Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access May 18, 2016

Global noise score indicator for classroom evaluation of acoustic performances in LIFE GIOCONDA project

  • Marco Chetoni , Elena Ascari , Francesco Bianco , Luca Fredianelli , Gaetano Licitra and Liliana Cori
From the journal Noise Mapping


The LIFE GIOCONDA is an ongoing project that aims to provide an innovative methodology to the authorities for supporting the environment & health policies by involving the young people in the decision-making processes. The project suggests a web platform able to relate air and noise pollution data in the schools with the students’ pollution awareness. GIOCONDA aims to enhance the awareness of students, teachers and local administrations on the noise issues in schools, presenting suitable tools to improve the public participative processes. This paper presents a new method that has been developed within the Project. It aims to evaluate the acoustic performances of a classroom and to suggest the use of a global indicator based on a group of acoustic parameters compared with their limit values. Whit the new method the comparison between different classrooms or different schools becomes possible, together with a homogeneous evaluation of the priority for planning noise mitigation actions. Several noise measurement campaigns have been performed to characterize the students’ exposure in eight Italian schools. The results are useful to describe the acoustic performances of classrooms.


[1] M. Basner, W. Babish , A. Davis, M. Brinck, C. Clark, S. Janssen, S. Stansfeld, Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health, The Lancet volume 383, issue 9925, pages 1325–1332, 2014. 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61613-XSearch in Google Scholar

[2] B. M. Shields, J. E. Dockrell, The effects of environmental and classroom noise on the academic attainments of primary school children, Acoustical Society of America, 2008. 10.1121/1.2812596Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[3] B. Shield, J. Dockrell, The effects of noise on children at school: a review, Building Acoustics, volume 10 n.2 pages 97–116, 2003. 10.1260/135101003768965960Search in Google Scholar

[4] M. Klatte, J. Hellbruck, J. Seidel, P. Leistner, Effects of Classroom Acoustics on Performance and Well-Being in Elementary School Children: A Field Study, Environmental behavior Sage pubblications, 2010. 10.1177/0013916509336813Search in Google Scholar

[5] Neuman, Arlene, Wroblewski, Marcin, Hajicek, Joshua, Rubinsteiun, Adrienne, Combined effets noise and reverberation on speech recognition performance of normal-hearing children and adults, Ear & Hearing volume 31 pp 336–344, 2010. 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181d3d514Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] B. M. Shield, J. E. Dockrell, The effects of noise on children at school: a review, J. building acoustics 10, 97–103, 2003. 10.1260/135101003768965960Search in Google Scholar

[7] M. Wroblrewski, D. E. Lewis, D. L. Valentine, P. G. Stelmachowicz, Effects of reverberation on speech recognition in stationary andmodulated noise by school-aged children and young adults, Ear Hear 33, pages 731–744, 2012. 10.1097/AUD.0b013e31825aecadSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[8] J. Kristiansen, R. Persson, S. P. Lund, H. Shibuya, P. M. Nielsen, Effects of classroom acoustic and self-reported noise exposure on teacher’s well-being, Environmental behavior Sage pubblications, 2013. Search in Google Scholar

[9] D. Augustynska, A. Kaczmarska, W. Mikulski, J. Radosz, Assessment of teachers’ exposure to noise in selected primary schools, Archives of Acoustics, volume 35, issue 4, 2010. 10.2478/v10168-010-0040-2Search in Google Scholar

[10] GIOCONDA (i giovani contano nelle decisioni su ambiente e salute) Project, from Search in Google Scholar

[11] B. Berglund, T. Lindvall, T. H. Schwela, Guidelines for Community Noise. World Health Organization. 1999. Retrieved 03/02/2015 from idelines2.html. Search in Google Scholar

[12] D. Francois, M. Vallet, Noise in Schools, World Health Organisation—Regional Oflce for Europe Pamphlet no.38. WHO; Germany, 2001. Search in Google Scholar

[13] Aarhus Convention: UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, 25 June 1998. Search in Google Scholar

[14] T. Istamto, D. Houthuijs, E. Lebret, Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traflc-related air pollution and noise across five countries, Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 497–498, 1 November 2014, Pages 420–429, ISSN 0048- 9697,, 2014. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.07.110Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[15] P. Woolner and E. Hall, Noise in Schools: a holistic Approach to the issue, International journal of environmental research and public health, 7, 3255–3269, 2010. 10.3390/ijerph7083255Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[16] E. Ascari, M. Chetoni, L. Fredianelli, F. Bianco, G. Licitra, L. Cori, Assessment of the noise quality of school rooms within the GIOCONDA project, Proceedings of ICSV22, Florence 2015. Search in Google Scholar

[17] J. E. Dockrell, B. Shield, Children’s perceptions of their acoustic environment at school and home. Journal of the acoustical society of America, pages 2964–2973, 2004. 10.1121/1.1652610Search in Google Scholar

[18] A. Astolfi, F. Pellerey, Subjective and objective assessment of acoustical and overall environmental quality in secondary school classrooms, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123, 163–173, 2008, from DOI: 10.1121/1.2816563Search in Google Scholar

[19] P. H. T. Zannin, C. R. Marcon, Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms, Applied Ergonomics, 2007. 10.1016/j.apergo.2006.10.001Search in Google Scholar

[20] L. T. Silva, I. S. Oliveira, J. F. Silva, The impact of urban noise on primary schools. Perceptive evaluation and objective assessment, Applied Acoustics 2016, from mpact_of_urban_noise_on_primary_schools_Perceptive_evalu ation_and_objective_assessment. 10.1016/j.apacoust.2015.12.013Search in Google Scholar

[21] C. Clark, R.Martin, E. Van Kempen, T. Alfred, J. Head, H.W. Davis, M.M. Hines, I.L. Barrio, M. Matheson, S.A.Stansfeld, Exposureeffect relations between aircraft and road traflc noise exposure at school and reading comprehension, American Journal of Epidemiology, volume 163, issue 1, pages 27–37, 2006. 10.1093/aje/kwj001Search in Google Scholar

[22] S. A. Stansfeld, B. Burglund, C. Clark, I. Lopez-Barrio, P. Fisher, E. Ohrstrom, M. M. Haines, J. Head, S. Hygge, I Van Kamp, B. F. Berry, Aircraft and road traflc noise and children’s cognition and health: a cross-national study, The Lancet, volume 365, issue 9475, pages 1942–1949, 2005. 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66660-3Search in Google Scholar

[23] UNI EN ISO 16283-1:2014 Acoustics – Field Measurement Of Sound Insulation In Buildings And Of Building Elements, 2014. Search in Google Scholar

[24] ISO 717-1:2013 Acoustics – Rating of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements – Part 1: Airborne sound insulation, 2013. Search in Google Scholar

[25] ISO 3382-2:2008 Acoustics – Measurement of room acoustic parameters – Part 2: Reverberation time in ordinary rooms, 2008. Search in Google Scholar

[26] IEC 60268-16 Third edition 2003-05 Sound system equipment – Part 16: Objective rating of speech intelligibility by speech transmission index, 2003. Search in Google Scholar

[27] Department circular n. 3150, Italy 22 may 1967. Search in Google Scholar

[28] D.M. 18 december 1975, Italy – Norme tecniche aggiornate relative all’edilizia scolastica, ivi compresi gli indici di funzionalità didattica, edilizia ed urbanistica, 1975. Search in Google Scholar

[29] D.P.C.M. 14 november 1997 Italy – Determinazione dei valori limite delle sorgenti sonore, 1997. Search in Google Scholar

[30] D.P.C.M. 5 decembe 1997, Italy – Determinazione dei requisiti acustici passivi degli edifici, 1997. Search in Google Scholar

[31] ANSI S12.60-2002 Acoustical Performance Criteria Design Requirements and Guidelines for Schools, 2002. Search in Google Scholar

[32] UNI 11367-2010 Italy, Classificazione acustica delle unità immobiliari, procedure di valutazione e verifica in opera, 2010. Search in Google Scholar

[33] UNI 11532-2014 Italy, Caratteristiche acustiche degli ambienti confinati, 2014. Search in Google Scholar

[34] Building Bulletin 93: Acoustic Design of Schools. Department for Education and Skills, Stationery Oflce; UK, 2003. Search in Google Scholar

[35] A. Astolfi, M. Giovannini, Acustica delle aule scolastiche, requisiti prestazionali, soluzioni di progetto, verifiche e calcolo in opera, Quaderni Rockwool, Retrieved 03/02/2015 from 20aule%20scolastiche.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

[36] D.M. 16 marzo 1998, Italy, Tecniche di Rilevamento e misurazione dell’inquinamento acustico, 1998. Search in Google Scholar

[37] J. Kristiansen, S. P. Lund, P. M. Nielsen, R. Persson, H. Shibuya, Determinants of noise annoyance in teachers from schools with different classroom reverberation times, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Volume 31, Issue 4, December 2011, Pages 383– 392, ISSN 0272-4944. 10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.08.005Search in Google Scholar

[38] Piani Comunali di Classificazione Acustica - Linee guida tecniche per la predisposizione dei piani, ARPAT 2004. Retrieved 03/02/2015 from ne/report/ru_documentazione_linee_guida_classificazione_a Search in Google Scholar

[39] M. Chetoni, M. Palazzuoli, Il benessere acustico nelle aule scolastiche: dalla progettazione al risanamento, Galileo, Pisa Association of engineers, n.2 2010. Search in Google Scholar

[40] P. Henrique T. Zannin, D. Petri, Z. Zwirtes, Evaluation of the acoustic performance of classrooms in public schools, Applied Acoustics, Volume70, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 626–635, ISSN 0003-682X. 10.1016/j.apacoust.2008.06.007Search in Google Scholar

[41] Ha Knecht, PB Nelson, GM Whitelaw, LL Feth, Background noise levels and reverberation times in unoccupied classrooms: predictions and measurements. Am J Audiol, 2010. Search in Google Scholar

[42] P. W. Barnett, Overview of speech intelligibility, Proceedings I.O.A Vol 21 Part 5, 1999, from coust.2008.06.007. Search in Google Scholar

[43] Classroom Acoustics I, publication of the technical committee on architectural acoustics of the acoustical society of America, 2003, from ult/files/docs/classroom_acoutics_1.pdf, 10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.08.005Search in Google Scholar

[44] B. Fischhoff, P. Slovic, S. Lichtenstein, S. Read, B. Combs, How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefit, Policy Sciences 9, pp 127–152, 1978. 10.1007/BF00143739Search in Google Scholar

[45] Search in Google Scholar

[46] A. Aniorte, S. Domingo, Reticular noise method for acoustic insulation engineering, 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering, Internoise 2010. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2015-10-19
Accepted: 2016-4-26
Published Online: 2016-5-18

©2016 M. Chetoni et al.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 24.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow