Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access December 31, 2019

Bridges between family farming and organic farming: a study case of the Iberian Peninsula

  • Raquel P. F. Guiné EMAIL logo , Davide Gaião , Daniela V. T. A. Costa , Paula M. R. Correia , Luis T. Guerra , Helena E. Correia and Cristina A. Costa
From the journal Open Agriculture

Abstract

The aim of this work was to identify procedures adopted by family farms in the centre and north of Portugal and Galicia (Spain), and to verify whether they resemble those used in organic farming. A checklist was prepared in Portuguese and Spanish and applied personally to managers of family farms. The participation was voluntary and 125 valid responses were collected.

The results show that farmers included in the study owned small family farms where labour is mainly performed by the family, and tended to adopt, in general, good agricultural practices, many of which are common to organic farming, such as crop rotation, avoidance of GMO or avoidance of phytoregulators. However, they failed to adopt some important practices, including the use of seeds inoculated with mycorrhizae, composting, biological and biotechnical control or avoidance of chemical control for plant protection. It was further concluded that gender and age of the farmers did not significantly influence the type of agricultural practices, contrarily to the level of education and region, which were significantly associated with many of the cultural interventions investigated.

References

[1] Agarwal B., Can group farms outperform individual family farms? Empirical insights from India, World Development, 2018, 108, 57–73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.03.01010.1016/j.worlddev.2018.03.010Search in Google Scholar

[2] Amaro P., 7o Relatório de Progresso “Os indicadores ambientais para avaliar a prática da protecção integrada, da produção integrada e da agricultura biológica e o uso sustentável de pesticidas em Portugal” (AGRO 545). Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisboa, Portugal, 2007 (In Portuguese)Search in Google Scholar

[3] Andersen M.M., Landes X., Xiang W., Anyshchenko A., Falhof J., Østerberg J.T., Olsen L.I., Edenbrandt A.K., Vedel S.E., Thorsen B.J., Sandøe P., Gamborg C., Kappel K., Palmgren M.G., Feasibility of new breeding techniques for organic farming, Trends in Plant Science, 2015, 20, 426–434, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2015.04.01110.1016/j.tplants.2015.04.011Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[4] Bronson K., Knezevic I., Clement C., The Canadian family farm, in literature and in practice, Journal of Rural Studies, 2019, 66, 104–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.01.00310.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.01.003Search in Google Scholar

[5] Bulgakov V., Pascuzzi S., Adamchuk V., Ivanovs S., Pylypaka S., A theoretical study of the limit path of the movement of a layer of soil along the plough mouldboard, Soil and Tillage Research, 2019, 195, 104406, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2019.10440610.1016/j.still.2019.104406Search in Google Scholar

[6] Bünemann E.K., Bongiorno G., Bai Z., Creamer R.E., De Deyn G., de Goede R., Fleskens L., Geissen V., Kuyper T.W., Mäder P., Pulleman M., Sukkel W., van Groenigen J.W., Brussaard L., Soil quality – A critical review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2018, 120, 105–125, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.01.03010.1016/j.soilbio.2018.01.030Search in Google Scholar

[7] Correia H., Gaião D., Correia P., Guiné R., Teixeira D., Costa C., ECONEWFARMERS: Construir pontes entre agricultura familiar e biológica através da formação vocacional. Revista de Ciências Agrárias, 2017, 40, 125–131, (In Portuguese)10.19084/RCA16169Search in Google Scholar

[8] Drobnik T., Greiner L., Keller A., Grêt-Regamey A., Soil quality indicators – From soil functions to ecosystem services. Ecological Indicators, 2018, 94, 151–169, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.06.05210.1016/j.ecolind.2018.06.052Search in Google Scholar

[9] Ebrahim M.K.H., Saleem A.-R., Alleviating salt stress in tomato inoculated with mycorrhizae: Photosynthetic performance and enzymatic antioxidants. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 2017, 11, 850–860, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtusci.2017.02.00210.1016/j.jtusci.2017.02.002Search in Google Scholar

[10] European Union, Rural development in the EU. Statistical and economic information report 2013. European Commission/Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development, 2013Search in Google Scholar

[11] FAO, Family Farmers. Feeding the world, caring for the earth. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2014aSearch in Google Scholar

[12] FAO, The state of food and agriculture 2014: Innovation in family farming. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2014bSearch in Google Scholar

[13] FAO, 2000 World Census of Agriculture: Analysis and international comparison of the results (1996-2005). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2013Search in Google Scholar

[14] Gong T., Battese G.E., Villano R.A., Family farms plus cooperatives in China: Technical efficiency in crop production. Journal of Asian Economics, 2019, 64, 101129, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asieco.2019.07.00210.1016/j.asieco.2019.07.002Search in Google Scholar

[15] Graeub B.E., Chappell M.J., Wittman H., Ledermann S., Kerr R.B., Gemmill-Herren B., The State of Family Farms in the World. World Development, 2016, 87, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.05.01210.1016/j.worlddev.2015.05.012Search in Google Scholar

[16] INE, Recenseamento geral agrícola, [WWW Document], 2017, URL http://ra09.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=RA2009&xpgid=ine_ra_publicacoes (In Portuguese)Search in Google Scholar

[17] INEBase, Censo agrario 2009. [WWW Document], 2017, URL http://www.ine.es/CA/Inicio.do (In Portuguese)Search in Google Scholar

[18] Jones J.W., Antle J.M., Basso B., Boote K.J., Conant R.T., Foster I., Godfray H.C.J., Herrero M., Howitt R.E., Janssen S., Keating B.A., Munoz-Carpena R., Porter C.H., Rosenzweig C., Wheeler T.R., Brief history of agricultural systems modeling, Agricultural Systems, 2017, 155, 240–254, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2016.05.01410.1016/j.agsy.2016.05.014Search in Google Scholar

[19] Kirakowski J., Questionnaires in usability engineering. A list of frequently asked questions, 3rd ed. ed. Human Factors Research Group, Cork, Ireland, 200010.1002/inst.20003139Search in Google Scholar

[20] Kołtun M., Kocira S., Krzysiak Z., Ćwiklińska M., Kocira A., Koszel M., Economic Size and Developmental Possibilities of Chosen Family Farms in Poland. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, Farm Machinery and Processes Management in Sustainable Agriculture, 7th International Scientific Symposium 7, 2015, 113–118, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.12.00310.1016/j.aaspro.2015.12.003Search in Google Scholar

[21] Kuiper J., A checklist approach to evaluate the contribution of organic farms to landscape quality. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 2000, 77, 143–156, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00099-710.1016/S0167-8809(99)00099-7Search in Google Scholar

[22] Lowder S.K., Skoet J., Raney T., The Number, Size, and Distribution of Farms, Smallholder Farms, and Family Farms Worldwide. World Development, 2016, 87, 16–29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.04110.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.041Search in Google Scholar

[23] Lu H., Zhang P., Hu H., Xie,H., Yu Z., Chen S., Effect of the grain-growing purpose and farm size on the ability of stable land property rights to encourage farmers to apply organic fertilizers. Journal of Environmental Management, 2019, 251, 109621, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.10962110.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109621Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[24] Pires L.F., Borges J.A.R., Rosa J.A., Cooper M., Heck R.J., Passoni S., Roque W.L., Soil structure changes induced by tillage systems. Soil and Tillage Research, 2017, 165, 66–79, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2016.07.01010.1016/j.still.2016.07.010Search in Google Scholar

[25] Sajadian M., Khoshbakht K., Liaghati H., Veisi H., Mahdavi Damghani A., Developing and quantifying indicators of organic farming using analytic hierarchy process. Ecological Indicators, 2017, 83, 103–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.07.04710.1016/j.ecolind.2017.07.047Search in Google Scholar

[26] Seufert V., Ramankutty N., Mayerhofer T., What is this thing called organic? – How organic farming is codified in regulations. Food Policy, 2017, 68, 10–20, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2016.12.00910.1016/j.foodpol.2016.12.009Search in Google Scholar

[27] Strohbehn C., Mississippi Farm Food Safety Checklist - Adapted from the “Checklist for Retail Purchasing of Local Produce. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States, 2015Search in Google Scholar

[28] Wang H., Wang S., Wang R., Zhang Y., Wang X., Li J., Direct and indirect linkages between soil aggregates and soil bacterial communities under tillage methods. Geoderma, 2019, 354, 113879, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2019.11387910.1016/j.geoderma.2019.113879Search in Google Scholar

[29] Wheeler T., Braun J. von, Climate Change Impacts on Global Food Security. Science, 2013, 341, 508–513, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.123940210.1126/.1239402Search in Google Scholar

[30] Willer H., Lernoud J., The World of Organic Agriculture. FiBL & IFOAM Frick, Switzerland, 2015Search in Google Scholar

[31] Witten R., Witte J., Statistics, 9th ed. Wiley, NJ, 2009Search in Google Scholar

[32] Zhang B., Liang A., Wei Z., Ding X., No-tillage leads to a higher resistance but a lower resilience of soil multifunctionality than ridge tillage in response to dry-wet disturbances. Soil and Tillage Research, 2019, 195, 104376, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2019.10437610.1016/j.still.2019.104376Search in Google Scholar

[33] Zoraida G., Gender and farming systems. Lessons from Nicaragua. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2005Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-09-05
Accepted: 2019-11-03
Published Online: 2019-12-31

© 2019 Raquel P. F. Guiné et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License.

Downloaded on 27.2.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/opag-2019-0073/html
Scroll to top button