Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 24, 2020

Effects of metal ions and wood pitch on retention and physical properties of TMP

Xiaomin Lu ORCID logo, Anna Sundberg, Anders Strand and Martin A. Hubbe

Abstract

The influence of metal ions, Ca2+ and Mg2+, on wood pitch retention at pH 8 was studied by investigating the pitch content of TMP-papers using both short- and long-column gas chromatography (GC). The effects of two different drying methods, air-drying and freeze-drying, on pitch retention were also compared in this work. The pitch emulsion was prepared with fatty acids, resin acids, and triglycerides at a certain ratio to simulate the pitch composition in closed water system in paper mill. At increasing pH, some of the resin and fatty acids will dissolve into the water phase as metal soaps. In this work, the retention of colloidal pitch in TMP-papers by metal ions at pH 8 was determined. The amount of 5 mM metal ions was found to retain more pitch. The tensile index decreased by the addition of metal ions, and the decrease became more pronounced as the increase of the metal ions concentration. Besides, the hydrophobicity of handsheets was found being changed only a little, which might because the morphology and pitch retained on the surface both affected the hydrophobicity.

Funding statement: Authors state no funding involved.

Appendix

Table A1

Pitch content in air-dried papers of TMP, TMP and pitch emulsion, and TMP, pitch emulsion and metal ions.

Air-driedUnitTMPTMP+pitch+Ca2++Ca2++Ca2+
1 mM5 mM10 mM
Fatty acidsmg/g0.150.340.181.491.07
Resin acidsmg/g0.010.020.051.190.31
Neutralsmg/g0.280.270.902.514.44
Total pitchmg/g0.430.621.135.205.81
Air-driedUnit+Mg2++Mg2++Mg2++Al3+
1 mM5 mM10 mM1 mM
Fatty acidsmg/g0.300.710.880.61
Resin acidsmg/g0.230.540.130.17
Neutralsmg/g0.980.942.761.08
Total pitchmg/g1.512.183.771.86
Table A2

Pitch content in freeze-dried papers of TMP, TMP and pitch emulsion, and TMP, pitch emulsion and metal ions.

Freeze-driedUnitTMPTMP+pitch+Ca2++Ca2++Ca2+
1 mM5 mM10 mM
Fatty acidsmg/g0.280.500.272.321.65
Resin addmg/g0.060.070.131.780.59
Neutralsmg/g0.671.942.624.706.38
Total pitchmg/g1.022.513.028.818.63
Freeze-driedUnit+Mg2++Mg2++Mg2++Al3+
1 mM5 mM10 mM1 mM
Fatty acidsmg/g0.561.461.300.97
Resin addmg/g0.461.220.190.30
Neutralsmg/g2.222.295.543.78
Total pitchmg/g3.254.977.025.06
Table A3

Total pitch content of air-dried papers of TMP, TMP and pitch emulsion, and TMP, pitch emulsion and metal ions, contact angle, tensile index, air permeability, thickness, weight.

Total pitchContact angleTensile indexAir permeabilityThicknessWeight
mg/g°kNm/kgmL/minμmg
TMP0.4384.330.068.688.80.74
TMP+pitch0.6262.227.090.990.30.76
+1 mM Ca2+1.1358.726.092.292.60.74
+5 mM Ca2+5.2060.722.083.593.90.78
+10 mM Ca2+5.8172.521.983.793.10.77
+1 mM Mg2+1.5151.128.252.585.70.76
+5 mM Mg2+2.1857.226.756.487.00.75
+10 mM Mg2+3.7767.322.0100.492.60.75
+1 mM Al3+1.8673.927.658.588.80.78

  1. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

Allen, L.H. (1975) Pitch in wood pulps. Pulp Pap. Can. 765:T139–T146. Search in Google Scholar

Allen, L.H. (1980) Mechanisms and control of pitch deposition in newsprint mills. Tappi J. 63(2):81–87. Search in Google Scholar

Allen, L.H. (1988) The importance of pH in controlling metal-soap deposition. Tappi J. 71(1):61–64. Search in Google Scholar

Allen, L.H. (2000) Pitch control in paper mill. In: Pitch Control, Wood Resin and Deresination. Eds. Back, E.L., Allen, L.H. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA. pp. 307328. Search in Google Scholar

Dreisbach, D.D., Michalopoulos, D.L. (1989) Understanding the behavior of pitch in pulp and paper mills. Tappi J. 72(6):129–134. Search in Google Scholar

Ekman, R., Eckerman, C., Holmbom, B. (1990) Studies on the behavior of extractives in mechanical pulp suspensions. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 5(2):96–103. 10.3183/npprj-1990-05-02-p096-103. Search in Google Scholar

Ekman, R., Holmbom, B. (2000) The chemistry of wood resin. In: Pitch Control, Wood Resin and Deresination. Eds. Back, E.L., Allen, L.H. TAPPI Press, Atlanta, GA. pp. 37–76. Search in Google Scholar

Fengel, D., Wegener, G. (1984) Structure and ultrastructure. In: Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure, Reactions. W. de Gruyter, Berlin, New York. pp. 6–25. Search in Google Scholar

Hannuksela, T., Holmbom, B. (2004) Stabilization of wood-resin emulsions by dissolved galactoglucomannans and galactomannans. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30(6):159–164. Search in Google Scholar

Hannuksela, T., Tenkanen, M., Holmbom, B. (2002) Sorption of dissolved galactoglucomannans and Galactomannans to Bleached Kraft Pulp. Cellulose 9(3):251–261. 10.1023/A:102117842. Search in Google Scholar

Hassler, T. (1988) Pitch deposition in papermaking and function of pitch-control agents. Tappi J. 71(6):195–201. Search in Google Scholar

Hubbe, M.A., McLean, D.S., Stack, K.R., Lu, X., Strand, A., Sundberg, A. (2020) Self-assembly of alkyl chains of fatty acids in papermaking systems: a review of related pitch issues, hydrophobic sizing, and pH effects. BioResources 15(2):4591–4635. Search in Google Scholar

Korehei, R., Jahangiri, P., Nikbakht, A., Martinez, M., Olson, J. (2016) Effects of drying strategies and microfibrillatedc fiber content on the properties of foam-formed paper. J. Wood Chem. Technol. 36(4):235–249. 10.1080/02773813.2015.1116012. Search in Google Scholar

MacNeil, D., Sundberg, A., Vähäsalo, L., Holmbom, B. (2011) Effect of calcium on the phase distribution of resin and fatty acids in pitch emulsions. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 32(2):269–276. 10.1080/01932691003659270. Search in Google Scholar

McLean, D.S., Stack, K.R., Richardson, D.E. (2005) The effect of wood extractives composition, pH and temperature on pitch deposition. Appita J. 58(1):52–55. Search in Google Scholar

OLM, L. (1984) Pitch problems and their control in kraft mills using hardwoods from temperate and tropical zones. Appita J. 37(6):479–483. Search in Google Scholar

Qin, M., Hannuksela, T., Holmbom, B. (2003) Physical-chemical characterisation of TMP resin and related model mixtures. Colloids Surf. A 221(1–3):243–254. 10.1016/S0927-7757(03)00146-8. Search in Google Scholar

Qin, M., Hannuksela, T., Holmbom, B. (2004) Deposition tendency of TMP resin and related model mixtures. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 30(10):279–283. Search in Google Scholar

Rundlöf, M., Sjölund, A.K., Ström, H., Åsell, I. (2000) The Effects of Dissolved and Colloidal Substances Released from TMP on the Properties of TMP fines. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 15(4):256–265. Search in Google Scholar

Rying, S. (1978) Groundwood mills use specialty chemicals to solve pitch problems. Pulp Pap. 52(3):177–179. Search in Google Scholar

Sihvonen, A.-L., et al. (1998) Stability and deposition tendency of colloidal wood resin. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 13(1):64–67. 10.3183/npprj-1998-13-01-p064-067. Search in Google Scholar

Sjöström, E. Wood chemistry – fundamentals and applications. 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 1993. pp. 21–108. Search in Google Scholar

Stack, K., Lee, R., Richardson, D., Lewis, T., Garnier, G. (2014) Complex formation and stability of colloidal wood resin pitch suspensions with hemicellulose polymers. Colloids Surf. A 441:101–108. 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2013.08.057. Search in Google Scholar

Strand, A. The pH-Dependent Phase Distribution of Wood Pitch Components in Papermaking Processes. PhD Dissertation, Laboratory of Wood and Paper Chemistry, Dept. of Chem. Eng., Åbo Akademi University, 2013. Search in Google Scholar

Strand, A., Sundberg, A., Vähäsalo, L., Holmbom, B. (2011) Influence of pitch composition and wood substances on the phase distribution of resin and fatty acids at different pH levels. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 32(5):702–709. 10.1080/01932691.2010.480853. Search in Google Scholar

Sundberg, A., Ekman, R., Holmbom, B., Sundberg, K., Thornton, J. (1995) Interactions between dissolved and colloidal substances and a cationic fixing agent in mechanical pulp suspensions. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 8(1):226–231. 10.3183/NPPRJ-1993-08-01-p226-231. Search in Google Scholar

Sundberg, A., Holmbom, B., Willför, S., Pranovich, A. (2000) Weakening of paper strength by wood resin. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 15(1):46–53. 10.3183/npprj-2000-15-01-p046-053. Search in Google Scholar

Sundberg, A., Strand, A., Vähäsalo, L., Holmbom, B. (2009) Phase distribution of resin and fatty acids in colloidal wood pitch emulsions at different pH-levels. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 30(6):912–919. 10.1080/01932690802646249. Search in Google Scholar

Sundberg, K., Thornton, J., Ekman, R., Holmbom, B. (1994a) Interactions between simple electrolytes and dissolved and colloidal substances in mechanical pulp. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 9(2):125–128. Search in Google Scholar

Sundberg, K., Thornton, J., Petterson, B., Holmbom, B. (1994b) Calcium-induced aggregation of dissolved and colloidal substances in mechanicalpulp suspensions. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20(11):J317–J322. Search in Google Scholar

Sundberg, K., Ekman, R., Holmbom, B. (1995) Dissolved air flotation with calcium and polygalacturonic acids. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 10(3):201–203. Search in Google Scholar

Sundberg, K., Petterson, C., Eckerman, C., Holmhom, B. (1996) Preparation and properties of a model dispersion of colloidal wood resin from Norway spruce. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20(7):J248–J252. Search in Google Scholar

Swanson, J.W., Cordingley, R.H. (1956) Surface chemical studies on pitch. I. A new approach to the pitch problem in papermaking. Tappi J. 39(10):684–690. Search in Google Scholar

Örså, F., Holmbom, B. (1994) A convenient method for the determination of wood extractives in papermaking process waters and effluents. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 20(12):J361–J365. Search in Google Scholar

Tammelin, T., Österberg, M., Johnsen, I.A. (2007) Adsorption of colloidal extractives and dissolved hemicelluloses on thermomechanical pulp fiber components studied by QCM-D. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 22(1):93–101. 10.3183/npprj-2007-22-01-p093-101. Search in Google Scholar

Welkener, U., Hassler, T., McDermott, M. (1993) The effect of furnish components on depositability of ptch and stickies. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 8(1):223–225. Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, X., Beatson, R.P., Cai, Y.J., Saddler, J.N. (1999) Accumulation of specific dissolved and colloidal substances during white water recycling affects paper properties. J. Pulp Pap. Sci. 25(6):206–210. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-04-11
Accepted: 2020-08-25
Published Online: 2020-09-24
Published in Print: 2020-11-18

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston