Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access January 27, 2021

GIS-based mapping of noise from mechanized minerals ore processing industry

  • Arif Susanto EMAIL logo , Dony O. Setyawan , Firman Setiabudi , Yenni M. Savira , Aprilia Listiarini , Edi K. Putro , Aditya F. Muhamad , John C. Wilmot , Donny Zulfakar , Prayoga Kara , Iting Shofwati , Sodikin Sodikin and Mila Tejamaya
From the journal Noise Mapping


Monitoring workers’ exposure to occupational noise is essential, especially in industrial areas, to protect their health. Therefore, it is necessary to collect information on noise emitted by machines in industries. This research aims to map the noise from mechanized mineral ore industry using the kriging interpolation method, and ArcGIS 10.5.1 to spatially process and analyze data. The experimental calculation result of the semivariogram showed a 0.83 range value, with an essential parameter of 1.75 sill and a spherical total theoretical model. The result shows that the main machines with the highest power consumption and the Leq value are located in the southwest position of the sampled areas with a noise map-projected to assess the workers’ noise exposure level. In conclusion, the study found that the highest noise level was generated ranged from 88 to 97 dBA and contributed to the whole sound pressure level at certain positions.


[1] Santos LC, Matias C, Vieira F, Valado F. Noise mapping of industrial sources. Acustica. 2008;1–12.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Lim MH, Lee YL, Lee FW, Heng GC. Strategic noise mapping prediction for a rubber manufacturing factory in Malaysia. E3S Web Conferences. 2018;65:1–9.10.1051/e3sconf/20186505019Search in Google Scholar

[3] Majidi F, Rezai N. Study of noise map and its features in an indoor work environment through GIS-based software. J. Hum. Environ. Health Promot. 2016;1(3):138–42.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Freeport Indonesia PT. (PTFI), Ore mill, 2018, in Google Scholar

[5] Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Noise and hearing loss prevention. 2018. in Google Scholar

[6] Zhou Y, Zheng G, Zheng H, Zhou R, Zhu X, Zhang Q. Primary observation of early transtympanic steroid injection in patients with delayed treatment of noise-induced hearing loss. Audiol Neurotol. 2013;18(2):89–94.10.1159/000345208Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[7] Nelson DI, Nelson RY, Concha-Barrientos M, Fingerhut M. The global burden of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. Am J Ind Med. 2005 Dec;48(6):446–58.10.1002/ajim.20223Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[8] Mirza R, Kirchner DB, Dobie RA, Crawford J; ACOEM Task Force on Occupational Hearing Loss. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss. J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Sep;60(9):e498–501.10.1097/JOM.0000000000001423Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[9] Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Occupational Noise Exposure. 2020. in Google Scholar

[10] Le TN, Straatman LV, Lea J, Westerberg B. Current insights in noise-induced hearing loss: a literature review of the underlying mechanism, pathophysiology, asymmetry, and management options. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 May;46(1):41.10.1186/s40463-017-0219-xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[11] Alberti PW, Symons F, Hyde ML. Occupational hearing loss. The significance of asymmetrical hearing thresholds. Acta Otolaryngol. 1979 Mar-Apr;87(3-4):255–63.10.3109/00016487909126417Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[12] Noise and Hearing Loss. NIH Consens Statement. 1990;8(1):1-24.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Suvorov G, Denisov E, Antipin V, Kharitonov V, Starck J, Pyykkö I, et al. Effects of peak levels and number of impulses to hearing among forge hammering workers. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001 Aug;16(8):816–22.10.1080/10473220119058Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[14] American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Determination of occupational noise exposure and estimation of noise-induced hearing impairment, ANSI S3.44. Acoustical Society America; 1996.Search in Google Scholar

[15] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Comments from the national institute for occupational safety and health on the occupational safety and health administration’s request for comments on determining the work relatedness of occupational hearing loss.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Taneja MK. Noise-induced hearing loss. Indian J Otol. 2015;20(4):151–4.10.4103/0971-7749.146928Search in Google Scholar

[17] Komite Nasional Nasional Penanggulangan Gangguang Pendengaran dan Ketulian, Gangguan pendengaran akibat bising. Jakarta. 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Licitra G. Noise mapping in the EU: models and procedures. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press; 2012. in Google Scholar

[19] Alam P, Ahmad K, Afsar SS, Akhtar N. 3D noise mapping for preselected locations of urban area with and without noise barriers: a case study of Delhi, India. Noise Mapp. 2020;7(1):74–83.10.1515/noise-2020-0006Search in Google Scholar

[20] Akay AE, Acar HH. Using GIS techniques for modeling noise propagation from mechanized harvesting equipment. Eur. J. Forest Eng. 2019;5:92–8.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Bocher E, Guillaume G, Picaut J, Petit G, Fortin N. Noise modelling: an open source GIS based tool to produce environmental noisemaps. J. Geo-Inf. 2019;8(3):130.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Guarnaccia C, Quartieri J, Ruggiero A, Lenza TL. Industrial settlements acoustic noise impact study by predictive software and computational approach, 2014, Latest Trends in Energy, Environment and Development. Salerno, Italy. 2014. in Google Scholar

[23] Cho DS, Kim JH, Manvell D. Noise mapping using measured noise and GPS data. Appl Acoust. 2007;68(9):1054–61.10.1016/j.apacoust.2006.04.015Search in Google Scholar

[24] Manojkumar N, Basha K, Srimuruganandam B. Asessment, prediction and mapping of noise levels in Vellore City, India. Noise Mapp. 2019;6(1):38–51.10.1515/noise-2019-0004Search in Google Scholar

[25] Nanthavanij S, Boonyawat T, Wongwanthanee S. Analytical procedure for constructing noise contour. Int J Ind Ergon. 1999;23(1-2):123–7.10.1016/S0169-8141(97)00107-8Search in Google Scholar

[26] Zannin PH, de Sant’ana DQ. Noise mapping at different stages of a freeway redevelopment project – a case study in Brazil. Appl Acoust. 2011;72(8):479–86.10.1016/j.apacoust.2010.09.014Search in Google Scholar

[27] Ko JH, Chang SI, Lee BC. Noise impact assessment by utilizing noise map and GIS: a case study in the city of Chungju, Republic of Korea. Appl Acoust. 2011;68(8):1054–61.Search in Google Scholar

[28] OSHA. OSHA technical manual (OTM) TED 01-00-015: Noise and hearing conservation. U.S. Department of Labor. 2008. in Google Scholar

[29] BSI, BS EN ISO 3744:2010, Acoustics – determination of sound power levels of noise sources energy levels of noise sources using sound pressure – engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane. 2010.Search in Google Scholar

[30] ISO. ISO 9612:2009, Acoustics - Determination of occupational noise exposure – Engineering method. 2009. in Google Scholar

[31] ISO, ISO 11690-1:1996, International Standard: acoustics – recommended practice for the design of low-noise workplaces containing machinery. 1996.Search in Google Scholar

[32] Oyedepo SO, Adeyemi GA, Olawole OC, Ohijeagbon OI, Fagbemi OK, Solomon R, et al. A GIS - based method for assessment and mapping of noise pollution in Ota metropolis, Nigeria. MethodsX. 2019 Feb;6:447–57.10.1016/j.mex.2019.02.027Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[33] Laze K. Findings from measurements of noise levels in indoor and outdoor environments in an expanding urban area: a case of Tirana. Noise Mapp. 2017;4(1):45–56.10.1515/noise-2017-0003Search in Google Scholar

[34] Margaritis E, Kang J. Soundscapemapping in environmental noise management and urban planning: case studies in two UK cities. Noise Mapp. 2017;4(1):87–103.10.1515/noise-2017-0007Search in Google Scholar

[35] Aumond P, Can A, Mallet V, De Coensel B, Ribeiro C, Botteldooren D, et al. Kriging-based spatial interpolation from measurements for sound level mapping in urban areas. J Acoust Soc Am. 2018 May;143(5):2847–57.10.1121/1.5034799Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[36] Can A, Deconinck L, Botteldooren D. Measurement network for urban noise assessment: comparison of mobile measurements and spatial interpolation approaches. Appl Acoust. 2014;83:32–9.10.1016/j.apacoust.2014.03.012Search in Google Scholar

[37] Zuo J, Xia H, Liu S, Qiao Y. Mapping urban environmental noise using smartphones. Sensors (Basel). 2016 Oct;16(10):1692.10.3390/s16101692Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[38] Bostanci B. Accuracy assessment of noise mapping on the main street. Arab J Geosci. 2018;11(1):1–12.10.1007/s12517-017-3343-zSearch in Google Scholar

[39] Garcia JS, Solano JJ, Serrano MC, Camba EA, Castell SF, Asensi AS, et al. Spatial statistical analysis of urban noise data from a WASN gathered by an IoT system: application to a small city. Appl Sci (Basel). 2016;6(12):380.10.3390/app6120380Search in Google Scholar

[40] Cellmer R. Spatial analysis of the effect of noise on the prices and value of residential real estates, Geomatics and Environ. Eng. 2011;5:13–28. in Google Scholar

[41] Bakogiannis E, Kyriakidis C, Siti M, Kougioumtzidis N, Potsiou C. The use of VGI in noise mapping, J. Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre. 2018;8:16–25. in Google Scholar

[42] Tsai KT, Lin MD, Chen YH. Noise mapping in urban environments: a Taiwan study. Appl Acoust. 2009;70(7):964–72.10.1016/j.apacoust.2008.11.001Search in Google Scholar

[43] Grubeša S, Petošić A, Suhanek M, Đurek I. Mobile crowdsensing accuracy for noise mapping in smart cities. Automatika. 2018;59:286–93. in Google Scholar

[44] Lark RM. Kriging a soil variable with a simple nonstationary variance model. JABES. 2009;14(3):301–21.10.1198/jabes.2009.07060Search in Google Scholar

[45] Giraldo R, Delicado P, Mateu J. Ordinary kriging for functionvalued spatial data. Environ Ecol Stat. 2011;18(3):411–26.10.1007/s10651-010-0143-ySearch in Google Scholar

[46] Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi R, Zare M, Zare S. Maping of noise pollution by different interpolation methods in recovery section of Ghandi telecommunication cables company. J. Occup. Health Epidemiol. 2013;2(1):1–11.Search in Google Scholar

[47] Aletta F, Kang J. Soundscape approach integrating noise mapping techniques: a case study in Brightin, UK. Noise Mapp. 2015;2(1):1–12.10.1515/noise-2015-0001Search in Google Scholar

[48] Tozlu FJ, Fresko M. Autogenous and semi-autogenous mills 2015 update. SAG Conference. Vancouver. 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[49] Gupta A, Yan D. Mineral processing design and operations: an introduction. 2nd ed. 2016:263–85.Search in Google Scholar

[50] Gupta A, Yan D. Mineral processing design and operations: an introduction. 2nd ed. 2016:689–741.Search in Google Scholar

[51] Bublic I, Tudor I, Skelin D. Small scale noise mapping of industrial plants, 1st EAA – EuroRegio 2010, Congress on Sound and Vibration. 2010. in Google Scholar

[52] OSHA. Occupational noise exposure: hearing conservation amendement. Fed Regist. 1983;48:9738–83.Search in Google Scholar

[53] The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia Regulation No. 70 year 2016 about Standard and regulation of industrial work. in Google Scholar

[54] The Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia Regulation No. 5 year 2018, Occupational safety and health, and work environment. in Google Scholar

[55] ACGIH, TLVs® and BEI® based on the Documentation of the threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents & biological exposure indices. 2019.Search in Google Scholar

[56] Cressie NA. Statistics for spatial data. Revised Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[57] Saveliev AA, Mukharamova SS, Zuur AF. Analysis and modelling of lattice data. Analysing ecological data, Statistics for biology and health. New York: Springer, 2007. in Google Scholar

[58] Bouttier F, Courtier P. Data assimilation concepts and methods – Meteorological training sourse lecture series, European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). 2002. in Google Scholar

[59] Tilloy A, Mallet V, Poulet D, Pesin C, Brocheton F. BLUE-based NO2 data assimilation at urban scale. J Geophys Res. 2013;4(4):2031–40.10.1002/jgrd.50233Search in Google Scholar

[60] Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM. An introduction to applied geostatistics. NY: Oxford Univ. Press; 1989.Search in Google Scholar

[61] Harman BI, Koseoglu H, Yigit CO. Performance evaluation of IDW, kriging and multiquadratic interpolation methods in producing noisemapping: a case study at the city of Isparta, Turkey. Appl Acoust. 2016;112:1470157.10.1016/j.apacoust.2016.05.024Search in Google Scholar

[62] Webster R, Oliver MA. Geostatistics for environmental scientist. 2nd ed. West Sussex: John Willey & Sons Ltd; 2007. in Google Scholar

[63] Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Noise and hearing loss prevention. 2018. in Google Scholar

[64] Puyana-Romero V, Ciaburro G, Brambilla G, Garzón C, Maffei L. Representation of the soundscape quality in urban areas through colours. Noise Mapp. 2019;8(1):8–21.10.1515/noise-2019-0002Search in Google Scholar

[65] Susanto A, Mulyono NB, Information management of web application based environmental performance management in Concentrating Division of PTFI. E3S Web of Conferences. 2018;31:12001.10.1051/e3sconf/20183112001Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-08-27
Accepted: 2020-11-08
Published Online: 2021-01-27

© 2021 Arif Susanto et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Downloaded on 30.11.2023 from
Scroll to top button