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BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access December 31, 2019

The octograph and the delight of understanding organizational artistry

How to enjoy social interaction and stimulate job performance?

  • Abdel Magid Al-Araki EMAIL logo
From the journal Open Economics


This paper proposes the Octograph, a cube-like model of leadership and organizational performance. Eight concepts, placed on eight corners of the cube, create eight triangular models and four processes of Decision-making, Communication, Production and Innovation. The eight concepts are nested together through one-arrowed dependency lines. Saying «Leadership» depends more on «employees» than vice versa, presupposes causal explanations of the how and why of the dependency.


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Received: 2019-02-05
Accepted: 2019-09-26
Published Online: 2019-12-31

© 2019 Abdel Magid Al-Araki, published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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