Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access March 28, 2019

Stimulation Effects of Foliar Applied Glycine and Glutamine Amino Acids on Lettuce Growth

  • Yaghoub Aghaye Noroozlo , Mohammad Kazem Souri EMAIL logo and Mojtaba Delshad
From the journal Open Agriculture


Amino acids have various roles in plant metabolism, and exogenous application of amino acids may have benefits and stimulation effects on plant growth and quality. In this study, the growth and nutrient uptake of Romain lettuce (Lactuca sativa subvar Sahara) were evaluated under spray of glycine or glutamine at different concentrations of 0 (as control), 250, 500 and 1000 mg.L-1, as well as a treatment of 250 mg.L-1 glycine+250 mg.L-1 glutamine. The results showed that there was significant increase in leaf total chlorophyll content under Gly250+Glu250, Gly250 and Glu1000 mg.L-1treatments, and in leaf carotenoids content under 250 mg.L-1 glutamine spray compared with the control plants. Shoot fresh and dry weights were highest under 500 mg.L-1 glycine, whereas root fresh weight was highest under 250 mg.L-1 glycine spray. Foliar application of glycine and glutamine had no significant increase in leaf mineral concentrations except for iron, in which 1000 mg.L-1Gly spray resulted in significantly higher leaf Fe concentration compared with the control plants. Leaf vitamin C was increased at 250 and particularly 500 mg.L-1 spray of glycine and glutamine compared with the control. Nevertheless, different amino acid treatments had no significant effect on plant height, leaf SPAD value, root dry weight, and leaf concentrations of N, K, Ca, Mg and Zn. The results indicate that foliar application of glycine and glutamine amino acids can have beneficial effects on lettuce growth, as higher fresh yield, leaf chlorophyll content and vitamin C were obtained by low to moderate concentrations of glycine and/or glutamine amino acids.


Amin A.A., Gharib F.A.E, El-Awadia M., Rashad E.S.M., Physiological response of onion plants to foliar application of putrescine and glutamine. Scientia Horticulturae, 2011, 129, 353-36010.1016/j.scienta.2011.03.052Search in Google Scholar

Ashmead H.D., Foliar feeding of plants with amino acid chelates. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, 1986, pp.370Search in Google Scholar

Atilio J.B., Causin H.F., The central role of amino acids on nitrogen utilization and plant growth. Journal of Plant Physiology, 1996, 149(3), 358-36210.1016/S0176-1617(96)80134-9Search in Google Scholar

Basanth N., Mahesh G., Bioefficacy of Nova Nutri Boost for yield and yield components in paddy (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 2018, 7(10), 2250-225310.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.259Search in Google Scholar

Bashir A., Rizwan M., Ali S., Zia-ur Rehman M.Z., Ishaque W., Riaz M.A., Maqbool A., Effect of foliar-applied iron complexed with lysine on growth and cadmium (Cd) uptake in rice under Cd stress. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2018. 25(21), 20691-2069910.1007/s11356-018-2042-ySearch in Google Scholar

Cao Y.P., Gao Z.K., Li J.T., Xu G.H., Wang M., Effects of extraneous glutamic acid on nitrate contents and quality of Chinese chive. Acta Horticulturae, 2010, 856, 91–9810.17660/ActaHortic.2010.856.11Search in Google Scholar

Caruso G., Conti S., La Rocca P., Influence of crop cycle and nitrogen manure form on yield and nitrate content of leafy, hypocotyl and fruit vegetables. Advances in Horticultural Science, 2011, 25(2), 81-89Search in Google Scholar

Cerdán M., Sánchez-Sánchez A., Jordá J.D., Juárez M., Sánchez-Andreu J., Effect of commercial amino acids on iron nutrition of tomato plants grown under lime-induced iron deficiency. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 2013, 176(6), 859-86610.1002/jpln.201200525Search in Google Scholar

Dehnavard S., Souri M.K., Mardanlu S., Tomato growth responses to foliar application of ammonium sulfate in hydroponic culture. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 2017, 40(3), 315-32310.1080/01904167.2016.1240191Search in Google Scholar

Fahimi F., Souri M.K., Yaghobi F., Growth and development of greenhouse cucumber under foliar application of Biomin and Humifolin fertilizers in comparison to their soil application and NPK. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture, 2016, 7(25), 143-15210.18869/acadpub.ejgcst.7.1.143Search in Google Scholar

Forde B.G., Clarkson D.T., Nitrate and ammonium nutrition of plants: physiological and molecular perspectives. Advances in Botanical Research, 1999, 30, 1-9010.1016/S0065-2296(08)60226-8Search in Google Scholar

Garcia A.L., Madrid R., Gimeno V., Rodriguez-Ortega W.M., Nicolas N., Garcia-Sanchez F. The effects of amino acids fertilization incorporated to the nutrient solution on mineral composition and growth in tomato seedlings. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2011, 9(3), 852-86110.5424/sjar/20110903-399-10Search in Google Scholar

Hatamian M., Salehi H., Physiological characteristics of two rose cultivars (Rosa hybrida L.) under different levels of shading in greenhouse conditions. Journal of Ornamental Plants, 2017, 7(3), 147-155Search in Google Scholar

Hussain A., Ali S., Rizwan M., Zia-ur Rehman M.Z., Hameed A., Hafeez F., Alamri S.A., Alyemeni M.N., Wijaya L., Role of zinc– lysine on growth and chromium uptake in rice plants under Cr stress. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 2018, 37(4), 1413-142210.1007/s00344-018-9831-xSearch in Google Scholar

Jeppsen R.B., Mineral supplementation in plants via amino acid chelation. American Chemical Society, 1991, 25, 320-33110.1021/bk-1991-0445.ch025Search in Google Scholar

Jones D.L., Darrah P.R., Influx and efflux of amino acids from Zea mays L. roots and their implications for N nutrition and the rhizosphere. Plant and Soil, 1993, 155(1), 87-9010.1007/BF00024990Search in Google Scholar

Junxi C., Zhiping P., Jichuan H., Junhong Y., Wenying L., Linxiang Y., Zhijun L., Effect of foliar application of amino acid on yield and quality of flowering Chinese cabbage. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 2010, 4, p.036Search in Google Scholar

Kałużewicz A., Bosiacki M., Spiżewski T., Influence of biostimulants on the content of macro- and micronutrients in broccoli plants exposed to drought stress. Journal of Elementology, 2018. 23(1), 287-297Search in Google Scholar

Khan A.S., Ahmad B., Jaskani M.J., Ahmad R. and Malik A.U., Foliar application of mixture of amino acids and seaweed (Ascophylum nodosum) extract improve growth and physicochemical properties of grapes. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 2012, 14(3), 383-388Search in Google Scholar

Kielland K., Amino acid absorption by arctic plants: implications for plant nutrition and nitrogen cycling. Ecology, 1994, 75(8), 2373-238310.2307/1940891Search in Google Scholar

Lintas C., Nutritional aspects of fruits and vegetables consumption. Options Mediterraeennes, 1992, 19, 79-87Search in Google Scholar

Marschner P., Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants (3rd ed.). Elsevier, London, 2011, p. 672Search in Google Scholar

Mohammadipour N., Souri M.K., Beneficial effects of glycine on growth and leaf nutrient concentrations of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 2019 (accepted will be published in 2019b)10.1080/01904167.2019.1628985Search in Google Scholar

Mohammadipour N., Souri M.K., Effects of different levels of glycine in the nutrient solution on the growth, nutrient composition and antioxidant activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Acta Agrobotanica, 2019 (accepted and will published in March 2019a)10.5586/aa.1759Search in Google Scholar

Muller B., Touraine B., Inhibition of NO3uptake by various phloemtranslocated amino acids in soybean seedlings. Journal of Experimental Botany, 1992, 43(5), 617-62310.1093/jxb/43.5.617Search in Google Scholar

Näsholm T., Kielland K., Ganeteg U., Uptake of organic nitrogen by plants. New Phytologist, 2009, 182, 31-4810.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02751.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Pranckietiene I., Mazuolyte-Miskine E., Pranckietis V., Dromantiene R., Šidlauskas G., Vaisvalavicius R., The effect of amino acids on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium changes in spring barley under the conditions of water deficit. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 2015, 102(3), 265-27210.13080/z-a.2015.102.034Search in Google Scholar

Rai V.K., Role of amino acids in plant responses to stresses. Biologia Plantarum, 2002, 45, 481–48710.1023/A:1022308229759Search in Google Scholar

Rainbird R.M., Thorne J.H., Hardy R.W., Role of amides, amino acids, and ureides in the nutrition of developing soybean seeds. Plant Physiology, 1984, 74(2), 329-33410.1104/pp.74.2.329Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Rizwan M., Ali S., Hussain A., Ali Q., Shakoor M.B., Zia-ur-Rehman M., Farid M., Asma M., Effect of zinc-lysine on growth, yield and cadmium uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and health risk assessment. Chemosphere, 2017, 187, 35-4210.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.071Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Sadak M., Abdoelhamid M.T., Schmidhalter U., Effect of foliar application of amino acids on plant yield and some physiological parameters in bean plants irrigated with sea water. Acta Biologica Colombiana, 2015, 20(1),141-15210.15446/abc.v20n1.42865Search in Google Scholar

Shaheen A.M., Rizk F.A., Habib H.A.M., Abdel Baky M., Nitrogen soil dressing and foliar spraying by sugar and amino acids as affected the growth, yield and its quality of onion plant. Journal of American Science, 2010, 6(8), 420-427Search in Google Scholar

Shalaby T.A., El-Ramady H., Effect of foliar application of bio-stimulants on growth, yield, components, and storability of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science, 2014, 8(2), 271Search in Google Scholar

Sharma S.S., Dietz K.J., The significance of amino acids and amino acid-derived molecules in plant responses and adaptation to heavy metal stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 2006. 57(4), 711-72610.1093/jxb/erj073Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Shehata M., Azem H., El-yazid A., Effect of foliar spraying with amino acids and seaweed extract on growth chemical constitutes, yield and its quality of celeriac plant. European Journal of Scientific Research, 2011, 58(2), 257-265Search in Google Scholar

Shunka E., Chindi A., Gebremedhin W.G., Seid E., Tessema L., Determination of optimum nitrogen and potassium levels for potato production in central high lands of Ethiopia. Open Agriculture, 2017, 2(1), 189-19410.1515/opag-2017-0019Search in Google Scholar

Souri M.K., Hatamian M., Aminochelates in plant nutrition: a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 2019, 42(1), 67-7810.1080/01904167.2018.1549671Search in Google Scholar

Souri M.K., Naiji M., Aslani M., Effect of Fe-glycine aminochelate on pod quality and iron concentrations of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under lime soil conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 2018, 49(2), 215-22410.1080/00103624.2017.1421655Search in Google Scholar

Souri M.K., Yaghoubi Sooraki F., Moghadamyar M., Growth and quality of cucumber, tomato, and green bean plants under foliar and soil applications of an aminochelate fertilizer. Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, 2017, 58(6), 530-53610.1007/s13580-017-0349-0Search in Google Scholar

Szeto Y.T., Tomlinson B., Benzie I.F., Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation. British Journal of Nutrition, 2002, 87(1), 55-5910.1079/BJN2001483Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhou Z., Zhou J., Li R., Wang H., Wang J., Effect of exogenous amino acids on Cu uptake and translocation in maize seedlings. Plant and Soil, 2007, 292, 105–11710.1007/s11104-007-9206-8Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2018-06-27
Accepted: 2019-01-20
Published Online: 2019-03-28

© 2019 Yaghoub Aghaye Noroozlo et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License.

Downloaded on 7.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button