Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access January 2, 2018

New Perspectives on the Late Neolithic of South-Western Sweden. An Interdisciplinary Investigation of the Gallery Grave Falköping Stad 5

  • Malou Blank EMAIL logo , Anna Tornberg and Corina Knipper
From the journal Open Archaeology

Abstract

This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary study combining archaeology, osteology, and stable isotope analyses. The geological conditions and richness of megalithic graves in Falbygden is suitable for studies of Neolithic human remains. Nevertheless, the Late Neolithic period (2350-1700 BC) is poorly investigated. This paper explores new knowledge of the Late Neolithic megalithic population in Falbygden. In-depth osteological and archaeological studies focusing on a single gallery grave (Falkoping stad 5) were conducted. Radiocarbon dating and carbon, nitrogen, and strontium isotope analyses of teeth from twenty-one individuals revealed the time of the grave’s use, as well as the subsistence and mobility practices of the buried individuals. The grave was already in use during the first part of the Late Neolithic and used into the second part of the period by individuals of different origin. Furthermore, the results indicated changing population dynamics in the Late Neolithic Falbygden, with increased human mobility, variability in subsistence strategies, and growing population density.

References

Aberg, F. & Wickman, F. (1987). Variations of 87Sr/86Sr in water from streams discharging into the Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea. Hydrology Research, 18, 33-42.10.2166/nh.1987.0003Search in Google Scholar

Ahlström, T. (2001). Det döda kollektivet: Skelettmaterialet fran Rössbergaganggriften. Persson, P., Sjögren, K.-G. (Eds.), Falbygdens gånggrifter: Del 1. Undersökningar 1985-1998. Gothenburg: Department of Archaeology, Gothenburg University.Search in Google Scholar

Ahlström, T. (2003). Caries or Pottery?-On the reduction in tooth size in the Neolithic Age. A tooth for a tooth: Seminar for odontologists, osteologists and archaeologists, May 28th 1998. Lund: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.Search in Google Scholar

Ahlström, T. (2009). Underjordiska dödsriken : humanosteologiska studier av neolitiska kollektivgravar. Gothenburg: Department of Archaeology, Gothenburg University.Search in Google Scholar

Ahlström, T. (2015). Paleodemography of maritime hunter-gatherers and the quest for forager baseline demography. In K. Brink, S. Hydén, K. Jennbert, L. Larsson & D. Olausson (Eds.), Neolithic diversities: perspectives from a conference in Lund, Sweden (pp. 11-20). Lund: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University.Search in Google Scholar

Algotsson, A. (1996). En mellanneolitisk hällkista? Borttagning av hällkista, fornlämning 26, Falköping stad, Västergötland. SLM rapport 1996:10.Search in Google Scholar

Allentoft, M. E., Sikora, M., Sjögren, K.-G., Rasmussen, S., Rasmussen, M., Stenderup, J., Damgaard, P. B., Schroeder, H., Ahlström, T., Vinner, L., Malaspinas, A-S., Margaryan, A., Higham, T., Chivall, D., Lynnerup, N., Harvig, L., Baron, J., Della Casa, P., Dabrowski, P., Duffy, P. R., Ebel, A. V., Epimakhov, A., Frei, K., Furmanek, M., Gralak, T., Gromov, A., Gronkiewicz, S., Grupe, G., Hajdu, T., Jarysz, R., Khartanovich, V., Khokhlov, A., Kiss, V., Kolar, J., Kriiska, A., Lasak, I., Longhi, C., McGlynn, G., Merkevicius, A., Merkyte, I., Metspalu, M., Mkrtchyan, R., Moiseyev, V., Paja, L., Palfi, G., Pokutta, D., Pospieszny, L., Price, T. D., Saag, L., Sablin, M., Shishlina, N., Smrcka, V., Soenov, V. I., Szeverenyi, V., Toth, G., Trifanova, S. V., Varul, L., Vicze, M., episkoposyan, L.Y., Zhitenev, V., Orlando, L., Sicheritz-Ponten, T., Brunak, S., Nielsen, R., Kristiansen, K. & Willerslev, E. (2015). Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522 (7555), 167-72.Search in Google Scholar

Ambrose, S. H. & Norr, L. (1993). Experimental Evidence for the Relationship of the Carbon Isotope Ratios of Whole Diet and Dietary Protein to Those of Bone Collagen and Carbonate. In J. Lambert & G. Grupe (Eds.), Prehistoric Human Bone (pp. 1-37). Heidelberg: Springer Berlin.Search in Google Scholar

Anderbjörk, J. E. (1932). Västergötlands megalitgravar. Skara.Search in Google Scholar

Apel, J. (2001). Daggers, knowledge & power (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Uppsala University.Search in Google Scholar

Apel, J. (2015). Specialiserat flinthantverk pa Hisingen. Den senneolitiska fasen pa Tuve 46. In Situ Archaeologica 11.Search in Google Scholar

Arcini, C., Price, T. D., Cinthio, M., Drenzel, L., Andersson, M., Persson, B., Menander, H., Vretemark, M., Kjellström, A., Hedvall, R. & Tagesson, G. (2015). Living conditions in times of plague. In P. Lageras (Ed.), Environment, Society and the Black Death: An interdisciplinary approach to the late-medieval crisis in Sweden. Oxford: Oxbow books.Search in Google Scholar

Artursson, M. (2009). Bebyggelse och samhällsstruktur. Södra och mellersta Skandinavien under senneolitikum och bronsålder 2300-500 f. Kr.(Doctoral dissertation). Gothenburg: Department of Archaeology, Gothenburg University.Search in Google Scholar

Bägerfeldt, L. (2009). Falbygdens gånggrifter. En orientering. Falköping.Search in Google Scholar

Bennike, P., Alexandersen, V. (2007). Population plasticity in Southern Scandinavia -from oysters and fish to gruel and meat. In M. N. Cohen & M. M. Crane-Kramer (Eds.), Ancient health: skeletal indicators of agricultural and economic intensification. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Search in Google Scholar

Bennike, P. (1985). Palaeopathology of Danish skeletons : a comparative study of demography, disease and injury. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.Search in Google Scholar

Bentley, R. A. (2006). Strontium isotopes from the earth to the archaeological skeleton: a review. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 13. 135-87.Search in Google Scholar

Bergerbrant, S. (2014). Children in the Bronze Age: Three case studies. In H. Alexandersson, A. Andreeff & A. Bünz (Eds.), Med hjärta och hjärna: En vänbok till professor Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh. Gothenburg: Department of historical studies, Gothenburg University.Search in Google Scholar

Bergerbrant, S., Fredengren, C., Molnar, P. & Löfqvist, C. (2013). Violent Death and Wetlands: Sketal Remains from Gotland. In S. Bergerbrant & S. Sabatini (Eds.), Counterpoint: essays in archaeology and heritage studies in honour of Professor Kristian Kristiansen. Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Bergerbrant, S., Kristiansen, K., Allentoft, M. E., Frei, K. M., Price, T. D., Sjögren, K.-G. & Tornberg, A. (2017). Identifying commoners in the Early Bronze Age: burials outside barrows. In S. Bergerbrant & A. Wessman (Eds.), New Perspectives on the Bronze Age: Proceedings from the 13th Nordic Bronze Age Symposium, held in Gothenburg 9th June 2015. Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Bersaglieri, T., Sabeti, P. C., Patterson, N., Vanderploeg, T., Schaffner, S. F., Drake, J. A., Rhodes, M., Reich, D. E. & Hirschhorn, J. N. (2004). Genetic signatures of strong recent positive selection at the lactase gene. The American Journal of Human Genetics 74, 1111-1120.10.1086/421051Search in Google Scholar

Black, R. E., Cousens, S., Johnson, H. L., Lawn, J. E., Rudan, I., Bassani, D. G., Jha, P., Campbell, H., Fischer Walker, C., Cibulskis, R., Eisele, T., Liu, L. & Mathers, C. (2010). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. The Lancet 375 (9730), 1969-1987.Search in Google Scholar

Blank, M. (2016). Prehistoric Activities in Megalithic Graves in Falbygden, Sweden. Lund Archaeological Review 21, 49-70.Search in Google Scholar

Blank, M. (2017). Bronze Age burials in megalithic graves in Falbygden. In S. Bergerbrant & A. Wessman (Eds.), New Perspectives on the Bronze Age: Proceedings from the 13th Nordic Bronze Age Symposium, held in Gothenburg 9th June 2015. Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Blank, M. (in press). Tracing dietery change of the megalithic population in Southwestern Sweden. A contribution to the conference Megaliths, Societies, Landscape, Early Monumentality and Social Differentiation in Neolithic Europe, Kiel 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Blank, M. & Knipper, C. (in press). Neolithic mobility in western Sweden: interpretations of strontium isotope ratios of the megalithic population in Falbygden. In C. Gibson, C. Frieman, K. Cleary (Eds.), Making Journeys. Archaeologies of Mobility. Oxford: Oxbow books.Search in Google Scholar

Blank, M., Sjögren, K-G., Frei, K. M., Knipper, C. & Stora, J. (2018). A strontium isotope baseline for inland southwestern Sweden. Manuscript submitted for publication.Search in Google Scholar

Blakey, M. L., Leslie, T. E., & Reidy, J. P. (1994). Frequency and chronological distribution of dental enamel hypoplasia in enslaved African Americans: a test of the weaning hypothesis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 95(4), 371-383.10.1002/ajpa.1330950402Search in Google Scholar

Bocquet-Appel, J-P. & Masset, C. (1982). Farewell to Paleodernography. Journal of Human Evolution 11, 321-333.10.1016/S0047-2484(82)80023-7Search in Google Scholar

Boldsen, J. L, Milner, G. R., Konigsberg, L. W. & Wood, J.W. (2002). Transition analysis: a new method for estimating age from skeletons. In R. D. Hoppa,. & J. W. Vaupel (Eds.), Paleodemography: age distributions from skeletal samples (pp. 73-106). Cambridge studies in biological and evolutionary anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Brothwell, D. R. (1981). Digging up bones : the excavation, treatment and study of human skeletal remains. London: British Museum (Natural History).Search in Google Scholar

Brown, T. A., Nelson, D. E., Vogel, J. S. & Southon, J. R. (1988). Improved collagen extraction by modified Longin method. Radiocarbon, 30, 171-177.10.1017/S0033822200044118Search in Google Scholar

Burger, J., Kirchner, M., Bramanti, B., Haak, W. & Thomas, M. G. (2007). Absence of the lactase-persistence-associated allele in early Neolithic Europeans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 3736-3741.10.1073/pnas.0607187104Search in Google Scholar

Carlie, A., Arcini, C., Druid, H. & Risberg, J. (2014). Archaeology, forensics and the death of a child in Late Neolithic Sweden. Antiquity 88, 1148-1163.10.1017/S0003598X00115376Search in Google Scholar

Corruccini, R. S., Handler, J. S., & Jacobi, K. P. (1985). Chronological distribution of enamel hypoplasias and weaning in a Caribbean slave population. Human Biology, 699-711.Search in Google Scholar

Ebbesen, K. (2004). Danske hellekister fra stenalderen. Aarbøger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, 7-62.Search in Google Scholar

Emeis, K. C., Struck, U., Blanz, T., Kohly, A., & Voβ, M. (2003). Salinity changes in the central Baltic Sea (NW Europe) over the last 10000 years. The Holocene, 13(3), 411-421.10.1191/0959683603hl634rpSearch in Google Scholar

Eriksson, G. (2004). Part-time farmers or hard-core sealers? Västerbjers studied by means of stable isotope analysis. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 23, 135-62.10.1016/j.jaa.2003.12.005Search in Google Scholar

Eriksson, G. (2013). Stable isotope analysis of humans. In S. Tarlow & L. Nilsson Stutz (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Eriksson, G., Frei, K. M., Howcroft, R., Gummesson, S., Molin, F., Lidén, K., Frei, R. & Hallgren, F. (2016). Diet and mobility among Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Motala (Sweden) - The isotope perspective. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.05.05210.1016/j.jasrep.2016.05.052Search in Google Scholar

Eriksson, G & Lidén, K. (2003). Skateholm revisited: New stable isotope evidence on humans and fauna. In G. Eriksson (Ed.), Norm & difference. Stone age dietary practice in the Baltic region (pp. 1-11). Stockholm: Stockholm University.Search in Google Scholar

Eriksson, G. & Lidén, K. (2013). Dietary life histories in Stone Age Northern Europe. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 32, 288-302.10.1016/j.jaa.2012.01.002Search in Google Scholar

Eriksson, G., Linderholm, A., Fornander, E., Kanstrup, M., Schoultz, P., Olofsson, H. & Lidén, K. (2008). Same island, different diet: Cultural evolution of food practice on Öland, Sweden, from the Mesolithic to the Roman Period. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 27, 520-43.10.1016/j.jaa.2008.08.004Search in Google Scholar

Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1937). Economic life of the Nuer: cattle. Sudan notes and records 20, 209-45.Search in Google Scholar

Faure, G. (1986). Principles of isotope geochemistry. John Wiley and Sons.Search in Google Scholar

Fernandes, R., Grootes, P., Nadeau, M‐J. & Nehrlich, O. (2015). Quantitative diet reconstruction of a Neolithic population using a Bayesian mixing model (FRUITS): the case study of Ostorf (Germany). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 158, 325-340.10.1002/ajpa.22788Search in Google Scholar

Fernandes, R., Nadeau, M-J. & Grootes, P. M. (2012). Macronutrient-based model for dietary carbon routing in bone collagen and apatite. Archaeological and Anthropological Science 2012(4), 291-301.10.1007/s12520-012-0102-7Search in Google Scholar

Fornander, E., Eriksson,G. & Lidén, K. (2008). Wild at heart: Approaching Pitted Ware identity, economy and cosmology through stable isotopes in skeletal material from the Neolithic site Korsnäs in Eastern Central Sweden. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 27, 281-297.10.1016/j.jaa.2008.03.004Search in Google Scholar

Fornander, E., Lidén, K., Eriksson, G. & Andersson, P. (2015). Identifying mobility in populations with mixed marine/terrestrial diets: Strontium isotope analysis of skeletal material from a passage grave in Resmo, Öland, Sweden. In P. Suchowska-Ducke, S. S. Reiter and H. Vandkilde (Eds.), Forging Identities. The Mobility of Cultures in Bronze Age Europe: Vol. 1 (pp. 183-191). BAR International Series S2771. Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Fraser, R. A., Bogaard, A., Heaton, T., Charles, M., Jones, G., Christensen, B. T., Halstead, P., Merbach, I., Poulton, P. R. & Sparkes, D. (2011). Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses: towards a new archaeobotanical approach to the inference of land use and dietary practices. Journal of Archaeological Science 38, 2790-2804.10.1016/j.jas.2011.06.024Search in Google Scholar

Frei, K. M. (2009). News on the geographical origin of the Gerum cloak’s raw material. Fornvännen104(4), 313-315.Search in Google Scholar

Frei, K. M. & Price, T. D. (2012). Strontium isotopes and human mobility in prehistoric Denmark. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 4, 103-114.10.1007/s12520-011-0087-7Search in Google Scholar

Frei, R. & Frei, K. M. (2013). The geographic distribution of Sr isotopes from surface waters and soil extracts over the island of Bornholm (Denmark)-a base for provenance studies in archaeology and agriculture. Applied Geochemistry 38, 147-60.10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.09.007Search in Google Scholar

Fotakis, A. K., Rakownikow, R., Christensen, J., Blank, M., Tornberg, A., Mackie, M., Götterström, A., Stora, J., Olsen, J. V., Sjögren, K-G. & Cappellini, E. (In preparation). Unravelling the dairying habits of Neolithic Swedes using shotgun proteomics.Search in Google Scholar

Hedges, R. E. M. & Reynard, L. M. (2007). Nitrogen isotopes and the trophic level of humans in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 1240-1251.10.1016/j.jas.2006.10.015Search in Google Scholar

Hedges, R. E. M. & Van Klinken, G. J. (2002). “Consider a Spherical Cow⋯”-on Modeling and Diet. In S. Ambrose & M. A. Katzenberg (Eds.), Biogeochemical approaches to paleodietary analysis (pp. 211-41).New York: Springer.Search in Google Scholar

Hildebrand, B-E. (1864). Berättelse om antiqvariska undersökningar i Vestergötland ar 1863. Antiqvarisk tidskrift för Sverige.Search in Google Scholar

Hillson, S. (1996). Dental anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139170697Search in Google Scholar

Hillson, S., & Bond, S. (1997). Relationship of enamel hypoplasia to the pattern of tooth crown growth: a discussion. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 104(1), 89-103.10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199709)104:1<89::AID-AJPA6>3.0.CO;2-8Search in Google Scholar

Hinders, J. (2011). Dödsrikets livshistorier: Benkemiska isotopanalyser på artikulerade och disartikulerade individer i Frälsegårdens gånggrift (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Stockholm University.Search in Google Scholar

Hjelmquist, H. (1955). Die älteste Geschichte der Kulturpflanzen in Schweden. Opera Botanica. Vol. 1(3). Stockholm.Search in Google Scholar

Hjärthner-Holdar, E. (1978). Bennalar fran yngre stenalder i Sverige. TOR 17, 235-55.Search in Google Scholar

Hollox, E. J, Poulter, M., Zvarik, M., Ferak, V., Krause, A., Jenkins, T., Saha, N., Kozlov, A. I. & Swallow, D. M. (2001). Lactase haplotype diversity in the Old World. The American Journal of Human Genetics 68, 160-72.10.1086/316924Search in Google Scholar

Holm, J., Olsson, E. & Weiler, E. (1997). Kontinuitet och förändring i senneolitikum. Regionalt och interregionalt. Stenaldersundersökningar i Syd- och Mellansverige. Riksantikvarieämbetet Arkeologiska undersökningar, Skrifter 23, 215-264.Search in Google Scholar

Howcroft, R., Eriksson, G., & Lidén, K. (2012). The Milky Way: the implications of using animal milk products in infant feeding. Anthropozoologica, 47(2), 31-43.10.5252/az2012n2a3Search in Google Scholar

Iregren, E. (1977). Fornlämning Nr 5, benfynd fran hällkista, en osteologisk analys. Riksantikvariet och Statens Historiska Museer.Search in Google Scholar

Isaksson, S. & Hallgren, F. (2012). Lipid residue analyses of Early Neolithic funnel-beaker pottery from Skogsmossen, eastern Central Sweden, and the earliest evidence of dairying in Sweden. Journal of Archaeological Science 39, 3600-3609.10.1016/j.jas.2012.06.018Search in Google Scholar

Itan, Y., Powell, A., Beaumont, M. A., Burger, J. & Thomas, M. G. (2009). The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Comput Biol 5.e1000491.10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000491Search in Google Scholar

Iversen, R. (2015). The transformation of Neolithic societies : an eastern Danish perspective on the 3rd millennium BC. Hojbjerg: Jutland Archaeological Society.Search in Google Scholar

Janson, S. (1938). Västsvenska och västeuropeiska stenkammargravar med gavelhal. Fornvännen 33, 321-342.Search in Google Scholar

King, T, L., Humphrey, T. & Hillson, S. (2005). Linear enamel hypoplasias as indicators of systemic physiological stress: Evidence from two known age‐at‐death and sex populations from postmedieval London. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 128, 547-559.10.1002/ajpa.20232Search in Google Scholar

Knipper, C., Fragata, M., Nicklisch, N., Siebert, A., Szécsényi-Nagy, A., Hubensack, V., Metzner-Nebelsick, C., Meller, H. &. Alt, K. W. (2015). A distinct section of the early bronze age society? Stable isotope investigations of burials in settlement pits and multiple inhumations of the Únětice culture in central germany. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 159(3), 496-516.10.1002/ajpa.22892Search in Google Scholar

Knipper, C., Maurer, A-F., Peters, D., Meyer, C., Brauns, M., Galer, SG., von Freeden, U., Schöne, B. & Alt, K. W. (2012). Mobility in Thuringia or mobile Thuringians: a strontium isotope study from early Medieval central Germany. In E. Kaiser, J, Burger & W. Schier (Eds.), Population dynamics in prehistory and early history. New approaches using stable isotopes and genetic (pp. 287-310). Berlin, Boston: Walter de Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Knipper C., Mittnik, A., Kociumaka, C., Kucukkalipci, I., Maus, M., Wittenborn, F., Metz, S. E., Staskiewicz, A., Krause, J., Stockhammer, P. W. (2017). Female exogamy and gene pool diversification at the transition from the Final Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in central Europe. PNAS vol. 114 no. 38. 10083-10088. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1706355114.Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, K. & Larsson, T. B. (2005). The rise of Bronze Age society: travels, transmissions and transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressSearch in Google Scholar

Lee-Thorp, J. A., Sealy, J. C. & Van Der Merwe, N. J. (1989). Stable carbon isotope ratio differences between bone collagen and bone apatite, and their relationship to diet. Journal of Archaeological Science 16, 585-599.10.1016/0305-4403(89)90024-1Search in Google Scholar

Leonardi, M., Gerbault, P., Thomas, M.G. & Burger, J. (2012). The evolution of lactase persistence in Europe. A synthesis of archaeological and genetic evidence. International Dairy Journal 22, 88-97.10.1016/j.idairyj.2011.10.010Search in Google Scholar

Lekberg, P. (2002). Yxors liv, människors landskap: en studie av kulturlandskap och samhälle i Mellansveriges senneolitikum (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala University.Search in Google Scholar

Lewis, M. E. (2007). The bioarchaeology of children : perspectives from biological and forensic anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Lidén, K. (1995). Megaliths, Agriculture, and Social Complexity: A Diet Study of Two Swedish Megalith Populations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14, 404-41710.1006/jaar.1995.1019Search in Google Scholar

Lidén, K. & Nelson, D. E. (1994). Stable carbon isotopes as dietary indicators, in the Baltic area. Fornvännen 89, 13-21.Search in Google Scholar

Lindboe Kaldhussater, K. (2014). Arkeologi på molekylnivå: Lipidanalyser av 8 keramikkskår fra Logården (Unpublished Bachelor thesis). Stockholm University.Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J., Stos-Gale, Z., Hjärtner- Holdar, E., Grandin, L., Billström, K., Persson, P. (2014). Moving metals II: provenancing Scandinavian Bronze Age artefacts by lead isotope and elemental analyses. Journal of Archaeological Science 41, 106-132.10.1016/j.jas.2013.07.018Search in Google Scholar

Löfvendahl, R., Aberg, G. & Hamilton, P. J. (1990). Strontium in rivers of the Baltic Basin. Aquatic Sciences 52, 315-29.10.1007/BF00879760Search in Google Scholar

Lomborg, E. (1973). Die Flintdolche Dänemarks: Studien über Chronologie und Kulturbeziehungen des südskandinavischen Spätneolithikums. Copenhagen: Universitetsforlaget.Search in Google Scholar

Longin, R. (1971). New method of collagen extraction for radiocarbon dating. Nature 230, 241-242.10.1038/230241a0Search in Google Scholar

Lovejoy, C. O., Meindl, R. S., Pryzbeck, T. R. & Mensforth, R. P. (1985). Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium: a new method for the determination of adult skeletal age at death. American Journalof Physical Anthropology 68, 15-28.10.1002/ajpa.1330680103Search in Google Scholar

Malmer, M. P. (1957). Dateringen av batyxegraven fran Linköping. Fornvännen 52, 17-30.Search in Google Scholar

Malmström, H., Linderholm A., Lidén, K., Stora, J., Molnar, P., Holmlund, G., Jakobsson, M. & Götherström, A. (2010). High frequency of lactose intolerance in a prehistoric hunter-gatherer population in northern Europe. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10 (1), 89.10.1186/1471-2148-10-89Search in Google Scholar

Martin, R. & Saller, K. (1957). Lehrbuch der Anthropologie : in systematischer Darstellung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der anthropologischen Methoden. Stuttgart.Search in Google Scholar

Miles, A. E. W. (1962). Assessment of the Ages of a Population of Anglo-Saxons from Their Dentitions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 55, 881-886.10.1177/003591576205501019Search in Google Scholar

Montelius, O. (1873). Undersokning af en ganggrift vid Karleby kyrka i Vestergotland. Kongl. Vitterhets Historie och Antiqvitets Akadamiens Månadsblad 10, 13.Search in Google Scholar

Montelius, O. (1905). Stenaldersgrafvar begagnade under bronsaldern. Fornvännen 1.Search in Google Scholar

Montgomery, J. (2010). Passports from the past: Investigating human dispersals using strontium isotope analysis of tooth enamel. Annals of Human Biology 37, 325-346.10.3109/03014461003649297Search in Google Scholar

Montgomery, J. A. & Evans, J. A. (2009). Immigrants on the Isle of Lewis-Combining traditional funerary and modern isotope evidence to investigate social differentiation, migration and dietary change in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. In R. Gowland & C. Knüsel (Eds.), Social archaeology of funerary remains (pp. 122-142). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Search in Google Scholar

O’Connell, T. C., Kneale, C. J., Tasevska, N. & Kuhnle, G. G. C. (2012). The diet‐body offset in human nitrogen isotopic values: A controlled dietary study. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149, 426-434.10.1002/ajpa.22140Search in Google Scholar

Pearson, J. & Meskell, L. (2015). Isotopes and images: fleshing out bodies at Çatalhöyük. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 22, 461-482.10.1007/s10816-013-9184-5Search in Google Scholar

Persson, P. & Sjögren, K.-G. (1995). Radiocarbon and the chronology of Scandinavian megalithic graves. Journal of European Archaeology 3, 59-88.10.1179/096576695800703694Search in Google Scholar

Persson, P. & Sjögren, K-G. (2001). Falbygdens gånggrifter. Del 1. Undersökningar 1985-1998. Gothenburg: Gothenburg University.Search in Google Scholar

Price, T. D. (2013). Human Mobility at Uppakra: A preliminary report on isotopic proveniencing. In B. Hardh and L. Larsson (Eds.), Studies at Uppåkra, An Iron Age City in Scania, Sweden (pp. 157-169). Lund: Lund Institute of Archaeology.Search in Google Scholar

Price, T. D., Frei, K. M. & Naumann, E. (2015). Isotopic baselines in the North Atlantic region. Journal of the North Atlantic 7, 103-136.10.3721/037.002.sp707Search in Google Scholar

Price, T. D., Frei, R., Bäckström, Y., Frei, K. M. & Ingvarsson-Sundstrom, A. (2017). Origins of inhabitants from the 16th centurySearch in Google Scholar

Sala (Sweden) silver mine cemetery-A lead isotope perspective. Journal of Archaeological Science 80, 1-13.Search in Google Scholar

Reimer, P., Hoper, S., MacDonald, J., Reimer, R. & Thompson, M. (2015). Laboratory protocols used for AMS radiocarbon dating at the 14CHRONO Centre, The Queen’s University Belfast. Swindon: English Heritage Research Report Series 5.Search in Google Scholar

Retzius, G. (1899). Crania Suecica antiqua: beskrifning av svenska mennisko-kranier från stenåldern, bronsåldern och järnåldern jämte en blick på forskningen öfver de europeiska folkens ras-karaktärer. Stockholm.Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, C. A. & Manchester, K. (2005). The archaeology of disease. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Sahlström, K. E. (1932). Gudhems härads fornminnen. Skövdeortens Hembygds-och Fornminnesförenings redaktionsutskott.Search in Google Scholar

Scarre, C. (2010). Rocks of ages: tempo and time in megalithic monuments. European Journal of Archaeology 13, 175-193.10.1177/1461957110370731Search in Google Scholar

Schoeninger, M. J., DeNiro, M. J. & Tauber, H. (1983). Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen reflect marine and terrestrial components of prehistoric human diet. Science 220, 1381-1383.10.1126/science.6344217Search in Google Scholar

Scorrano, G., Brilli, M., Martínez‐Labarga, C., Giustini, F., Pacciani, E., Chilleri, F., Scaldaferri, F., Gasbarrini, A., Gasbarrini, G. & Rickards, O. (2014). Palaeodiet reconstruction in a woman with probable celiac disease: A stable isotope analysis of bone remains from the archaeological site of Cosa (Italy). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 154, 349-356.10.1002/ajpa.22517Search in Google Scholar

Sealy, J. (1986). Stable carbon isotopes and prehistoric diets in the south-western Cape Province, South Africa: British Archaeological Reports.10.30861/9780860543763Search in Google Scholar

Sealy, J. (2001). Body tissue chemistry and palaeodiet. In D. R. Brothwell & A. M. Pollard (Eds.), Handbook of archaeological sciences (pp. 269-279). Chichester: Wiley.Search in Google Scholar

Ségurel, L. & Bon, C. (2017). On the Evolution of Lactase Persistence in Humans. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 18.10.1146/annurev-genom-091416-035340Search in Google Scholar

Shanks, M. & Tilley, C. (1982). Ideology, symbolic power and ritual communication: a reinterpretation of Neolithic mortuary practices. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Symbolic and structural archaeology (pp. 129-154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Sherratt, A. (1981). Ploughs and pastoralism : aspects of the secondary products revolution. In D. L. Clarke & I. Hodder (Eds.), Pattern of the past : studies in honour of David Clarke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Siler, W. (1979). A competing‐risk model for animal mortality. Ecology 60, 750-57.10.2307/1936612Search in Google Scholar

Siler, W. (1983). Parameters of mortality in human populations with widely varying life spans. Statistics in Medicine 2, 373-380.10.1002/sim.4780020309Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren, K.-G. (2003). ”Mångfalldige uhrminnes grafvar…” Megalitgravar och samhälle i Västsverige. Gothenburg: Gothenburg University.Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren, K-G. (2008). Fragment av ordning. Undersökning av överplöjda megalitgravar vid Frälsegården, Gökhems socken, Västergötland, 1999-2001. Department of Historical Studies, Gothenburg university &Västergötlands museum.Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren, K-G. (2011). C-14 chronology of Scandinavian megalithic tombs. Menga: Revista de prehistoria de Andalucía, 103-120.Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren, K-G. (2017). Modeling middle Neolithic funnel beaker diet on Falbygden, Sweden. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 12, 295-306.10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.01.044Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren K-G. & Price, T. D. (2006). Mobilitet under neolitikum. Undersökningar av strontiumisotoper i människoben fran Västsverige. In H. Glorstad, B. Skar & D. Skre (Eds.), Historien i forhistorien. Festskrift til Einar Østmo på 60-års dagen (pp. 95-104). Kulturhistorisk museum, Skrifter 4. Oslo: Universitetets kulturhistoriske museer.Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren K-G. & Price, T. D. (2013a). A complex Neolithic economy: isotope evidence for the circulation of cattle and sheep in the TRB of western Sweden. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, 690-704.10.1016/j.jas.2012.08.001Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren K-G. & Price, T. D. (2013b). Vegetarians or meat eaters? Enamel δ13C and Neolithic diet at the Frälsegarden passage tomb, central Sweden. In S. Bergerbrant & S. Sabatini (Eds.), Counterpoint: Essays in Archaeology and Heritage Studies in Honour of Professor Kristian Kristiansen (pp. 690-704). Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren, K-G., Price, T. D. & Ahlström, T. (2009). Megaliths and mobility in south-western Sweden. Investigating relationships between a local society and its neighbours using strontium isotopes. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 28, 85-101.10.1016/j.jaa.2008.10.001Search in Google Scholar

Sjögren, K.-G., Price, T. D. & Kristiansen, K. (2016). Diet and Mobility in the Corded Ware of Central Europe. PLoS ONE 11.e0155083.10.1371/journal.pone.0155083Search in Google Scholar

Sjøvold, T. (1990). Estimation of stature from long bones utilizing the line of organic correlation. Human Evolution 5, 431-447.10.1007/BF02435593Search in Google Scholar

Stensköld, E. (2004). Att berätta en senneolitisk historia: sten och metall i södra Sverige 2350-1700 f. Kr. (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Stockholm University.Search in Google Scholar

Stilborg, O. (2002). Neolitikum. In A. Lindahl, D. Olausson& A. Carlie (Eds.), Keramik i Sydsverige. En handbok för arkeologer. Riksantikvarieämbetet. Avdelningen för arkeologiska undersökningar. UV Syd Rapport 6.Search in Google Scholar

Sverrisdóttir, O. Ó., Götherström, A., Timpson, A., Thomas, M. G., Toombs, J., Lecoeur, C., Froguel, P., Carretero, J. M. & Arsuaga Ferreras, J. L. (2014). Direct estimates of natural selection in iberia indicate calcium absorption was not the only driver of lactase persistence in Europe. Molecular Biology and Evolution 31, 975-983.10.1093/molbev/msu049Search in Google Scholar

Tilley, C. (1994). A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths, and Monuments. Oxford: Berg.Search in Google Scholar

Tornberg, A. (2013). Diet, Health and Agriculture. The Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age Example of Abbekas, Southern Sweden. Lund Archaeological Review 19, 7-18.Search in Google Scholar

Tornberg, A. (2017). Diet toothache and burial diversity. Tracing social status through bioarchaeological methods in Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age Scania. Lund Archaeological Review 22, 21-36Search in Google Scholar

Tornberg, A. (2018). Stature and the Neolithic transition-Skeletal evidence from southern Sweden. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 17, 58-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.10.03110.1016/j.jasrep.2017.10.031Search in Google Scholar

Trotter, M. & Gleser, G. C. (1952). Estimation of stature from long bones of American Whites and Negroes. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 10, 463-514.10.1002/ajpa.1330100407Search in Google Scholar

Vandkilde, H. (1996). From stone to bronze: the metalwork of the late Neolithic and earliest Bronze Age in Denmark. Aarhus: Jutland Archaeological Society Publications xxxii.Search in Google Scholar

Wahlund, S. (1932). Demographic studies in the nomadic and the settled population of Northern Lapland (Doctoral dissertation). Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Search in Google Scholar

Waldron, T. (2009). Palaeopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Walker, P. L., Bathurst, R. R., Richman, R., Gjerdrum, T. & Andrushko, V. A. (2009). The causes of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia: A reappraisal of the iron‐deficiency‐anemia hypothesis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139, 109-125.10.1002/ajpa.21031Search in Google Scholar

Wapler, U., Crubezy, E. & Schultz, M. (2004). Is cribra orbitalia synonymous with anemia? Analysis and interpretation of cranial pathology in Sudan. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 123, 333-339.10.1002/ajpa.10321Search in Google Scholar

Warinner, C., Hendy, J., Speller, C., Cappellini, E., Fischer, R., Trachsel, C., J. Arneborg, Lynnerup, Ni, Craig, O. E., Swallow, D. M., Fotakis, A., Christensen, R. J., Olsen, J. V., Liebert, A., Montalva, N., Fiddyment, S., Charlton, S., Mackie, M., Canci, A., Bouwman, A., Rühli, F., Gilbert, M. T. P. & Collins, M. J. (2014). Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus. Scientific Reports 4.Search in Google Scholar

Weiler, E. (1977). Fornlämning 5, hällkista. Raä och SHM Rapport UV 1977:18. Stockholm.Search in Google Scholar

Weiler, E. (1994). Innovationsmiljöer i bronsålderns samhälle och idévärld: kring ny teknologi och begravningsritual i Västergötland (Doctoral dissertation). Department of Archaeology, Umea University.Search in Google Scholar

Weiss, K. M. & Wobst, M. H. (1973). Demographic models for anthropology. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, i-186.Search in Google Scholar

Welinder, S. (1998). The cultural construction of childhood in Scandinavia, 3500 BC-1350 AD. Current Swedish Archaeology 6, 185-204.10.37718/CSA.1998.14Search in Google Scholar

Wilhelmson, H. (2017a). Perspectives from a human-centred archaeology: Iron Age people and society on Öland Lund (Doctoral dissertation). Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Lund University.Search in Google Scholar

Wilhelmson, H. (2017b). Shifting diet, shifting culture? A bioarchaeological approach to island dietary development on Iron‐Age Öland, Baltic Sea. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 163(2), 264-284.10.1002/ajpa.23204Search in Google Scholar

Wilhelmson, H. & Ahlström, T. (2015). Iron Age migration on the island of Öland: Apportionment of strontium by means of Bayesian mixing analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 64, 30-45.10.1016/j.jas.2015.09.007Search in Google Scholar

Wilhelmson, H. & Price, D. (2017). Migration and integration on the Baltic island of Öland in the Iron Age. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 1, 183-196.Search in Google Scholar

Wood, J. W., Holman, D. J., O Connor, K. A. & Ferrell, R. J. (2002). Mortality models for paleodemography. In R. D. Hoppa. & J. W. Vaupel (Eds.), Paleodemography: age distributions from skeletal samples. Cambridge studies in biological and evolutionary anthropology (pp. 129-168). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Wood, J. W., Milner, G. R., Harpending, H. C., Weiss, K. M., Cohen, M. N., Eisenberg, L. E., Hutchinson, D. L., Jankauskas, R., Cesnys, G., Česnys, G., Katzenberg, A. M., Lukacs, J. R. , McGrath, J. W., Abella Roth, E., Ubelaker, D. H. & Wilkinson, R. G. (1992). The Osteological Paradox: Problems of Inferring Prehistoric Health from Skeletal Samples [and Comments and Reply]. Current Anthropology 33, 343-370.10.1086/204084Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-05-14
Accepted: 2018-01-01
Published Online: 2018-01-02

© 2018

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License.

Downloaded on 26.2.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/opar-2018-0001/html
Scroll to top button