Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access June 20, 2019

Bulgarian-English Code-switching in Internet Forum Communication: The BG-mamma Case

Bilyana Bozhinova Todorova EMAIL logo
From the journal Open Linguistics

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to introduce the author's observations on the influence that English has on the Bulgarian forum "Netspeak" for women living in the USA. The collected data for the investigation are excerpted from a Bulgarian forum platform. The emphasis is on code-switching, one of the main topics in sociolinguistics; as well as on the interlanguage, which is a result of the penetration of some elements from English into the first language of communicators. The orthography may also be influenced as in Bulgaria the Cyrillic alphabet is used.

The informal situation is a prerequisite for the mixed style use, especially in vocabulary. Different topics have been observed and discussed by users in the forum: the choice of baby accessories; baggage loss in airports; child diseases, child physical and mental development, etc.

The investigated forum discussion includes 52,020 lexical items. Excerpted English words are few - only 1.5%. Most of them are nouns because of their easy grammatical adaptation. The verb group is not affected so noticeably. The Bulgarian verbal system is very complicated and English verbs used in Bulgarian context are grammatically adapted. There are some exceptions when people use ready-made constructions like idioms and phrasal verbs.

References

Alfieri, Luca. 2015. The birth of the adjective class as a problem of translation. // Open Linguistics 1(1). 361-375. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2015-000710.1515/opli-2015-0007Search in Google Scholar

Alvarez-Cáccamo, Celso. 1998. From ‘switching code’ to ‘code-switching’. Towards a reconceptualisation of communicative codes. In: Peter Auer (еd.), Code-Switching in Conversation. Language, interaction, and identity, 29-48. London / New York: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Berthold, Michael, Francis Mangubhai, Krzysztof Batorowicz. 1997. Bilingualism & Multiculturalism: Study Book. Distance Education Centre, University of Southern Queensland: Toowoomba, QLD.Search in Google Scholar

Balteiro, Isabel. 2011. A reassessment of traditional lexicographical tools in the light of new corpora: sports Anglicisms in Spanish. International Journal of English Studies 11 (2). 23-52.10.6018/ijes/2011/2/149631Search in Google Scholar

Blagoeva, Diana. 2006. Neologizmite v savremennia bulgarski ezik [Neologisms in Contemporary Bulgarian Language]. Bulgarian Language and Literature 6. 16-25.Search in Google Scholar

Crystal, David. 1987. The Cambridge encyclopaedia of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Cumming, Susanna, Tsuyoshi Ono. 1997. Discourse and grammar. In: T. van Dijk (ed.), Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, 112-137. London: Sage.10.4135/9781446221884.n4Search in Google Scholar

Deumert, Ana. 2011. Multilingualism. In: Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics, 261-282, NY: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511997068.021Search in Google Scholar

Diez-Arroyo, Marisa. 2016. Vagueness: a loanword’s good friend. The case of ‘print’ in Spanish fashion. Pragmatics 26 (4). 609-629.10.1075/prag.26.4.04dieSearch in Google Scholar

Grozdanova, Lilyana. 2017. Anglitsizmite i turtsizmite v savremennia bulgarski sleng. [English and Turkish Loanwords in Contemporary Bulgarian Slang]. Manas. Studies into Asia and Africa 5, http://manas.bg/bg/issue_5/english-and-turkish-loanwords-conteporary-bulgarian-sleng 07 July 2018.Search in Google Scholar

Halliday, Michael A. K., Ruqaiya Hasan. 1985. Language, context, and text: aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Haugen, Einar. 1956. Bilingualism in the Americas: A bibliography and research guide. Montgomery: University of Alabama Press.Search in Google Scholar

Heredia, Roberto Ramírez, Jeffrey Brown. 2005. Code-switching. In: Philipp Strazny (ed.), Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 214-216. Oxon: Fitzroy Dearborn.Search in Google Scholar

Eastman, Carol. 1992. Codeswitching as an urban language-contact phenomenon. In: Carol M. Eastman (ed.), Codeswitching, 1-17. Clevedon, England Philadelphia, Penn. Adelaide: Multilingual Matters.10.1080/01434632.1992.9994480Search in Google Scholar

Flores, Nelson, Mark Lewis. 2016. From truncated to sociopolitical emergence: A critique of super-diversity in sociolinguistics. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 242. 97-124.10.1515/ijsl-2016-0024Search in Google Scholar

Franceschini, Rita. 1998. The notion of code in linguistics: code-switching in conversation. In: Peter Auer (ed.), Language, interaction, and identity, pp.51-75. London and NY: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Kocheva, Ana. 2017. Smeseniyat ezik na vienskite bulgari. [Mixed language of Bulgarians in Vienna]. Sofia: Prof. M. Drinov Publ. House.Search in Google Scholar

Krejčová, Elena. 2015. Bulgarskata rech v rechta na bulgarite izvun Bulgaria. [The Bulgarian speech of Bulgarian expatriates]. Bulgarian Speech 3. 106-113.Search in Google Scholar

Lopéz Morales, Humberto. 1987. Anglicismos léxicos en el habla culta de San Juan de Puerto Rico. [Lexical anglicisms in the educated speech of San Juan de Puerto Rico]. Lingüística Española Actual (LEA), IX(2). 285-303.Search in Google Scholar

Macdonald, Roderick Ross, Soenjono Darjowidjojo. 1967. A Student’s Reference Grammar of Modern Formal Indonesian. Washington: Georgetown University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Macha, Jürgen. 1991. Der flexible Sprecher [The flexible speaker], Köln: Böhlau.Search in Google Scholar

Meeuwis, Michael, Jan Blommaert. 1998. Code-switching among Zairians in Belgium. Code-switching in conversation. In: Peter Auer (ed.), Language, interaction, and identity, 76-100. London and NY: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Mitsova, Sofiya. 2013. Nyakoi leksikalni i gramaticheski promeni v protsesa na akomodatsia v rechta na bulgari, zhiveeshti v tshuzhbina. [Some lexical and grammatical changes, during the process of speech accommodation, of some Bulgarians, living abroad]. MariaIlieva (ed.), Proceedings. Problems in Oral Communication 9(1), 148-155. Veliko Tarnovo: St. Cyril and Methodius Publ. House.Search in Google Scholar

Pachev, Angel. 2006. Ezikovite obshtnosti v uslovia na evropeizatsia i globalizatsia. [Language communities under Europeanization and Globalisation conditions] Sofia: SemaRSH.Search in Google Scholar

Poplack, Shana, David Sankoff. 1984. Borrowing: The Synchrony of Integration. Linguistics 22. 99-135.10.1515/ling.1984.22.1.99Search in Google Scholar

Popova, Diana. 2013. Za upotrebata na angliyski dumi v bulgarskata presa – invazia, globalizacia ili pretencia. [On the Use of English Words in the Bulgarian Press – Invasion, Globalization or Pretence]. In: Galya Hristozova, Veselina Vateva, Mariana Lazarova, Mariya Aleksieva, Milen Filipov (eds), Ethnopsycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Aspects of the Language of the Media in Bulgaria, 63-69. Burgas: BSU Publ. House.Search in Google Scholar

RBE. 2001-2015. Rechnik na Bulgariskia ezik. [Dictionary of Bulgarian language], vol.1-15. Sofia: Prof. Marin Drinov Publishing House, 2001-2015.Search in Google Scholar

Rossman, Gretchen, Bruce Wilson. 1985. Numbers and words. Combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a single large-scale evaluation study. Evaluation Review 9 (5). 627-643.10.1177/0193841X8500900505Search in Google Scholar

Rüdiger, Sofia. 2018. Mixed Feelings: Attitudes towards English loanwords and their use in South Korea. Open Linguistics 4. 184–198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/opli-2018-001010.1515/opli-2018-0010Search in Google Scholar

Sivova-Tsankova, Pavlina. 2006. Sotsiolingvistichni problemi na bulgarskata studentska obshtnost v Germania. [Sociolin­guistic problems of Bulgarian student community in Germany]. Bulgarian Language 2. 14-20.Search in Google Scholar

Sotirov, Petar. 2000. Ezik i zhivot (sotsiolingvistichno opisanie na bulgarite v Ungaria). [Language and Life (Sociolinguistic description of Bulgarians in Hungary)]. Budapest: BRS.Search in Google Scholar

Todorova, Bilyana. 2010. The Bulgarian Mothers’ Forum as an Institution of Social Change. In: Biljana Mišić Ilić, Vesna Lopičić (eds.), Jezik, Književnost, Promene. Jezička istraživanja, 120-131. Niš: Sceroprint.Search in Google Scholar

Teubert, Wolfgang, Anna Čermaková. 2004. Directions in Corpus Linguistics. In: M. A. K. Halliday, Wolfgang Teubert, Colin Yallop, and Anna Čermakova (eds.), Lexicology and Corpus Linguistics. An Introduction, 113-166. London, NY: Continuum.Search in Google Scholar

Yordanova, Denitsa. 2013. Neologizmite s angliyski proizhod, poyavili se v bulgarskia ezik prez poslednoto desetiletie na XX vek i nachaloto na XXI век. [Neologisms with English origin that appeared in the Bulgarian language during the last decade of 20th century and the beginning of 21st century]. Proceedings. University of Ruse “Angel Kanchev” 52(5.2). 137-140.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2018-05-03
Accepted: 2019-02-21
Published Online: 2019-06-20

© 2019 Bilyana Bozhinova Todorova, published by De Gruyter Open

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License.

Downloaded on 29.1.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/opli-2019-0008/html
Scroll Up Arrow