Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access May 4, 2020

Digital Humanities and Ritual Space: A Reappraisal

Giorgos Papantoniou, Apostolos Sarris, Christine E. Morris and Athanasios K. Vionis
From the journal Open Archaeology

Abstract

In this editorial article for the Special Issue on Unlocking Sacred Landscapes: Digital Humanities and Ritual Space, we introduce the applicability of digital humanities to the study of ritual space. The Issue focuses on digital approaches both to ritual space and to artefacts relating to ritual practice and cult. The terms ritual and cult are used broadly to include sanctuaries, temples and churches, as well as the domestic and funerary spheres of life. We include contributions with a strong methodological focus on computational developments, digitisation processes and spatial analyses. Although the main focus of the Unlocking Sacred Landscapes (UnSaLa) Research Network is the Mediterranean region, we have also encouraged colleagues working in other areas of the world to contribute to this volume, with a view to stimulating wider methodological dialogues and comparative approaches. The chronological span ranges from prehistory to the recent past, and includes cultural heritage management.

References

Berry, D. M. (Ed.). (2012). Understanding Digital Humanities. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1057/978023037193410.1057/9780230371934Search in Google Scholar

Charitopoulos, E., Papadakis, M., Kosmidis, I., Sarris, A., ---amp--- Trompoukis, K. (2009). Fevers Research in Crete. Drawing Evidence From Cretan Tradition of Saint John (Aghios Ioannis) Rigologos, Poster presented at the 5th Meeting of the International Society for the History of Medicine, Nicosia, Cyprus.Search in Google Scholar

Edmond, J. (Ed.). (2020). Digital Technology and the Practice of Humanities Research. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers. Doi: 10.11647/obp.019210.11647/obp.0192Search in Google Scholar

Flanders, J. ---amp--- Jannidis, F. (Eds.). (2019). The Shape of Data in the Digital Humanities: Modeling Texts and Text-based Resources. London, New York: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Gieseking, J. J. (2018). Where Are We? The Method of Mapping with GIS in Digital Humanties. American Quarterly, 70(3), 641–648. Doi: 10.1353/aq.2018.004710.1353/aq.2018.0047Search in Google Scholar

Iafrate, F. (2015). From Big Data to Smart Data. ISTE Ltd: London and John Wiley ---amp--- Sons Inc: Hoboken NJ. Doi: 10.1002/978111911618910.1002/9781119116189Search in Google Scholar

Johannsson, H., Felicori, M., Borgatti, C., Caraceni, S., Garutti, L., Vysniauskiene, A., Baliulyte, I., Zabiela, S., Sarris, A., ---amp--- Peraki, E. (2007). E-Mem: An Interactive Graveyard Information Management Tool ---amp--- Virtual Memoriam Database, In A. Figueiredo ---amp--- G. Velho (Eds.), Proceedings of the XXXIII Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Conference (March 2005, Tomar, Portugal): The World in Your Eyes (pp. 145–150). Tomar: Associacao para o Desenvolvimento das Aplicacoes Informaticas e Novas Technologias em Arqueologia.Search in Google Scholar

Keen, A. (2018). How to Fix the Future: Staying Human in the Digital Age. London: Atlantic Books.Search in Google Scholar

Kenderdine, S. (2016). Embodiment, Entanglement, and Immersion in Digital Cultural Heritage. In S. Schreibman, R. Siemens, ---amp--- J. Unsworth (Eds.), A New Companion to Digital Humanities (pp. 22–41). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Kyriakou, N. (2019). The Sacred Landscapes of Cyprus in Late Antiquity: Cityscapes and Peripheries in Context. In G. Papantoniou, C. E Morris, ---amp--- A. K. Vionis (Eds.), Unlocking Sacred Landscapes: Spatial Analysis of Ritual and Cult in the Mediterranean. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 151 (pp. 47–66). Nicosia: Astrom Editions.Search in Google Scholar

Lake, M. (2007). Viewing space. World Archaeology, 39(1), 1–3. Doi: 10.1080/0043824060114873110.1080/00438240601148731Search in Google Scholar

Le Deuff, O. (2018). Digital Humanities: History and Development. Intellectual Technologies Set 4. London: Wiley. Doi: 10.1002/978111930819510.1002/9781119308195Search in Google Scholar

Levenberg, L., Neilson, T., ---amp--- Rheams, D. (Eds.). (2018). Research Methods for the Digital Humanities. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-96713-410.1007/978-3-319-96713-4Search in Google Scholar

Megarry, W. (2011). Pastoralism and Peak? A GIS Study into the Origins of Minoan Peak Sanctuaries in Eastern Crete. In E. Jerem, F. Redő ---amp--- V. Szeverényi (Eds.), On the Road to Reconstructing the Past. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA). Proceedings of the 36th International Conference. Budapest, April 2-6, 2008 (pp. 415–422). Archeaeolingua, Budapest.Search in Google Scholar

Megarry, W. (2012). Experiencing the Mountain in Minoan Crete: Exploring the Evolution of a Bronze Age Sacred Landscape using GIS. Unpublished PhD thesis, University College Dublin.Search in Google Scholar

Morris, C. E., Peatfield, A., ---amp--- O’Neill, B. (2018). ‘Figures in 3D’: Digital Perspectives on Cretan Bronze Age Figurines. In B. Molloy (Ed.), Topical Issue on Exploring Advances in the Use of 3D Models of Objects in Archaeological Research, Open Archaeology 4(1), 50–61. Doi: 10.1515/opar-2018-000310.1515/opar-2018-0003Search in Google Scholar

Morris, C., O’Neill, B., ---amp--- Peatfield, A. (2019). Thinking through our hands: Making and understanding Minoan female anthropomorphic figurines from the peak sanctuary of Prinias, Crete. In Souyoudzoglou-Haywood C. ---amp--- O’Sullivan A. (Eds.), Experimental Archaeology: Making, Understanding, Story-telling (pp. 53-62). Summertown, Oxford: Archaeopress. Doi:10.2307/j.ctvpmw4g8.1010.2307/j.ctvpmw4g8.10Search in Google Scholar

Nakoinz, O. ---amp--- Knitter, D. (2016). Modelling Human Behaviour in Landscapes: Basic Concepts and Modelling Elements. Basel: Springer-Verlag. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-29538-110.1007/978-3-319-29538-1Search in Google Scholar

Neilson, T., Levenberg, L., ---amp--- Rheams, D. (2018). Introduction: Research Methods for the Digital Humanities. In L. Levenberg, T. Neilson, ---amp--- D. Rheams (Eds.), Research Methods for the Digital Humanities (pp. 1–14). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-96713-4_110.1007/978-3-319-96713-4_1Search in Google Scholar

Nyhan, J., Terras, M., ---amp--- Vanhoutte, E. (2013). Introduction. In M. Terras, J. Nyhan, ---amp--- E. Vanhoutte (Eds.), Defining Digital Humanities: A Reader (pp. 1–10). Surrey: Ashgate.Search in Google Scholar

Paliou, E. ---amp--- Knight, D. J. (2013). Mapping the senses: perceptual and social aspects of Late Antique liturgy in San Vitale, Ravenna. In F. Contreras, M. Farjas, ---amp--- F. J. Melero (Eds.), CAA2010: Fusion of Cultures. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. BAR International Series 2494 (pp. 229–236). Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Paliou, E., Lieberwirth, U., ---amp--- Polla, S. (Eds.). (2014). Spatial Analysis and Social Spaces: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Interpretation of Prehistoric and Historic Built Environments. Topoi 18. Berlin: De Gruyter. Doi: 10.1515/978311026643610.1515/9783110266436Search in Google Scholar

Papadopoulos, N. ---amp--- Sarris, A. (2011). Integrated Geophysical Survey to Characterize the Subsurface Properties Below and Around the Area of Saint Andreas Church (Loutraki, Greece). In W. Börner ---amp--- S. Uhlirz (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th International Congress Cultural Heritage and New Technologies (pp. 643–652). Vienna: Museen der Stadt Wien –Stadtarchäologie.Search in Google Scholar

Papadopoulos, G. N., Sarris, A., ---amp--- Giapitsoglou, C. (2012). Mapping the Buried Archaeological Remains in the Area of the Old Turkish School of Rethymno (Crete, Greece) through the Application of Surface ERT and GPR Techniques. In N. Zacharias, M. Georgakopoulou, K. Polycreti, G. Fakorellis, ---amp--- T. Vakoulis (Eds.), Πρακτικά 5ου Συμποσίου Eλληνικής Aρχαιομετρικής Eταιρείας [Praktika 5ou Symposiou Ellinikis Archaiometrikis Etaireias (Proceedings of the 5th Symposium of the Hellenic Society for Archaeometry)] (pp. 101–106). Athens: Papazisi Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Papadopoulos, N., Oikonomou, D., Cantoro, G., Andronikidis, N., ---amp--- Sarris, A. (2019). 3-D resistivity imaging of rock-cut chamber tombs: the case of the Mycenaean Cemetery in Prosilio, Greece. Poster presented at the 13th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection, Sligo, Ireland.Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G. (2019). Unlocking Sacred Landscapes: The Applicability of a GIS Approach to the Territorial Formation of the Cypro-Archaic and Cypro-Classical Polities. In G. Papantoniou, C. E. Morris, ---amp--- A. K. Vionis (Eds.), Unlocking Sacred Landscapes: Spatial Analysis of Ritual and Cult in the Mediterranean. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 151 (pp. 3–21). Nicosia: Astrom Editions.Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G., Loizides, F., Lanitis, A., ---amp--- Michaelides, D. (2012). Digitization, Restoration and Visualization of Terracotta Figurines from the ‘House of Orpheus’, Nea Paphos. In M. Ioannides, D. Fritsch, J. Leissner, R. Davies, F. Remondino, ---amp--- R. Caffo (Eds.), Progress in Cultural Heritage Preservation 4th International Conference, EuroMed 2012, Limassol, Cyprus, October 29 – November 3, 2012 Proceedings. Lecture Notes on Computer Sciences 7616 (pp. 543–550). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G., Loizides, F., Lanitis, A., ---amp--- Michaelides, D. (2017). The use of information technology applications for supporting the study and interpretation of terracotta figurines from the House of Orpheus in Nea Paphos. Kölner und Bonner Archaeologica, 7, 219–228.Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G. ---amp--- Bourogiannis, G. (2018). Sanctuaries as central places: revisiting the Agia Irini sanctuary in Iron Age Cyprus. Land 7.139. Doi: 103390/land7040139.Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G. ---amp--- Vionis, A.K. (2018). The river as an economic asset: settlement and society in the Xeros Valley in Cyprus. Land 7.157. Doi: 10.3390/land7040157.10.3390/land7040157Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G. ---amp--- Kyriakou, N. (2018). Sacred Landscapes and the Territoriality of Iron Age Cypriot Polities: The Applicability of GIS. American Journal of Archaeology, 122, 541–577. Doi: 10.3764/aja.122.4.054110.3764/aja.122.4.0541Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G. ---amp--- Vionis, A. K. (Eds.). (2019). Central Places and Un-Central Landscapes: Political Economies and Natural Resources in the Longue Durée. Basel: MDPI.Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G., Michaelides, D., ---amp--- Dikomitou-Eliadou, M. (2019). Hellenistic and Roman Terracottas from Domestic Contexts: The Case of the House of Orpheus in Nea Paphos. In G. Papantoniou, D. Michaelides, ---amp--- M. Dikomitou-Eliadou (Eds.), Hellenistic and Roman Terracottas. Monumenta Graeca et Romana 23 (pp. 7–43). Leiden: Brill.10.1163/9789004384835Search in Google Scholar

Papantoniou, G., Morris, C. E., ---amp--- Vionis, A. K. (2019). Spatial Analysis of Ritual and Cult: An Introduction. In G. Papantoniou, C. E Morris, ---amp--- A. K. Vionis (Eds.), Unlocking Sacred Landscapes: Spatial Analysis of Ritual and Cult in the Mediterranean. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 151 (pp. ix–xviii). Nicosia: Astrom Editions.Search in Google Scholar

Peatfield, A. A. D. ---amp--- Morris, C. E. (2012). Dynamic Spirituality on Minoan Peak Sanctuaries. In K. Rountree, C. E. Morris, ---amp--- A. A. D. Peatfield (Eds.), Archaeology of Spiritualities (pp. 227–245). New York: Springer. Doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3354-5_1110.1007/978-1-4614-3354-5_11Search in Google Scholar

Peatfield, A. A. D. ---amp--- Morris, C. E. (2019). Space, Place and Performance on the Peak Sanctuary of Atsipadhes Korakias, Crete. In G. Papantoniou, C. E Morris, ---amp--- A. K. Vionis (Eds.), Unlocking Sacred Landscapes: Spatial Analysis of Ritual and Cult in the Mediterranean. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 151 (pp. 189–200). Nicosia: Astrom Editions.Search in Google Scholar

Plumwood, V. (2006). The concept of a cultural landscape: Nature, culture and agency in the land. Ethics and the Environment, 11(2), 115–150. Doi: 10.2979/ETE.2006.11.2.11510.2979/ETE.2006.11.2.115Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A. (2019). Digitizing the Echoes of the Past, Textualising the Experience – Digitalising the Text: Cyprus through Travel Literature (15th-18th c.), Round Table at the 4th International Conference of the Sylvia Ioannou Foundation, Nicosia.Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A. (2013). Multi+ or Manifold Geophysical Prospection? In G. Earl, T. Sly, A. Chrysanthi, P. Murrieta-Flores, C. Papadopoulos, I. Romanowska, ---amp--- D. Wheatley (Eds.), Archaeology in the Digital Era – Volume II, e-Papers from the 40th Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA2012), Southampton, 26-30 March 2012 (pp. 761–770). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A. ---amp--- Papadopoulos, N. (2013). Looking for Graves: Geophysical Prospection of Cemeteries. In W. Börner ---amp--- S. Uhlirz (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Congress on “Cultural Heritage and New Technologies”, Vienna, Austria, Nov. 11-13, 2012, Vienna: Museen der Stadt Wien –Stadtarchäologie (CD-ROM publication).Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A. ---amp--- Dederix, S. (2014). GIS for Archaeology ---amp--- Cultural Resources Management in Greece. Quo Vadis? In N. Zacharias (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Conference Arch_RNT on Archaeological Research and New Technologies (pp. 7–20). Kalamata: Publications of the University of Peloponnese.Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A., Papadopoulos, N., Dederix, S, Driessen, J., Dirix, Th., ---amp--- Merkouri, Chr. (2019). The Quest of the Grave of Andreas Vesalius in Zakynthos. In P. Kyriakidis, A. Agapiou, ---amp--- V. Lysandrou (Eds.), Spreading Excellence in Computer Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Greek Chapter (CAA-GR) Limassol, 18-20 June 2018 (pp. 11–18). Limassol: Cyprus University of Technology.Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A., Dziechciarz, P., Kelly, D., Duffy, P., Parditka, G., ---amp--- Giblin, J. (2016a). Construction of a Geophysical Signature Archive for the Investigation of Bronze Age sites. The Case of Békés 103 (Jégvermi-kert) in Eastern Hungary. Poster presented at the 21st International Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies, Vienna, Austria.Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A., Papadopoulos, N., Kalayci, T., Argyriou, N., Symirdanis, K., ---amp--- Nikas, N. (2016b). Γεωφυσικές έρευνες στον αρχαιολογικό χώρο των προϊστορικών τύμβων Bρανά- Mαραθώνα, [Geophysikes ereynes ston archaiologiko choro ton proistorikon tymvon Vrana Marathona (Geophysical research in the archaeological site of the Vrana Marathonas prehistoric tumuli)]. In M. Pantelidou-Gkofa, G. Touchais, A. Philippa-Touchais, ---amp--- N. Papademetriou (Eds.), Mελέτη Προϊστορικών Tύμβων Bρανά Mαραθώνος, Πρακτικά της Eν Aθήναις Aρχαιολογικής Eταιρείας του Έτους 2016 [Meleti Proistorikon Tymvon Brana Marathonos. Praktika tis En Athinais Archaiologikis Etaireias toy Etoys 2016 (Study of the Prehistoric Vrana Marathonos Tumuli. Proceedings of the Archaeological Society at Athens for the Year 2016)]. (pp. 53–56 ---amp--- 61–62). Athens: The Archaeological Society at Athens.Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A., Papadopoulos, N., Cantoro, G., Agapiou, A., Déderix, S., Tsigonaki, Ch., ---amp--- Devolder, D. (2015). New Technologies for Capturing the Dynamics of Cultural Landscapes. In P. Karanastasi, A. Tzigounaki, ---amp--- Ch. Tsigonaki (Eds.), Aρχαιολογικό Έργο Kρήτης: Πρακτικά της 3ης Συνάντησης. Pέθυμνο 5–8 Δεκεμβρίου 2013 [Archaiologiko Ergo Kritis: Praktika tis 3is Synantisis. Rethymno 58 Dekemvriou 2013 (Archaeological Work on Crete. Proceedings of the 3rd Meeting. Rethymno 58 December 2013)]. (pp. 689–699). Rethymnon: Faculty of Letters Publications, University of Crete – Ministry of Culture and Sports, Ephorate of Antiquities of Rethymnon.Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A., Dunn, R. K., Rife, J. L., Papadopoulos, N., Kokkinou, E., ---amp--- Mundigler, C. (2007). Geological and Geophysical Investigations in the Roman Cemetery at Kenchreai (Korinthia), Greece. Journal of Archaeological Prospection, 14(1), 1–23. Doi: 10.1002/arp.28010.1002/arp.280Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A., Poulioudis, G., Giourou, A., Kevgas, V., Triantaphyllos, D., ---amp--- Terzopoulou, D. (2001a). Geophysical Investigations of Tumuli in Thrace, N. Greece, Proceedings of the 32nd International Symposium on Archaeometry, 15–19 May 2000, Mexico City. Mexico: University of Mexico (CD-ROM publication).Search in Google Scholar

Sarris, A., Vafidis, A., Economou, N., Poulioudis, G., ---amp--- Limneou-Papakosta, C. (2001b). Prospecting the Old Jewish Cemetery in the centre of Alexandria, Egypt, Poster presented at the 4th International Conference on Archaeological Prospection, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna.Search in Google Scholar

Schreibman, S., Siemens, R., ---amp--- Unsworth, J. (Eds.). (2016). A New Companion to Digital Humanities. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Soetens, S., Sarris, A., ---amp--- Vansteenhuyse, K. (2008). Between Peak and Palace. Reinterpretation of the Minoan cultural landscape in Space and Time, In Y. Facorellis, N. Zacharias, ---amp--- K. Polikreti (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Symposium of the Hellenic Society for Archaeometry, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens 28-31 May 2003, British Archaeological Reprots International Series 1746 (pp. 153–161). Oxford: Archaeopress.Search in Google Scholar

Terras, M. (2006). Disciplined: Using educational studies to analyse humanities computing. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 21(2), 229–246. Doi: 10.1093/llc/fql02210.1093/llc/fql022Search in Google Scholar

Terras, M., Nyhan, J., ---amp--- Vanhoutte, E. (Eds.). (2013). Defining Digital Humanities: A Reader. Surrey: Ashgate.Search in Google Scholar

van Leusen, M. (2011). Some Reflections on the Role of GIS in Landscape Archaeology. In V. Mayoral-Herrera ---amp--- S. Celestino-Pérez (Eds.), Tecnologías de información geográfica y análisis arqueológico del territorio. Actas del V Simposio Internacional de Arqueología de Mérida (Anejos de Archivio Espanol de Arqueologia (Vol. 59, pp. 829–832). Mérida: Instituto de Arqueología de Mérida.Search in Google Scholar

Vionis, A. K. (2017a). Understanding settlements in Byzantine Greece: New data and approaches for Boeotia, sixth to thirteenth century. Hesperia, 71, 127–173.Search in Google Scholar

Vionis, A. K. (2017b). Sacred townscapes in Late Antique Greece: Christianisation and economic diversity in the Aegean. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, 30(2), 141–165. Doi: 10.1558/jmea.3540310.1558/jmea.35403Search in Google Scholar

Vionis, A. K. (2018). Settled and Sacred Landscapes of Cyprus: Church and Landscape in the Xeros Valley during the Early Byzantine Period. In M. Horster, D. Nicolaou, ---amp--- S. Rogge (Eds.), Church Building in Cyprus (Fourth to Seventh Centuries): A Mirror of Intercultural Contacts in the Eastern Mediterranean. Schriften des Instituts für Interdisziplinäre Zypern-Studien 12 (pp. 45–70). Münster: Waxmann Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Vionis, A. K. (2019). The Spatiality of the Byzantine/Medieval Rural Church: Landscape Parallels from the Aegean and Cyprus. In G. Papantoniou, C. E Morris, ---amp--- A. K. Vionis (Eds.), Unlocking Sacred Landscapes: Spatial Analysis of Ritual and Cult in the Mediterranean. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 151 (pp. 67–83). Nicosia: Astrom Editions.Search in Google Scholar

Vionis, A. K. ---amp--- Papantoniou, G. (2017). Sacred landscapes as economic central places in Late Antique Naxos and Cyprus. Antiquité Tardive, 25, 263–286. Doi: 10.1484/J.AT.5.11486210.1484/J.AT.5.114862Search in Google Scholar

Vionis, A. K. ---amp--- Papantoniou, G. (2019). Central place theory reloaded and revised: political economy and landscape dynamics in the longue durée. Land 8.36. Doi: 10.3390/land8020036.10.3390/land8020036Search in Google Scholar

Zeng, M. L. (2017). Smart Data for Digital Humanities. Journal of Data and Information Science, 2, 1–12.10.1515/jdis-2017-0001Search in Google Scholar

Wallrodt, J. (2016). Why Paperless: Technology and Changes in Archaeological Practice, 1996–2016. In E. Walcek Averett, J. M. Gordon, ---amp--- D. B. Counts (Eds.), Mobilizing the Past for a Digital Future: The Potential of Digital Archaeology (pp. 33–50). North Dakota: The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota.Search in Google Scholar

Winckler, K. (2019). The Territory of the Bishop: Ritual and Diocesan Boundaries in Early Medieval Bavaria. In M. S. Popović, V. Pollaczek, B. Koschicek, ---amp--- S. Eichert (Eds.), Power in Landscape: Geographic and Digital Approaches on Historical Research (pp. 33–44). Leipzig: Eudora-Verlag Leipzig.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-03-31
Accepted: 2020-03-31
Published Online: 2020-05-04

© 2020 Giorgos Papantoniou et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License.

Scroll Up Arrow