Skip to content
BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access June 3, 2015

Sufism and Anti-Colonial Violent Resistance Movements: The Qadiriyya and Sanussi Orders in Algeria and Libya

  • Fait Muedini
From the journal Open Theology

Abstract

In this article, I examine the role of Sufism (and Sufi leaders) as they relate to anti-colonial political and military resistance movements. Sufism is often viewed as a non-violent and non-political branch of Islam. However, I argue that there are many historical examples to illustrate the presence of anti-colonialist Sufi military movements throughout the “Muslim World,” and I give particular attention to the cases of ‘Abd al-Qadir of the Qadiriyya movement and his anti-colonialist rebellion against France in Algeria in the 1800s, as well as that of Italian colonialism in Libya and the military response by the Sanussi order. Thus, while Sufism clearly has various teachings and principles that could be interpreted to promote non-violence, Sufi political movements have also developed as a response to colonialism and imperialism, and thus, one should not automatically assume a necessary separation from Sufism and notions of military resistance.



References

Abu-Nimer, M. Nonviolence and Peacebuilding in Islam: Theory and Practice. Gainesville, Florida. University of Florida Press, 2003. Search in Google Scholar

Abun-Nasr, J.M. Muslim Communities of Grace: The Sufi Brotherhoods in Islamic Religious Life. New York, New York. Columbia University Press, 2007. Search in Google Scholar

Ahmida, A. The making of modern Libya: State formation, colonisation & resistance 1830-1932. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994. Search in Google Scholar

Ahmida, A. “Memory of genocide in colonial Libya 1929-1933.” Italian Studies, Vol. 61, No. 2 (2006). 10.1179/007516306X142924Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, L. “Nineteenth-century reform in Ottoman Libya.” International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol.16, No.3 (1984). 10.1017/S0020743800028208Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, L. The state and social transformation in Tunisia & Libya 1830-1980. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. 10.1515/9781400859023Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, L. “The development of nationalist sentiment in Libya.” In R. Khalidi, ed., The origins of Arab nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. Search in Google Scholar

Atkinson, D. “Governance: Domination and Resistance in Cyrenaica, 1923-1932.” In Entanglements of Power: Geographies of Domination/Resistance, Ronan Paddison, Chris Philo, Paul Routledge, Joanne Sharp (editors). London, England. Routledge, 2002. Search in Google Scholar

Bennison, A.K. “‘Abd al-Qadir’s Jihad in the Light of the Western Islamic Jihad Tradition.” Studia Islamica, Vol. 106, No. 2 (2011): 196-213. 10.1163/19585705-12341258Search in Google Scholar

Brower, B.C. “The Amir ‘Abd Al-Qadir and the “Good War” in Algeria, 1832-1847.” Studia Islamica, Vol. 106, No. 2 (2011): 169-195. 10.1163/19585705-12341257Search in Google Scholar

Cleveland, William L. & Bunton, M. A History of the Modern Middle East, 4th Edition. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2008. Search in Google Scholar

Connor, J. “Reza Aslan To Chuck Todd: If You Don’t Believe That Muslims Denounce Terrorism, Google It.” Huffington Post. January 12, 2015. Available Online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/01/12/reza-aslan-terrorism-anyone-who-thinks-muslims-arent-condemning_n_6457220.html Search in Google Scholar

Dhont, F. “The Historical Figure of Omar Al-Mukhtar and Islamic Martyrdom in Indonesia.” Al-Jami‘ah, Vol. 50, No. 1, (2012): 75-95. 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.75-95Search in Google Scholar

Elias, J.J. “Sufism.” Iranian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3/4. A Review of the “Encyclopedia Iranica” (1998): 595-613. 10.1080/00210869808701935Search in Google Scholar

Evans-Pritchard, E.E. “The Sanusi of Cyrenaica.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. Vol. 15, No. 2 (1945): 61-79. 10.2307/1156202Search in Google Scholar

Gazzini, C. “Jihad in exile: Ahmad Al-Sharif Al-Sanusi 1918-33.” MA Dissertation. Near Eastern Department, Princeton University, 2004. Search in Google Scholar

Ghurab, S. “Al-Tariqa al-Rahmaniyya — Ta’rif mujaz”. Revue de I’institut des Belles Lettres Arabes, no. 167, 1991. Search in Google Scholar

Heck, P. (Ed.) Sufism and Politics: The Power of Spirituality. Princeton, New Jersey: Markus Weiner Publishing, 2007. Search in Google Scholar

Heck, P. “Sufism — What is it Exactly?” Religion Compass, Vol. 1, No. 1 (2007): 148-164. 10.1111/j.1749-8171.2006.00011.xSearch in Google Scholar

Heck, P. “The Politics of Sufism: Is there One?” In Sufism Today: Heritage and Tradition in the Global Community, Raudvere, Catharina & Stenberg, Leif (eds) (2010): 13-29. 10.5040/9780755625109.0007Search in Google Scholar

Kemper, M. “The Changing Images of Jihad Leaders: Shamil and ‘Abd al-Qadir in Daghestani and Algerian Historical Writing.” Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, Vol. 11, No. 2 (2007): 28-58. 10.1525/nr.2007.11.2.28Search in Google Scholar

Kopanski, A.B. “Islam in Italy and in its Libyan Colony (720-1992).” Islamic Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2 (1993): 191-204. Search in Google Scholar

Masud, M.K. “The World of Shah ‘Abd al-‘Aziz (1746-1824)” In Jamal Malik, ed., Perspectives of Mutual Encounter in South Asian History, 1760-1860. Leiden: E.J. Brill, (2000): 298-314. 10.1163/9789047400523_018Search in Google Scholar

McDougall, J. “Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri.” Encyclopedia of Islam, 3rd Edition, 2014. Available Online: https://www.academia.edu/8736587/Abd_al-Qadir_al-Jazairi_entry_for_EI3_ Search in Google Scholar

Metcalf, B.D. “A Historical Overview of Islam in South Asia,” in Islam in South Asia in Practice. Princeton, New Jersey. Princeton University Press, 2009. 10.2307/j.ctv301gh6Search in Google Scholar

Muedini, F. “Examining Islam and Human Rights from the Perspective of Sufism.” The Muslim World Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 7, Issue 1 (2010): 1-23. 10.2202/1554-4419.1172Search in Google Scholar

Muedini, F. “The Promotion of Sufism in the Politics of Algeria and Morocco,” Islamic Africa, Vol. 29, No. 3 (2012): 201-226. 10.5192/215409930302201Search in Google Scholar

Muedini, F. Sponsoring Sufism: How Governments Promote “Mystical Islam” in their Domestic and Foreign Policies. New York, New York. Palgrave Macmillian, 2015. 10.1057/9781137521071Search in Google Scholar

Neusner, J. God’s Rule: The Politics of World Religions. Washington, D.C. Georgetown University Press, 2003. Search in Google Scholar

Paoletti, E. “Libya: Roots of a Civil Conflict.” Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 16, No. 2, (2011): 313-319. Search in Google Scholar

Rashid, A. “Emir Abd-Al-Qadir and the Algerian Struggle.” Pakistan Horizon, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1960): 117-129. Search in Google Scholar

Raza, S. “Italian Colonisation & Libyan Resistance to the Al-Sanusi of Cyrenaica.” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia), Vol. 6, No. 1 (2012): 87-120. 10.1080/19370679.2012.12023199Search in Google Scholar

Reiter, Y. War, Peace and International Relations in Islam: Muslim Scholars on Peace Accords With Israel. Easbourne, United Kingdom. Sussex Academic Press, 2011. Search in Google Scholar

Rudin, H. “Italy in North Africa.” Current History, Vol. 26, No. 152 (1954). 10.1525/curh.1954.26.152.222Search in Google Scholar

Ruedy, John. Modern Algeria: The Origins and Development of a Nation. Bloomington, Indiana. Indiana University Press, 2005. Search in Google Scholar

Safi, O. “Good Sufi, Bad Muslims.” Sightings, January 27, 2011. Accessed February 4th, 2011. Available Online: http://divinity.uchicago.edu/martycenter/publications/sightings/archive_2011/0127.shtml Search in Google Scholar

Said, A.A. & Funk, N.C. “Peace in the Sufi Tradition: An Ecology of the Spirit.” In Peace and Conflict Resolution in Islam: Precept and Practice. Said, A.A., Funk, N.C., & Kadayifci, A.S. (Eds.). Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 2001. Search in Google Scholar

Said, A.A., & Funk, N.C. “Sufi Prescriptions for World Politics: A Way to Global Community.” “The ‘Shakir’ World Encounters” Conference, Marrakech, Morocco (2004): 1-19. Search in Google Scholar

Schneider, M. “Why don’t more moderate Muslims denounce extremism? They do; we’re just not listening.” The Washington Post, January 2nd, 2015. Available Online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/01/02/why-dont-more-moderate-muslims-denounce-extremism/ Search in Google Scholar

St. John, R.B. Libya: From Colony to Independence. Oneworld Publications, 2008. Search in Google Scholar

St. John, R.B. Libya: From Colony to Revolution. Oneworld Publications, 2012. 10.4324/9780203830680Search in Google Scholar

Weismann, I. “God and The Perfect Man in the Experience of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri.” Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society in the UK: “Man in the image of God”, Oxford, 30 March to 1 April 2001. Available Online: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articlespdf/Weismann.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2015-3-12
Accepted: 2015-4-14
Published Online: 2015-6-3

©2015 Fait Muedini

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.

Downloaded on 28.2.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/opth-2015-0003/html?lang=en
Scroll to top button