Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 2, 2014

Between Dinner Table and Formal Diplomacy: Ernst van der Beugel as an Unofficial Diplomat for an Atlantic Community

Albertine Bloemendal
From the journal New Global Studies

Abstract

This article focuses on the Dutch Atlanticist Ernst van der Beugel (1918–2004) as an ‘unofficial diplomat’ by demonstrating how he remained a prominent actor in Cold War transatlantic relations after he had left the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1959. More specifically this article concentrates on the continuation of Ernst van der Beugel’s ‘diplomatic role’ after 1959 by showing how he was able to continue many activities that were diplomatic in nature in a private capacity, what these activities entailed, why he chose to pursue them and how his unofficial endeavors related to formal transatlantic diplomacy. In addition, it touches upon the question who or what Ernst van der Beugel represented as an ‘unofficial diplomat’.

References

Aubourg, V.2008. “Creating the Texture of the Atlantic Community: The NATO Information Service, Private Atlantic Networks and the Atlantic Community in the 1950s.” In European Community, Atlantic Community? The Atlantic Community and Europe, edited by V.Aubourg, G. Bossuat, and G. Scott-Smith, 391415. Paris: Soleb.Search in Google Scholar

Aubourg, V.2010. “The Bilderberg Group: Promoting European Governance Inside an Atlantic Community of Values.” In Transnational Networks in Regional Integration: Governing Europe 1945–83, edited by W.Kaiser, B.Leucht, and M.Gehler, 49. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Search in Google Scholar

Berghahn, V. R.2001. America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Berghahn, V. R.2008. “The Ford Foundation and the Forging of the Atlantic Community after World War II.” In European Community, Atlantic Community? The Atlantic Community and Europe, edited by V. Aubourg, G. Bossuat, and G. Scott-Smith, 93110. Paris: Soleb.Search in Google Scholar

Berman, M. R., and J. E.Johnson.1977. “The Growing Role of Unofficial Diplomacy.” In Unofficial Diplomats, edited by M. R.Berman and J. E.Johnson, 3. New York: Columbia University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Dagblad de Telegraaf. 1961. “Ongepaste redevoering.” Dagblad De Telegraaf, July 29.Search in Google Scholar

De Gelderlander. 1961. “Moedig.” De Gelderlander, July 25.Search in Google Scholar

De Rotterdammer. 1961. “Particulier in Statenverkeer.” De Rotterdammer, July 25.Search in Google Scholar

De Tijd. 1961. “Vrijmoedig commentaar.” De Tijd, July 21.Search in Google Scholar

De Tijd/De Maasbode. 1961. “KLM-directeur wekt Engeland op toe te treden tot E.E.G.” De Tijd/De Maasbode, July 21.Search in Google Scholar

De Waarheid. 1961. “KLM-president pleit in Londen voor Bonn.” De Waarheid, July 21.Search in Google Scholar

Ellwood, D. W.2008. “From the Marshall Plan to Atlanticism.” In European Community, Atlantic Community? The Atlantic Community and Europe, edited by V. Aubourg, G. Bossuat, and G. Scott-Smith. Paris: Soleb.Search in Google Scholar

Gijswijt, T. W.2007. “Beyond NATO: Transatlantic Elite Networks and the Atlantic Alliance.” In Transforming NATO in the Cold War: Challenges Beyond Deterrence in the 1960s, edited by A.Wenger, C.Nuenlist, and A.Locher, 50. London and New York: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Gijswijt, T.2011. “De Trans-Atlantische elite en de Nederlandse buitenlandse politiek sinds 1945.” In Bezinning op het buitenland. Het Nederlands buitenlands beleid in een onzekere wereld, edited by D.Hellema, M.Segers, and J.Rood, 36. Clingendael: Nederlands Instituut voor Internationale Betrekkingen.Search in Google Scholar

Heldring, J.1963. “Dezer Dagen.” NRC, February 10.Search in Google Scholar

Lundestad, G.2003. The United States and Western Europe Since 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Parmar, I.2012. Foundations of the American Century. New York: Columbia University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Reyn, S.2007. “Atlantis Lost: The American Experience with De Gaulle, 1958–1969.” PhD diss., University of Leiden.Search in Google Scholar

Richardson, I., A.Kakabadse, and N.Kakabadse.2011. Bilderberg People: Elite Power and Consensus in World Affairs. London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Scott-Smith, G.2013. “Ghosts in the Machine? Ernst Van Der Beugel, the TransatlanticElite, and the “New Diplomatic History.” Accessed November 24.http://depot.knaw.nl/5625/1/Oratie_Book.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

Scott-Smith, G., and D. J.Snyder.2013. “A Test of Sentiments”: Civil Aviation, Alliance Politics, and the KLM Challenge in Dutch-American Relations.” Diplomatic History37:91745.Search in Google Scholar

Telegraaf. 1961. “Openhartige rede drs. v.d. Beugel: Fransen willen Britten niet in de E.E.G.” Telegraaf, July 21.Search in Google Scholar

Volkskrant. 1961a. “Frankrijk misbruikt Europese idealen voor eigen macht.” Volkskrant, July 21.Search in Google Scholar

Volkskrant. 1961b. “Vlucht in De Politiek.” Volkskrant, July 21.Search in Google Scholar

Weisbrode, K.2009. The Atlantic Century. Cambridge: Da Capo Press.Search in Google Scholar

  1. 1

    “Nog steeds vindt men hier en daar sporen van de opvatting, dat betrekkingen tussen staten uitsluitend een zaak zijn van de regeringen. In het midden van de twintigste eeuw zijn we wel zo ver, dat de particuliere staatsburger niet meer het recht mag worden ontzegd, contact te zoeken waar hij meent dat zulks nuttig is, ook op internationaal gebied.” De Rotterdammer (1961), scrapbook VII, E.H. van der Beugel private family archive. Translation by author.

  2. 2

    Gijswijt (2011). Translation by author.

  3. 3

    “The French were absolutely impossible; the Gaullists stated their case and the others, amongst whom Faure, former Prime Ministers and people like Fontaine and Baumgartner did not really dare to speak up. Since 1944 I never had the feeling that fascism was in a room where I was; now I had. If after the Bilderberg meeting anybody would have any illusion about their attitude they must be nuts.” Van der Beugel to Kissinger, April 4, 1964, Box 7, Van der Beugel Papers, National Archives, The Hague (hereafter NAH).

  4. 4

    See for example: “Council on Foreign Relations Round Table Meeting in Honor of the Honorable Ernst H. van der Beugel, Wednesday, December 2, 1959”, Records of the Council on Foreign Relations, Box 453, MC104-1918-2004-Series 4: Meetings – Special Ad Hoc Meetings July 1959–June 1960, Princeton University Library.

  5. 5

    Ulf Sudeck (Rapporteur), “Round Table Meeting in Honor of Hon. Ernst H. van der Beugel, Wednesday, December 21, 1959, 5:15 P.M.” Records of the Council on Foreign Relations, Box 453, MC104-1918-2004-Series 4: Meetings – Special Ad Hoc Meetings July 1959–June 1960, Princeton University Library (emphasis by author).

  6. 6

    Van der Beugel to Mr. S.J. Baron van Tuyll van Serooskerken, 15 September 1960, Archive E.H. van der Beugel, 35: Correspondentie gekwalificeerd als “belangrijk”, NAH.

  7. 7

    E.H. van der Beugel to Herman van Rooijen, 19 November 1964, Archive Herman van Roijen, 45: Correspondentie EvdB, NAH.

  8. 8

    See for example Lundestad (2003, 13 and 72); Gijswijt (2007).

  9. 9

    See for example: Ellwood (2008). Aubourg (2008).

  10. 10

    Qtd. in Ellwood (2008, 53).

  11. 11
  12. 12

    “Notes on the organization and activities of the Bilderberg Group Secretariat”, Archief Bilderberg Conferenties, Box 53, NAH.

  13. 13

    E.H. van der Beugel, “Victor de Raadsman Spreekuur van 8–24 uur”, Box: Lezingen en artikelen, E.H. van der Beugel private family archive.

  14. 14
  15. 15

    Table Plan, The Netherlands chamber of commerce in the United Kingdom, Luncheon 20th July, 1961, Scrapbook VI, E.H. van der Beugel private family archive; De Tijd De Maasbode, De Tijd/De Maasbode (1961, 1).

  16. 16

    Volkskrant (1961b), Scrapbook VI, private family archive E.H. van der Beugel.

  17. 17

    De Rotterdammer (1961), Scrapbook VII, E.H. van der Beugel private family archive; Dagblad de Telegraaf (1961, 2).

  18. 18

    De Gelderlander (1961), Scrapbook VII, E.H. van der Beugel private family archive. De Tijd (1961); Volkskrant (1961), Scrapbook VI, private family archive E.H. van der Beugel.

  19. 19

    “European Unity and Atlantic Cooperation”, US Embassy the Hague, 4 December 1964, RG59, Records of the US Department of State (reel 5, microfilm collection, Roosevelt Study Center, Middelburg, The Netherlands).

  20. 20

    Henry A. Kissinger, Contribution to the “Book on Ernst” (Festschrift by Bilderberg associates), April 1980, Papers of Shepard Stone, Box 27, 1, Rauner Library, Dartmouth.

  21. 21

    Interview with Henry Kissinger conducted by the author, New York, 4 January 2012, Ernst van der Beugel. Oral History. Part 6, Chapter 7: Henry Kissinger, E.H. van der Beugel Papers, Box 65, NAH, 873–874.

  22. 22

    Interview with Henry Kissinger conducted by the author, New York, 4 January 2012. Ernst van der Beugel Oral History. Part 6, Chapter 7: Henry Kissinger, E.H. van der Beugel Papers, Box 65, NAH, 875.

  23. 23

    Van der Beugel to Kissinger. 11 August 1961, Correspondence with Ernst van der Beugel, Private papers of Dr. Henry A. Kissinger.

  24. 24

    Interview with Henry Kissinger conducted by the author, New York, 4 January 2012.

  25. 25

    For a detailed analysis of Charles de Gaulle and the transatlantic relationship see Reyn (2007).

  26. 26

    For the role of American foundations in building transatlantic elite-networks see: Parmar (2012); Berghahn (2001); Berghahn.

  27. 27

    For a detailed description of van der Beugel’s role in these civil aviation negotiations see: Scott-Smith and Snyder (2013); Scott-Smith (2013).

  28. 28

    E.H. van der Beugel to Dr. Henry A. Kissinger, 14 September 1970, NSC Files, Box 697, Country Files – Europe, Netherlands Vol. I 1969–1971, Richard M. Nixon Library.

  29. 29

    Dr. Henry A. Kissinger to E.H. van der Beugel, 11 November 1970, NSC Files, Box 697, Country Files – Europe, Netherlands Vol. I 1969–1971, Richard M. Nixon Library.

  30. 30

    E.H. van der Beugel to C.D. Jackson, 2 March 1964, Box 7, van der Beugel Papers, NAH.

  31. 31

    Idem.

  32. 32

    Idem.

  33. 33

    E.H. van der Beugel to Henry Owen, 2 April 1964, Box 7, van der Beugel Papers, NAH.

  34. 34

    Telegram from U.S. Embassy Brussels, 27 March 1964, Department of State Alpha Numerical File 1964–1966 (reel 5, microfilm collection of the Roosevelt Study Center, Middelburg, The Netherlands).

  35. 35

    Idem.

  36. 36

    Telegram from U.S. Embassy the Hague, Co 2559, 3 April 1964, Department of State Alpha Numerical File 1964–1966 (reel 5, microfilm collection of the Roosevelt Study Center, Middelburg, The Netherlands).

Published Online: 2014-4-2
Published in Print: 2014-3-1

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin / Boston