Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access July 27, 2020

Rock Art and Trade Networks: From Scandinavia to the Italian Alps

Lene Melheim and Anette Sand-Eriksen
From the journal Open Archaeology

Abstract

This article uses rock art to explore potential bonds between Scandinavia and Italy, starting in the second half of the third millennium BCE with the enigmatic Mjeltehaugen burial monument in coastal western Norway and its striking rock art images, and ending in the first millennium BCE with ship motifs in inland Val Camonica, Italy. While the carved dagger on the Mjeltehaugen slab is unique in its Nordic setting, such weapon depictions are frequently seen on the Continent, e.g. in South Tyrol, and more often in later Nordic rock art. Strong evidence of trade relations between the Italian Alps and Scandinavia is found c. 1500–1100 BCE when the importation of copper from South Tyrol coincided with two-way transmission of luxury items, and again in a different form, c. 1000–700 BCE when strong similarities in burial traditions between the two areas may be seen as evidence of direct cultural connections or a shared cultural koiné. In order to understand the social fabric of these relations and how they unfolded through time, the authors discuss several different models of interaction. It is hypothesised that rock art practices played a role in establishing and maintaining durable social relations, through what we consider to be a two-way transmission of symbolic concepts and iconography during seasonal meetings related to trade and travel.

References

Addis, A., Angelini, I., Nimis, P., & Artioli, G. (2016). Late Bronze Age copper smelting slags from Luserna (Trentino, Italy): Interpretation of the metallurgical process. Archaeometry, 58(1), 96–114. https://doi.org/10.1111/arcm.1216010.1111/arcm.12160Search in Google Scholar

Almgren, O. (1927). Hällristningar och kultbruk. Bidrag till belysning av de nordiska bronsåldersristningarnas innebörd. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens handlingar, 35. Stockholm.Search in Google Scholar

Anati, E. (1976). Evolution and style in Camunian rock art. An inquiry into the formation of European civilization (Archivi, 6). Capo di Ponte: Edizioni del Centro.Search in Google Scholar

Anati, E. (2009). The Way of Life Recorded in the Rock Art of Valcamonica. Adoranten, 2008, 13–35.Search in Google Scholar

Angelini, I., & Bellintani, P. (2005). Archaeological ambers from Northern Italy: An FTIR-DRIFT study of provenance by comparison with the geological amber database. Archaeometry, 47(2), 441–454. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2005.00212.x10.1111/j.1475-4754.2005.00212.xSearch in Google Scholar

Angelini, I., & Bellintani, P. (2017). The use of different amber sources in Italy during the Bronze Age: new archaeometric data. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 9(4), 673–684. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-016-0452-710.1007/s12520-016-0452-7Search in Google Scholar

Angelini, I., Artioli, G., Pedrotti, A., & Tecchiati, U. (2013). La metallurgia dell’età del Rame dell’Italia settentrionale con particolare riferimento al Trentino e all’Alto Adige. Le risose minerarie e i processi di produzione del metallo. In R. C. De Marinis (Ed.), L’età del Rame. La Pianura Padana e le Alpi al tempo di Ötzi (pp. 101–116). Brescia: Massetti Rodella editori.Search in Google Scholar

Anthony, D. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Apel, J. (2001). Daggers, knowledge & power: the social aspects of flint-dagger technology in Scandinavia, 2350-1500 cal BC (Coast to Coast Books, 3). Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University.Search in Google Scholar

Arcà, A., & Fossati, A. (2006). Rupestrian Archaeology: a Methodological Approach to the rock engravings of Valcamonica. In L. Oosterbeek (Eds.), Europart II. Prehistoric Art Research and Management in Europe (pp. 510–558). Bari: Centro Universitario Europeo.Search in Google Scholar

Artioli, G., Angelini, I., Nimis, P., Addis, A., & Villa, I. M. (2014). Prehistoric copper metallurgy in the Italian Eastern Alps: recent results. Historical metallurgy 47(1), 51–59.Search in Google Scholar

Artioli, G., Angelini, I., Nimis, P., & Villa, I. M. (2016). A lead-isotope database of copper ores from the Southeastern Alps: A tool for the investigation of prehistoric copper metallurgy. Journal of Archaeological Science, 75, 27–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.09.00510.1016/j.jas.2016.09.005Search in Google Scholar

Artioli, G., Angelini, I., Kaufmann, G., Canovaro, C., Dal Sasso, G., & Villa, I. M. (2017). Correction: Long-distance connections in the Copper Age: New evidence from the Alpine Iceman’s copper axe. PLoS One, 12(12), e0189561. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.018956110.1371/journal.pone.0189561Search in Google Scholar

Bartelheim, M., & Pearce, M. (2015). Early metallurgy in Iberia and the western Mediterranean. In J. Harding, C. Fowler, & D. Hofman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Neolithic Europe. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199545841.001.000110.1093/oxfordhb/9780199545841.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.Search in Google Scholar

Bauslaugh, R. (1991). The Concept of Neutrality in Classical Greece. Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press.10.1525/9780520909335Search in Google Scholar

Bergerbrant, S. (2019). Revisiting the «Egtvedt girl». In R. Berge & M. Moe Henriksen (Eds.), Arkeologi og kulturhistorie fra norskekysten til Østersjøen. Festskrift til professor Birgitta Berglund (pp. 18–39). Trondheim: Museumsforlaget.Search in Google Scholar

Bianchi, N. (2010). Mount Bego prehistoric rock carvings. Adoranten, 2010, 70–80.Search in Google Scholar

Canovaro, C., Angelini, I., Artioli, G., Nimis, P., & Elisabetta, B. (2019). Metal flow in the late Bronze Age across the Friuli-Venezia Giulia plain (Italy): new insights on Cervignano and Muscoli hoards by chemical and isotopic investigations. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 11(9), 4829–4846. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-019-00827-210.1007/s12520-019-00827-2Search in Google Scholar

Casini, S. (2015). The Valtellina and Valcamonica Statue-menhirs: their Characters, Chronology and Contexts. In S. Hansen & V. I. Molodin (Eds.), The Bronze Age Art Proceedings of International Symposium, April 15–19, 2013, Stralsund, Germany (pp. 94–114). Novosibirsk Berlin.Search in Google Scholar

Cierny, J. (2008). Prähistorische Kupferproduktion in den Südlichen Alpen, Region Trentino Orientale. Der Anschnitt Beiheft 22. Bochum: Deutches Bergbau-museum.Search in Google Scholar

Coles, J. (2005). Shadows of a Northern Past. Rock Carvings of Bohuslän and Østfold. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Search in Google Scholar

Conkey, M. W., Beltrán, A., Clark, G. A., Echegaray, J. G., Guenther, M. G., Hahn, J., . . . Valoch, K. (1980). The Identification of Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Aggregation Sites: The Case of Altamira. Current Anthropology, 21(5), 609–630. https://doi.org/10.1086/20254010.1086/202540Search in Google Scholar

De Navarro, J. M. (1925). Prehistoric Routes between Northern Europe and Italy Defined by the Amber Trade. The Geographical Journal, 66(6), 481–503. https://doi.org/10.2307/178300310.2307/1783003Search in Google Scholar

De Saulieu, G. (2013). Rock carvings and Alpine statue-menhirs, from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Bronze Age: reflections on social process. In A. Harding & H. Fokkens (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age (pp. 291–310). Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199572861.013.0016Search in Google Scholar

Dodd, J. (2011). Rock Art: Earth, Sky and Water - A landscape study in Western Norway, Unpublished Master’s Thesis. University of Durham: Department of Archaeology.Search in Google Scholar

Dolfini, A., Angelini, I., & Artioli, G. (2020). Copper to Tuscany - Coals to Newcastle? The dynamics of metalwork exchange in early Italy. PLoS One, 15(1), e0227259. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.022725910.1371/journal.pone.0227259Search in Google Scholar

Earle, T., Ling, J., Uhnér, C., Stos-Gale, Z., & Melheim, L. (2015). The political economy and metal trade in Bronze Age Europe: Understanding regional variability in terms of comparative advantages and articulations. European Journal of Archaeology, 18(4), 633–657. https://doi.org/10.1179/1461957115Y.000000000810.1179/1461957115Y.0000000008Search in Google Scholar

Engedal, Ø. (2010). The Bronze Age of Northwestern Scandinavia. Dr. Philos. Thesis dissertation. Bergen: University of Bergen.Search in Google Scholar

Finley, M. I. (1977). The World of Odysseus (2nd ed.). London: Book Club Associate.Search in Google Scholar

Fossati, A. E. (2007). The rock art tradition of Valcamonica – Valtellina, Northern Italy: A World Heritage View. Landscape Enquiries. The proceedings of The Clifton Antiquarian Club, 8, 139–155.Search in Google Scholar

Fossati, A. E. (2015a). The Rock Art Tradition of Valcamonica – Valtellina during the Neolithic Period. In C. Fowler, J. Harding, & D. Hoffmann (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe (pp. 857–870). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Fossati, A. E. (2015b). The motifs of the boat in Valcamonica rock art: Problems of chronology and interpretation. In H. Stebegløkken, R. Berg, E. Lindgaard, & H. Vangen Stuedal (Eds.), Ritual Landscapes and Borders Within Rock Art Research: Papers in Honour of Professor Kalle Sognnes (pp. 119–139). Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Fredell, Å. (2003). Bildbroar. Figurativ bildkommunikation av ideologi och kosmologi under sydskandinavisk bronsålder och förromersk järnålder. Gothenburg: Gothenburg University.Search in Google Scholar

Fredell, Å., & Garcia Quintela, M. V. (2010). Bodily attributes and semantic expressions. Knees in rock art and Indo-European symbolism. In Å. C. Fredell, K. Kristiansen, & F. Criado Boado (Eds.), Representations and communications. Creating an archaeological matrix of late prehistoric rock art (pp. 75–92). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Search in Google Scholar

Frei, K. M., Mannering, U., Kristiansen, K., Allentoft, M. E., Wilson, A. S., Skals, I., . . . Frei, R. (2015). Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female. Scientific Reports, 5(1), 10431. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep1043110.1038/srep10431Search in Google Scholar

Frei, R., Frei, K. M., & Jessen, S. (2020). Shallow retardation of the strontium isotope signal of agricultural liming - implications for isoscapes used in provenance studies. The Science of the Total Environment, 706(706), 135710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.13571010.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135710Search in Google Scholar

Frieman, C. (2010). Imitation, identity and communication: The presence and problems of skeuomorphs in the Metal Ages. In B. V. Eriksen (Ed.), Lithic Technology in Metal Using Societies: Proceedings of a UISPP Workshop, Lisbon, September 2006 (pp. 33–44). Aarhus: Jutland Archaeological Society.Search in Google Scholar

Fuglestvedt, I. (2018). Rock Art and the Wild Mind. Visual Imagery in Mesolithic Northern Europe. London, New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/978131510858210.4324/9781315108582Search in Google Scholar

Goldhahn, J. (2002). Hällarnas dån - ett audiovisuellt perspektiv på kustbunden hällkonst i norra Sverige. In J. Goldhahn (Ed.), Bilder av bronsålder : ett seminarium om förhistorisk kommunikation : rapport från ett seminarium på Vitlycke museum 19.e–22.e oktober 2000 (Acta Archaeologica Lundensia. Series in 8°; Vol. 37, pp. 53–90). Almqvist & Wiksell International.Search in Google Scholar

Goldhahn, J., & Ling, J. (2013). Bronze Age Rock Art in Northern Europe: Contexts and interpretations. In A. Harding & H. Fokkens (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age (pp. 270–290). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Hall, T. D., Kardulias, N., & Chase-Dunn, C. (2011). World-systems analysis and archaeology: Continuing the dialogue. Journal of Archaeological Research, 19(3), 233–279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10814-010-9047-510.1007/s10814-010-9047-5Search in Google Scholar

Harrison, R. (2004). Symbols and Warriors: Images of the European Bronze Age. Bristol: WASP.Search in Google Scholar

Harrison, R., & Heyd, V. (2007). The Transformation of Europe in the Third Millennium BC: The example of ‘Le Petit-Chasseur I + III’ (Sion, Valais, Switzerland). Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 82(2), 129–214. https://doi.org/10.1515/PZ.2007.01010.1515/PZ.2007.010Search in Google Scholar

Herman, G. (2002). Ritualized Friendship and the Greek City. Cambridge.Search in Google Scholar

Horn, C., & Potter, R. (2018). Transforming the Rocks – Time and Rock Art in Bohuslän, Sweden. European Journal of Archaeology, 21(3), 361–384. https://doi.org/10.1017/eaa.2017.3810.1017/eaa.2017.38Search in Google Scholar

Hyde, W. W. (1935). Roman Alpine Routes. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 2, xvi + 248. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.Search in Google Scholar

Jacobson-Tepfer, E. (2012). The Image of the Wheeled Vehicle in the Mongolian Altai: Instability and Ambiguity. The Silk Road, 10, 1–28.Search in Google Scholar

Johannsen, N. N. (2014). Deus Ex Machina: Technological Experience as a Cognitive Resource in Bronze Age Conceptualizations of Astronomical Phenomena. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 14(5), 435–448. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685373-1234213610.1163/15685373-12342136Search in Google Scholar

Jung, R., & Mehofer, M. (2013). Mycenaean Greece and Bronze Age Italy: Cooperation, trade or war? Archäeologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 43(2), 175–193.Search in Google Scholar

Kaul, F. (1998). Ships on Bronzes. A study in Bronze Age religion and iconography. Publications from the National Museum, Studies in archaeology & history 3,2 . Copenhagen: National Museum.Search in Google Scholar

Kaul, F. (2018). Gennem europæiske landskaber. Bronzealderens vidtstrakte forbindelser – og hvordan var de mulige? In S. Boddum, & N. Terkildsen (Eds.), Status og samfundsstruktur i yngre bronzealders lokale kulturlandskab. Rapport fra seminaret “Status og samfundsstruktur i yngre bronzealders lokale kulturlandskab”afholdt i Viborg, marts 2016 (Yngre bronzealders Kulturlandskap, 6, pp. 9–35). Viborg, Holsterbro: Viborg Museum & Holstebro Museum.Search in Google Scholar

Kilger, C. (2008). Wholeness and holiness: counting, weighing and valuing silver at Kaupang in the early Viking period. In D. Skre (Eds.), Means of Exchange: dealing with silver in the Viking Age (pp. 253–325). Århus: Aarhus University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Klassen, L. (2004). Jade und Kupfer. Untersuchungen zum Neolithisierungsprozess im westlichen Ostseeraum unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kulturenentwicklung Europas 5500-3500 BC (Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter, 47). Århus: Aarhus universitetsforlag.Search in Google Scholar

Kneisel, J. (2012). Antropomorphe Gefäβe in Nord- und Mitteleuropa während der Bronze- und Eisenzeit. Studien zu den Gesichtsurnen – Kontaktzonen, Chronologie und sozialer Kontext (Studien zur Archäologie in Ostmitteleuropa, 7). Bonn: Habelt.Search in Google Scholar

Kneisel, J. (2016). Spreading Ideas: Late Bronze Age Face-urn Burials across Northern Europe and the Baltic Sea. In L. Melheim, Z. T. Glørstad, & H. Glørstad (Eds.), Comparative Perspectives on Past Colonisation, Maritime Interaction and Cultural Integration (pp. 219–233). New Directions in Anthropological Archaeology. Sheffield: Equinox Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Koch, J. (2013). Out of the Flow and Ebb of the European Bronze Age: Heroes, Tartessos, and Celtic. In J. T. Koch & B. Cunliffe (Eds.), Celtic from the west 2. Rethinking the Bronze Age and the arrival of Indo-European in Atlantic Europe (pp. 110146). Oxford/Oakville: Oxbow Books.Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, K. (1998). Europe before History. New Studies in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, K. (2012). Bronze Age Dialectics: Ritual Economies and the Consolidation of Social Divisions. In T. L. Kienlin & A. Zimmermann (Eds.), Beyond Elites. Alternatives to Hierarchical Systems in Modelling Social Formations. Akten der internationalen Konferenz vom 22.–24. Oktober in Bochum. Bonn: Verlag Rudof Habelt.Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, K. (2013). Rock Art and Religion. The sun journey in Indo-European mythology and Bronze Age rock art. Adoranten, 2012, 69–86.Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, K. (2016). Interpreting Bronze Age Trade and Migration. In E. Kiriatzi & C. Knappett (Eds.), Human Mobility and Technological Transfer in the Prehistoric Mediterranean (pp. 154–180). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316536063.01110.1017/9781316536063.011Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, K., & Larsson, T. B. (2005). The Rise of Bronze Age Societies: travels, transmissions and transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, K., & Suchowska-Ducke, P. (2015). Connected Histories: the Dynamics of Bronze Age Interaction and Trade 1500–1100 BC. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 81, 361–392. https://doi.org/10.1017/ppr.2015.1710.1017/ppr.2015.17Search in Google Scholar

Kvalø, F. (2007). Oversjøiske reiser fra sørvest-norge til nordvest-jylland i eldre bronsealder - en drøfting av maritim realisering og rituell mobilisering. In L. Hedeager (Eds.) Sjøreiser og stedsidentitet. Jæren/Lista i bronsealder og eldre jernalder (Oslo Archaeological Series, 8, pp. 11–134). Oslo: Unipub.Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J. (2005). The Fluidity of Rock art. In J. Goldhahn (Eds.), Mellan sten och järn. Rapport från det 9:e nordiska bronsålderssymposiet (Gotarc Serie C. Arkeologiska Skrifter, 59, pp. 437–460). Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J. (2008). Elevated Rock Art: Towards a Maritime Understanding if Rock Art in Northern Bohuslän, Sweden (Gotarc Series B. Gothenburg Archaeological Theses, 49). Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J. (2012). War Canoes or Social Units? Human Representation in Rock-Art Ships. European Journal of Archaeology, 15(3), 465–485. https://doi.org/10.1179/1461957112Y.000000001310.1179/1461957112Y.0000000013Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J., Earle, T., & Kristiansen, K. (2018). Maritime Mode of Production: Raiding and Trading in Seafaring Chiefdoms. Current Anthropology, 59(5), 488–524. https://doi.org/10.1086/69961310.1086/699613Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J., Hjärthner-Holdar, E., Grandin, L., Billström, K., & Persson, P.-O. (2013). Moving metals or indigenous mining? Provenancing Scandinavian Bronze Age artefacts by lead isotopes and trace elements. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(1), 291–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2012.05.04010.1016/j.jas.2012.05.040Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J., Hjärthner-Holdar, E., Grandin, L., Stos-Gale, Z. A., Kristiansen, K., Melheim, A. L., . . . Canovaro, C. (2019). Moving metals IV: Swords, metal sources and trade networks in Bronze Age Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 26, 101837. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2019.05.00210.1016/j.jasrep.2019.05.002Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J., Stos-Gale, Z., Grandin, L., Billström, K., Hjärthner-Holdar, E., & Persson, P.-O. (2014). Moving metals II: provenancing Scandinavian Bronze Age artefacts by lead isotope and elemental analyses. Journal of Archaeological Science, 41(1), 106–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.07.01810.1016/j.jas.2013.07.018Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J., & Stos-Gale, Z. (2015). Representations of oxhide ingots in Scandinavian rock art: the sketchbook of a Bronze Age traveller? Antiquity, 89(343), 191–209. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2014.110.15184/aqy.2014.1Search in Google Scholar

Ling, J., & Uhnér, C. (2015). Rock art and metaltrade. Adoranten, 2014, 23–43.Search in Google Scholar

Linge, T. E. (2006). Båtar på berg utmed havet – Om to ristningslokalitetar på kysten av Sogn og Fjordane. In R. Barndon, S. M. Innselset, K. Kristoffersen, & T. K. Lødøen (Eds.), Samfunn, symboler og identitet. – Festskrift til Gro Mandt på 70-årsdagen. UBAS Nordisk (Vol. 3, pp. 539–550). Bergen: University of Bergen.Search in Google Scholar

Linge, T. E. (2007). Mjeltehaugen – fragment frå gravritual. UBAS Hovedfag/Master, 3. Bergen: University of Bergen.Search in Google Scholar

Lomborg, E. (1973). Die flintdolche Dänemarks. Studien iber Chronlogie under Kulturbeziehungen des südskandinavischen Späneolithikums (Nordiske Fortidsminders, Serie B – in quatro, Bind 1). Copenhagen: Nordiske Oldtidsselskabet.Search in Google Scholar

Lorange, A. (1879). Indberetning om arkeologiske Undersøgelser i 1878. Mjeltehaugen på Giske. Aarsberetning for Foreningen til norske Fortidsmindesmærkers Bevaring, 35.Search in Google Scholar

Lødøen, T., & Mandt, G. (2009). The Rock Art of Norway. Windgather Press/Oxbow Books.Search in Google Scholar

Marretta, A. (2015). Trading images: exchange, transformation and identity in Valcamonica rock-art between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. In J. Ling, P. Skoglund & U. Bertilsson (Eds.), Picturing the Bronze Age. Swedish Rock Art Research Series, 3 (pp. 105–119). Oxford: Oxbow books.Search in Google Scholar

Malmer, M. P. (1981). A chronological study of North European rock art. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Antikvariska Serien 32.Search in Google Scholar

Mandt, G. (1991). Vestnorske ristninger i tid og rom. Unpublished Dr. Philos. Thesis. Bergen: University of Bergen.Search in Google Scholar

Mandt, G., & Lødøen, T. (2005). Bergkunst. Helleristningar i Noreg. Samlaget.Search in Google Scholar

Mehofer, M., & Jung, R. (2017). Weapons and Metals – Interregional Contacts between Italy and the Eastern Mediterranean during the Late Bronze Age. In P. Fischer & T. Bürge (Eds.), “Sea Peoples” Up-to-Date: New Research on Transformations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 13th-11th centuries BCE (Denkschrift der Gesamtakademie, Ed. 1, pp. 389–400). Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1v2xvsn.2510.2307/j.ctt1v2xvsn.25Search in Google Scholar

Melheim, L. (2013). An epos carved in stone: three heroes, one giant, and a cosmic task. In S. Bergerbrant & S. Sabatini (Eds.), BAR International Series: Vol. 2508. Counterpoint: Essays in Archaeology and Heritage Studies in Honour of Professor Kristian Kristiansen (pp. 273–282). Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Melheim, L. (2015). Recycling Ideas. Bronze Age Metal Production in Southern Norway (BAR International Series: Vol. 2715). Oxford: Archaeopress. https://doi.org/10.30861/978140731368910.30861/9781407313689Search in Google Scholar

Melheim, L., & Prescott, C. (2016). Exploring New Territories – Expanding Frontiers: Bowmen and Prospectors on the Scandinavia Peninsula in the 3rd–2nd Millennia BC, In A. L. Melheim, H. Glørstad & A. Z. Tsigaridas Glørstad (Eds.), Comparative Perspectives on Past Colonisation, Maritime Interaction and Cultural Integration (pp.189–217). Sheffield: Equinox Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Melheim, L., & Ling, J. (2017). Taking the stranger on board: The two maritime legacies of Bronze Age rock art. In P. Skoglund, J. Ling, & U. Bertilsson (Eds.), North Meets South – Theoretical aspects on the northern and southern rock art traditions in Scandinavia (Rock Art Series, Vol. 6, pp. 59–86). Oxford: Oxbow Books. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dpgg.710.2307/j.ctvh1dpgg.7Search in Google Scholar

Melheim, L. (2018). Weight units and the transformation of value: approaching premonetary currency systems in the Nordic Bronze Age. In D. Brandherm, E. Heymans, & D. Hofmann (Eds.), Gifts, Goods and Money: Comparing currency and circulation systems in past societies (pp. 67–83). Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Melheim, L., Grandin, L., Persson, P.-O., Billström, K., Stos-Gale, Z., Ling, J., . . . Kristiansen, K. (2018a). Moving metals III: Possible origins for copper in Bronze Age Denmark based on lead isotopes and geochemistry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 96, 85–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.04.00310.1016/j.jas.2018.04.003Search in Google Scholar

Melheim, L., Ling, J., Stos-Gale, S.A., Hjärthner-Holdar, E. & Grandin, L. (2018b). The role of pre-Norsemen in trade and exchange of commodities in Bronze Age Europe. In X.-L. Armada, M. Murillo-Barroso, & Charlton, M. (Eds.), Metals, Minds and Mobility. Integrating scientific data with archaeological theory (pp. 135–146). Oxford, Philadelphia: Oxbow books.10.2307/j.ctv13nb91x.13Search in Google Scholar

Montelius, O. (1917). Minnen Från Vår Forntid. Ordnade Och Beskrifna Af Oscar Montelius. Stockholm: Norstedt.Search in Google Scholar

Møllerop, O. (1963). Fra Rogalands eldre bronsealder. Særtrykk Stavanger museums årbok 1962, 5–58. Stavanger.Search in Google Scholar

Needham, S. (2009). Encompassing the sea “Maritories” and Bronze Age maritime interactions. In P. Clark (Eds.), Bronze Age Connections Cultural Contact in Prehistoric Europe (pp. 12–37). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Search in Google Scholar

Nordenborg Myhre, L. (2004). Trialectic archaeology: Monuments and space in southwestern Norway 1700-500 BC. Stavanger: Museum of Archaeology, Stavanger.Search in Google Scholar

Nørgaard, H. W., Pernicka, E., & Vandkilde, H. (2019). On the trail of Scandinavia’s early metallurgy: Provenance, transfer and mixing. PLoS One, 14(7), e0219574. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.021957410.1371/journal.pone.0219574Search in Google Scholar

O’Brien, W. (2015). Bronze Age Copper Mining in Europe. In C. Fowler, J. Harding, & D. Hoffmann (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Neolithic Europe (pp. 437–453). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Oka, R., & Kusimba, C. M. (2008). The archaeology of trading systems, part 1: Towards a new trade synthesis. Journal of Archaeological Research, 16(4), 339–395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10814-008-9023-510.1007/s10814-008-9023-5Search in Google Scholar

Piggott, S. (1983). The Earliest Wheeled Transport from the Atlantic Coast to the Caspian Sea. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Prescott, C. (1991). Kulturhistoriske undersøkelser i Skrivarhelleren. Med et bidrag av Eli-Christine Soltvedt. Arkeologiske rapporter 14, Historisk museum. Universitet i Bergen.Search in Google Scholar

Prescott, C., & Walderhaug, E. (1995). The Last Frontier? Processes of Indo-Europeanization in Northern Europe. The Norwegian Case. The Journal of Indo-European Studies 23, 257–280.Search in Google Scholar

Prescott, C., Sand-Eriksen, A., & Austvoll, K. I. (2018). The Sea and Bronze Age Transformations. In E. Holt (Eds.), Water and Power in Past Societies (pp. 177–198). Albany, New York: SUNY Press.Search in Google Scholar

Prieto-Martinez, P. (2012). Perceiving changes in the third millennium BC in Europe through pottery: Galicia, Brittany and Denmark as examples. In C. Prescott & H. Glørstad (Eds.), Becoming European. The transformation of third millennium Northern and Western Europe (pp. 30–47). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Search in Google Scholar

Radivojević, M., Roberts, B. W., Pernicka, E., Stos-Gale, Z., Martinón-Torres, M., Rehren, Th., Brandher, M., Ling, J. Mei, J., Vandkilde, H., Kristiansen, K., Shennan, S. & Broodbank, C. J. (2019). The Provenance, Use, and Circulation of Metals in the European Bronze Age: The State of Debate. Journal of Archaeological Research, 27, 131–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10814-018-9123-910.1007/s10814-018-9123-9Search in Google Scholar

Reiter, S. S., Frei, K. M., Nørgaard, H. W., & Kaul, F. (2019). The Ølby Woman: A Comprehensive Provenance Investigation of an Elite Nordic Bronze Age Oak-Coffin Burial. Danish Journal of Archaeology; https://doi.org/10.7146/dja.v8i0.11499510.7146/dja.v8i0.114995Search in Google Scholar

Renfrew, C. (1975). Trade as action at a distance: questions of integration and communication. In J. A. Sabloff & C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky (Eds.), Ancient Civilization and Trade (pp. 3–60). A School of American Research Book. Albuquerque: University of Mexico Press.Search in Google Scholar

Sabatini, S. (2007). House urns. A European Late Bronze Age. Trans-cultural Phenomenon (Gotarc Series B. Gothenburg Archaeological Theses, 47) Gothenburg: Gothenburg University.Search in Google Scholar

Sabatini, S. (2016). Late Bronze Age oxhide and oxhide-like ingots from areas other than the Mediterranean: Problems and challenges. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 35(1), 29–45. https://doi.org/10.1111/ojoa.1207710.1111/ojoa.12077Search in Google Scholar

Sand-Eriksen, A. (2015). Mjeltehaughellene – et klokkebegeruttrykk? Stil som uttrykk for sosial identitet. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo.Search in Google Scholar

Sand-Eriksen, A. (2017). Mjeltehaugen: Europe’s northernmost Bell Beaker expression? In S. Bergerbrant & A. Wessman (Eds.), New Perspectives on the Bronze Age. Proceesings of the 13th Nordic Bronze Age Symposium held in Gothenburg 9th to 13th June 2015 (pp. 7–18). Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Sansoni, U. (2015). The Alpine and Scandinavian Rock Art in the Bronze Age: a Common Cultural Matrix in a Web of Continental Influences. In J. Ling, P. Skoglund & U. Bertilsson (Eds.), Picturing the Bronze Age (Swedish Rock Art Research Series, 3, pp. 129–141). Oxford: Oxbow books.Search in Google Scholar

Sherratt, A., & Sherratt, S. (1991). From luxuries to commodities: the nature of Mediterranean Bronze Age trading systems. In N. H. Gale (Eds.), Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology). Göteborg: P. Åströms Förlag.Search in Google Scholar

Sherratt, A. G. (1993). What would a Bronze Age world system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in later prehistory. Journal of European Archaeology, 1(2), 1–57. https://doi.org/10.1179/09657669380071929310.1179/096576693800719293Search in Google Scholar

Skre, D. (2011). Commodity money, silver and coinage in Viking-Age Scandinavia. In J. Graham-Campbell, S. M. Sindbæk, & G. Williams (Eds.), Silver Economies, Monetization and Society in Scandinavia, AD 800–1100 (pp. 67–91). Århus: Aarhus University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Sognnes, K. (2002). Bilde, landskap og ritar i midt-norsk stein- og bronsealder. In J. Goldhahn (Eds.), Bilder av bronsålder: ett seminarium om förhistorisk kommunikation: rapport från ett seminarium på Vitlycke Museum 19.e-22.e oktober 2000 (pp. 1–22). Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.Search in Google Scholar

Syvertsen, K. I. J. (2003). Ristninger i graver – graver med ristninger. Om ristningers mening i gravminnet og gravritualer. En analyse av materiale fra Rogaland. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Stavanger: Univerisity of Bergen.Search in Google Scholar

Thomsen, E., & Andreasen, R. (2019). Agricultural lime disturbs natural strontium isotope variations: Implications for provenance and migration studies. Science Advances, 5(3), eaav8083. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav808310.1126/sciadv.aav8083Search in Google Scholar

Vandkilde, H. (1996). From Stone to Bronze. The Metalwork of the Late Neolithic and Earliest Bronze Age in Denmark. Aarhus: Archaeological Society Publications XXXII.Search in Google Scholar

Vandkilde, H. (2014). Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural Warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the sixteenth century BCE. European Journal of Archaeology, 17(4), 602–633. https://doi.org/10.1179/1461957114Y.000000006410.1179/1461957114Y.0000000064Search in Google Scholar

Vandkilde, H. (2017). The Metal Hoard from Pile in Scania, Sweden. Place, Things, Time, Metals, and Worlds Around 2000 BCE. Denmark: Aarhus University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv62hgr510.2307/j.ctv62hgr5Search in Google Scholar

Vogt, D. (2012). Østfolds helleristninger. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Search in Google Scholar

Wendelboe, H. H. (in prep.). Keramikk fra norske bronsealdergraver. En studie av morfologi, kronologi, forbindelser og deponeringspraksiser i tidsrommet 1700-500 f.Kr. Dr. Philos. Thesis dissertation. Bergen: Bergen University.Search in Google Scholar

Wengrow, D. (2011). ‘Archival’ and ‘sacrificial’ economies in Bronze Age Eurasia: an interactionist approach to the hoarding of metals. In T. C. Wilkinson, S. Sherratt, & J. Bennet (Eds.), Interweaving Worlds: Systemic Interactions in Eurasia, 7th to the 1st Millennia BC (pp. 135–144). Oxford; Oakville: Oxbow Books. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvh1dr2k.1510.2307/j.ctvh1dr2k.15Search in Google Scholar

Wickler, S. (2019). Early Boats in Scandinavia: New Evidence from Early Iron Age Bog Finds in Arctic Norway. Journal of Maritime Archaeology, 14(2), 183–204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11457-019-09232-110.1007/s11457-019-09232-1Search in Google Scholar

Wilkinson, T. C., Sherratt, S., & Bennet, J. (2011). (Eds.). Interweaving Worlds: Systemic Interactions in Eurasia, 7th to the 1st Millennia BC. Oxford; Oakville: Oxbow Books. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctvh1dr2kSearch in Google Scholar

Wrigglesworth, M. (2011). Finding your place: Rock art and local identity in West Norway. A study of Bronze Age rock art in Hardanger and Sunnhordaland. Dr. Philos. Thesis dissertation. Bergen: Bergen University.Search in Google Scholar

Wrigglesworth, M. (2015). Between land and water: the ship in Bronze Age West Norway. In H. Stebegløkken, R. Berg, E. Lindgaard & H. Vangen Stuedal (Eds.), Ritual Landscapes and Borders Within Rock Art Research: Papers in Honour of Professor Kalle Sognnes (pp. 111–118). Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Østmo, E. (1990). Helleristninger av sørskandinaviske former på det indre Østlandet. Universitetets Oldsaksamlings Skrifter. Ny rekke 12. Oslo.Search in Google Scholar

Østmo, E. (2005). Over Skagerak i steinalderen. Noen refleksjoner om oppfinnelsen av havgående fartøyer i Norden. Viking, LXVIII, 55–82.Search in Google Scholar

Østmo, E. (2012). Late Neolithic Expansion to Norway. The beginning of a 4000 year-oldshipbuilding tradition. In C. Prescott & H. Glørstad (Eds.), Becoming European. The transformation of third millennium Northern and Western Europe (pp. 63–69). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-12-27
Accepted: 2020-02-28
Published Online: 2020-07-27

© 2020 Lene Melheim et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Scroll Up Arrow