly excites an atom [see Figure 2(b)]. We further assume that the cavity frequency *ω*_{c} is periodically modulated with amplitude *A*_{m} and frequency *ω*_{m} and ensure that *ω*_{q} ≈ *ω*_{c} − *ω*_{m}. In this case, a detuned atom can emit a photon into the cavity resonance via a Floquet sideband at *ω*_{c} − *ω*_{m} [see Figure 2(a)]. The above dynamics demonstrates that the cavity-photon creation gives rise to a competition between the atomic excitation and deexcitation.

To be specific, we consider the Hamiltonian

Here,

To describe the dissipative dynamics, we use the Lindblad dissipator, given by *γ*. It follows, on taking the Fourier transformation

We begin by restricting our discussion to the limits

with strength *ω*_{q} ≈ *ω*_{L} − *ω*_{c}. Such a coupling can be understood from the interaction between a driving photon pair and a single atom, as shown in Figure 2(c). The ground state _{c} and then is resonantly coupled to the state *g*. Here, the number in the ket refers to the cavity-photon number. This mechanism is responsible for anti-Stokes scattering of correlated photon pairs mentioned above. Furthermore, for *ω*_{q} ≈ *ω*_{c} − *ω*_{m}, the coupling,

is also made resonant via a first-order Floquet sideband but its strength becomes

where *i* has been absorbed into *a*. The dynamics driven by *H*_{eff} describes two distinct atomic transitions, which can cause the spin-squeezed state to become a dark state [40], [41], [42], [43]. In particular, in the optimal case of *G*_{+} to be very close to *G*_{_}, it yields the maximally spin-squeezed state corresponding to the Heisenberg-limited noise reduction *H*(*t*). Here, *θ* about the axis *H*_{eff}, that quantum noise is reduced along the *x* direction, at the expense of increased quantum noise along the *y* direction.

To quantify the degree of spin squeezing, we use the parameter defined as [2], [3]:

where *N* of atoms. The enhancement of spin squeezing by increasing *N* has a lower bound which, as demonstrated below, is determined by the ratio

## 3 Spin-wave approximation

We now consider the case of *b*, i.e., *N*, i.e.,

where *β* to its vacuum, which corresponds to a squeezed vacuum state of the mode *b*. Under the spin-wave approximation, the parameter

This implies that the two-atom correlation,

In order to achieve *ω*_{m} needs to be modified to compensate *δ*, such that *δ*, the full dynamics are in excellent agreement with the desired effective dynamics. This allows us to investigate stronger spin squeezing, according to such an effective Hamiltonian.

Based on

and

where *r* ≥ 1 gives

This demonstrates that if *r* and, thus, spin squeezing increases. However, as *a* and *β* tends to zero (i.e., *β*. The optimal SSSS therefore results from a tradeoff between these two processes [42], [43], [54]. Furthermore, we find that for a spin-squeezed steady state, the number of excited atoms scales as *μ* < 1. In this case, *N* is sufficiently large. Hence, our approach can, in principle, enable spin squeezing to be far below the standard quantum limit, and approach the Heisenberg limit in a large ensemble.

To consider the squeezing time, we adiabatically eliminate the cavity mode (see Appendix C), yielding

where *ρ*_{spin} describes the reduced density matrix of the collective spin, and

where *X*_{ini} refers to the initial *X*. We therefore find that the atomic ensemble can be driven into a spin-squeezed state from any initial state in the spin-

Here, we have assumed, for simplicity, that *γ*_{c} + *γ*, as plotted in Figure 4(b). For a realistic setup, e.g., a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) spin ensemble coupled to a superconducting resonator (see below), a negligibly small spin decay rate

## 4 Proposed experimental implementation

As an example, we now consider a hybrid quantum system [57], [58], [59], where a superconducting transmission line (STL), terminated by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), is magnetically coupled to an NV spin ensemble in diamond (see Appendix D for details). The coherent coupling of an STL cavity to an NV spin ensemble has already been widely implemented in experiments [60], [61], [62], [63], [64], [65], [66]. In particular, the studies by Kubo et al. [60], [62], [63] used a SQUID to control the cavity frequency. Therefore to achieve a parametrically driven Floquet cavity, we connect a SQUID to one end of the STL. We then assume the driving phase *f*(*t*) across the SQUID loop to be

Here, the components *f*_{1} and *f*_{2}(*t*) result in the drivings Ω and Ω_{1}(*t*), respectively, while the component *f*_{3} is to modulate the cavity frequency *ω*_{c}. Moreover, the electronic ground state of NV centers is a spin triplet, whose *m*_{s} = 0 and *m*_{s} = ±1 sublevels are labeled by

## 5 Conclusions

We have introduced an experimentally feasible method for how to implement Heisenberg-limited SSSS of atomic ensembles in a weakly and parametrically driven Floquet cavity. This method demonstrates a counterintuitive phenomenon: the weak squeezing of light can induce strong spin squeezing. This approach does not require multiple actions on atoms, thus greatly reducing the experimental complexity. We have also shown an anti-Stokes scattering process, induced by an atom, of a correlated photon pair, where one photon of the photon pair is scattered into a higher-energy mode by absorbing a fraction of the energy of the other photon, and the remaining energy of the absorbed photon excites the atom. If the scattered photon is further absorbed by another atom before being lost, then such a scattering process can also generate an atom-pair excitation and, as a consequence, can enable TAT spin squeezing. The two distinct atomic transitions demonstrated are functionally similar to, but experimentally simpler than, the double off-resonant Raman transition in multilevel atoms widely used for generating spin squeezing [25], [42]. Thus, we could expect that our method can provide a universal building block for implementing spin-squeezed states and simulating ultrastrong light–matter interaction [67], [68] and quantum many-body phase transition [69].

**Funding source: **Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **P19028

**Funding source: **Polish National Science Centre (NCN)

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **DEC-2019/34/A/ST2/00081

**Funding source: **Army Research Office (ARO)

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **W911NF-18-1-0358

**Funding source: **Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **CREST No. JPMJCR1676

**Funding source: **the Foundational Questions Institute Fund (FQXi)

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **FQXi-IAF19-06

**Funding source: **NTT Research

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **none

**Funding source: **Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **Q-LEAP

**Funding source: **Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **KAKENHI No. JP20H00134

**Funding source: **Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)

**Award Identifier / Grant number: **JSPS-RFBR No. JPJSBP120194828

**Funding source: **Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD)

## Acknowledgments

The authors thank Fabrizio Minganti, Nathan Shammah, and Vincenzo Macrì for their valuable discussions. Y.-H.C. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Foreign Postdoctoral Fellowship No. P19028. A.M. is supported by the Polish National Science Centre (NCN) under the Maestro Grant No. DEC-2019/34/A/ST2/00081. F.N. is supported in part by: NTT Research, Army Research Office (ARO) (Grant No. W911NF-18-1-0358), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) (via the Q-LEAP program and the CREST Grant No. JPMJCR1676), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (via the KAKENHI Grant No. JP20H00134, and the JSPS-RFBR Grant No. JPJSBP120194828), and the Grant No. FQXi-IAF19-06 from the Foundational Questions Institute Fund (FQXi), a donor advised fund of the Silicon Valley Community Foundation.

**Author contribution**: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.**Research funding**: The authors thank Fabrizio Minganti, Nathan Shammah, and Vincenzo Macrì for their valuable discussions. Y.-H.C. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Foreign Postdoctoral Fellowship No. P19028. A.M. is supported by the Polish National Science Centre (NCN) under the Maestro Grant No. DEC-2019/34/A/ST2/00081. F.N. is supported in part by: NTT Research, Army Research Office (ARO) (Grant No. W911NF-18-1-0358), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) (via the Q-LEAP program and the CREST Grant No. JPMJCR1676), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (via the KAKENHI Grant No. JP20H00134 and the JSPS-RFBR Grant No. JPJSBP120194828), the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD), and the Foundational Questions Institute Fund (FQXi) via Grant No. FQXi-IAF19-06.**Conflict of interest statement**: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.

## Appendix A: Effective Hamiltonian and decay of the collective spin

Let us first derive the effective Hamiltonian *H*_{eff}. We begin with the full Hamiltonian in a rotating frame,

where

Here, *ω*_{c} is the cavity frequency, *ω*_{q} is the atomic transition frequency, and *ω*_{L} is the frequency of the two-photon driving. The cavity mode *a* is dressed by the detuned two-photon driving Ω and becomes a squeezed mode *α*. This squeezing operation can be described by the Bogoliubov transformation,

where

determines the degree of squeezing of the cavity field. It then follows that

where *H*(*t*), when expressed in terms of the mode *α*, is transformed to

where *α* can be eliminated. The last two terms of Eq. (A7) describe two distinct spin-cavity couplings, which are associated with the upper and lower squeezing sidebands, respectively.

We now focus our discussion on the limit

which, in turn, gives

Consequently, the squeezed mode *α* can, according to the Bogoliubov transformation in Eq. (A4), be approximated by the bare mode *a*, i.e.,

The Hamiltonian *H*(*t*) is therefore approximated by

Note that, in the limit of *ω*_{L} − *ω*_{c} (i.e.,

Upon introducing a unitary transformation

with

where we have used the Jacobi–Anger identity

with *n*th-order Bessel function of the first kind.

We find that, when

with strength *ω*_{L} − *ω*_{c}), describes the anti-Stokes scattering process of a driving photon pair interacting with an atom. Specifically, one photon of the photon pair is scattered into the cavity resonance by absorbing part of the energy of the other photon and simultaneously the remaining energy of the absorbed photon excites the atom. When we further choose 2*ω*_{s} = *ω*_{m} (i.e., *ω*_{q} ≈ *ω*_{c} − *ω*_{m}), the first sum in Eq. (A13) also contains a resonant coupling of the form

with strength *ω*_{c} − *ω*_{m}), describes that a detuned atom can emit a photon into the cavity resonance. Under the assumptions,

where *i* has been absorbed into *a*.

We now consider the dissipative dynamics of the system. The dissipative dynamics can be described with the Lindblad operator

such that ^{N}. In order to reduce the dimension of this Hilbert space, we follow the method in a study by Gelhausen et al. [50], Shammah et al. [51], and Macrì et al. [52] and perform a Fourier transformation,

It then follows, using

where the first and second terms on the right-hand side describe the dissipative processes of the zero and nonzero momentum modes, respectively. It is seen, from the full Hamiltonian *H*(*t*) in Eq. (A1) or the effective Hamiltonian *H*_{eff} in Eq. (A17), that the coherent dynamics only involves the zero (*k* = 0) momentum mode. This implies that we can only focus on the zero momentum mode; that is,

This is valid in the steady-state limit or the long-time limit because the nonzero momentum modes in Eq. (A20) only decay. In particular, such a reduction can exactly describe the dissipative dynamics of an atomic ensemble initially in the ground state. Therefore, the dynamics of the system is driven by the following master equation

where *H*(*t*) for the full dynamics or to be *H*_{eff} for the effective dynamics.

In Figure A1, we numerically integrated the master equation in Eq. (A22), with the full Hamiltonian *H*(*t*) and the effective Hamiltonian *H*_{eff}. Specifically, we plot the spin squeezing parameter *H*_{eff} can describe well the dynamics of the system. The divergence between them mainly arises from neglecting an off-resonant coupling to the zero-order Floquet sideband. In the next section, we discuss how to remove the detrimental effect induced by such an off-resonant coupling under the spin-wave approximation.

## Appendix B: Detuning arising from non-resonant couplings

Under the spin-wave approximation (i.e.,

where *n* = 0) Floquet sideband, given by

with *n* ≠ 0.

As demonstrated above, two resonant couplings in

Here, we have defined a squeezed mode,

Furthermore, after time averaging [53], the effective dynamics of the coupling

This implies that the coupling *δ* has no effect on the coupling of the form *g*_{col} is comparable to Ω. As a result, the degree of spin squeezing decreases, and even the desired dynamics is destroyed. To remove such a detrimental effect, we need to modify the resonant condition

which compensates the detuning *δ*. In Figure A2, we use the full Hamiltonian *H*(*t*) by compensating the detuning *δ* to numerically calculate the excited-atom number *H*(*t*) has been obtained under the spin-wave approximation. We see from Figure A2 that, when the detuning *δ* is compensated, the full dynamics is in excellent agreement with the desired effective dynamics.

## Appendix C: Adiabatic elimination of the cavity mode

We now discuss how to adiabatically eliminate the cavity mode. To begin, we consider the master equation with the effective Hamiltonian

As mentioned already, we work within the limit *ρ*, of the system can therefore be expanded as

Upon substituting this expression into the master equation in Eq. (C1), we obtain

and

Here, we have assumed *γ* is negligible compared to the cavity loss rate *κ*. Then, substituting Eq. (C6) into Eqs. (C3) and (C4) leads to the following adiabatic master equation

where

Here,

where

where, for simplicity, we have assumed

In Figure A3, we compare the analytical *H*(*t*) in Eq. (A1). This figure shows a good agreement, in particular, for the steady-state behavior (yellow regions). The oscillation of red solid curves results from the reversible energy exchange between cavity and atoms (i.e., Rabi oscillation). However, this Rabi oscillation vanishes in the limit *Gg*_{col}, in the effective Hamiltonian *G*_{+} approaches *G*_{−}. Thus, Eqs. (C10) and (C11) may be used to analytically predict stronger SSSS.

## Appendix D: Proposed experimental implementation with hybrid quantum systems and its feasibility

In this section, we consider a hybrid system, where a superconducting transmission line (STL) is terminated by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and is magnetically coupled to an NV spin ensemble in diamond. The strong coupling between the STL cavity and the NV spin ensemble has already been widely implemented experimentally [60], [61], [62], [63], [64], [65], [66]. In particular, in the studies by Kubo et al. [60], [62], [63], a SQUID has already been used to tune the cavity frequency.

### D1 Proposed experimental implementation

We first show how to use an STL terminated by a SQUID to implement a parametrically driven Floquet cavity. The equivalent circuit for this setup is schematically illustrated in Figure A4. The STL of length *d* can be divided into *N* segments of equal length *LC* circuits each with a capacitance *C*_{0} and *L*_{0} are the characteristic capacitance and inductance per unit length, respectively. The Lagrangian for the STL is therefore given by [71], [72], [73]:

where *ϕ*_{i} is the node phase, and

The Lagrangian for the SQUID is

Here, *E*_{J,i}, *C*_{J,i}, and *ϕ*_{J,i} are, respectively, the Josephson energy, capacitance, and phase of the *i*th component Josephson junction in the SQUID loop. The phases *ϕ*_{J,i} of the Josephson junctions depend on the external magnetic flux, such that *f*(*t*) across the SQUID, yielding *C*_{J,1} = *C*_{J,2} = *C*_{J} and *E*_{J,1} = *E*_{J,2} = *E*_{J}. The Lagrangian

where we have assumed that an effective phase of the SQUID, *ϕ*_{d} = *ϕ*(*d*, *t*). The cavity Lagrangian, including the STL and SQUID Lagrangians, is

We now discuss how to quantize the system. We begin with the massless scalar Klein–Gordon equation [74],

which results from the Lagrangian

at the end connected to the SQUID. We tune the driving phase *f*(*t*) to be

where *f*_{0}, *f*_{1} and *f*_{3} are time-independent, but *f*_{2}(*t*) is time-dependent. We restrict our discussion to the case where *f*_{1}, *f*_{2}(*t*), and *f*_{3} are much weaker than *f*_{0}. As we demonstrate below, *f*_{1} corresponds to the two-photon driving with a time-independent amplitude, *f*_{2}(*t*) to another two-photon driving with a time-dependent amplitude, and *f*_{3} to the cavity-frequency modulation. Following the procedure in a study by Wustmann et al. [73], the solution of the wave function in Eq. (D6) is given by

and the cavity Lagrangian

Here, *M*_{n} is an effective mass, defined as

and *V* is a nonlinear potential, defined as

Consequently, the canonical conjugate variable of *q*_{n} is

thereby resulting in the cavity Hamiltonian

with a free Hamiltonian

We find that *H*_{0} describes a collection of independent harmonic oscillators, but *V* can provide either linear or nonlinear interactions between them.

Following the standard quantization procedure, we replace the c-numbers *q*_{n} and *p*_{n} by operators, which obey the canonical commutation relation *a*_{n} and

where *q*_{n}. Here, *a*_{n} and *H*_{0} is transformed to

We find that the quantized STL contains infinitely many modes, but the existence of the driving phase *f*(*t*) enables us to selectively excite a desired mode, e.g., the fundamental mode *a*_{0} (see below). The nonlinear potential *V* can be approximated as

by assuming that *V* can be expressed, in terms of the modes *a*_{n}, as

This means that the potential can excite or couple different modes. To select the fundamental mode *a*_{0}, we further assume that *ω*_{L1} = *ω*_{L2} ≈ 2*ω*_{0} and *a*_{0} mode and other modes can be neglected, yielding

Here, *ω*_{L} = *ω*_{L1} = *ω*_{L2}, *ω*_{m} = *ω*_{L3}, *θ*_{L} = *θ*_{L1} = *θ*_{L2}, and

In a frame rotating at

where we have written *parametrically driven Floquet cavity*.

Below let us consider the coupling of such a cavity to an NV spin ensemble in diamond. The electronic ground state of a single NV center is a long-lived spin triplet, whose *m*_{s} = 0 and *m*_{s} = ±1 sublevels we label by *D* ≈ 2.87 GHz. In the presence of an external magnetic field *B*, the Zeeman splitting, which depends on the magnetic field strength, appears between the states *a* can magnetically couple to the

where *j*th spin qubit, *g*_{j} is the single spin-cavity coupling strength, and *N* is the total number of spins. Such a spin ensemble can also be described with collective spin operators

Here, *H*_{int} is accordingly transformed into

Furthermore, we assume, for simplicity but without loss of generality, that *g*_{j} is a constant, such that *g*_{j} = *g*, yielding

where

and

It is seen that the Hamiltonian *H* in Eq. (D27) is exactly the one applied by us in the main article.

### 2 Experimental feasibility

In Table A1, we list some relevant parameters reported in recent experiments demonstrating the coupling between an NV spin ensemble and an STL cavity. In addition to these parameters listed in Table I, the coherence time of NV spin ensembles, with spin-echo sequences, has experimentally reached the order of ms (i.e.,

Reference | Q | N | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

[60] | 2.87^{⋆} | ∼1.9 × 10^{3} | ∼1.5 | ∼10^{12} | ∼11 | ∼3 | – |

[61] | 2.701 | ∼3.2 × 10^{3} | ∼0.8 | ∼10^{12} | ∼10 | – | ∼0.004 |

[62] | 3.004^{⋆} | – | – | ∼10^{11} | ∼3 | ∼0.02 | – |

[63] | 2.88^{⋆} | ∼1.8 × 10^{3} | ∼1.6 | ∼10^{12} | ∼11 | ∼5.3 | – |

[64] | 2.6899 | ∼3.0 × 10^{3} | ∼0.8 | ∼10^{12} | ∼9 | ∼5.2 | – |

[65] | 2.88 | ∼80 | ∼36 | – | ∼5 | ∼0.02 | <0.005 |

[66] | 2.7491 | ∼4.3 × 10^{3} | ∼0.6 | – | ∼10 | – | – |

Note that the studies by Kubo et al. [60], [62], [63] used a SQUID to tune the resonance frequency of an STL cavity coupled to an NV spin ensemble. This setup is similar to the one we have already proposed for a possible implementation of our proposal.

The analytical *γ*_{c}, we can achieve a shorter squeezing time.

Moreover, in addition to the NV spin ensembles, ion spin ensembles [75], [76], [77] and P1 center ensembles [78] can also couple to an STL cavity. In a recent experiment [79], the coupling of an ensemble of ^{87}Rb atoms to an STL cavity has already been reported.

Hence, we expect that our proposal could be realized with current technologies.

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**Received:**2020-09-08

**Accepted:**2020-09-09

**Published Online:**2020-10-08

© 2020 Wei Qin et al., published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.