Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Oldenbourg November 20, 2023

Regulating Big Tech: From Competition Policy to Sector Regulation?

  • Oliver Budzinski EMAIL logo and Juliane Mendelsohn
From the journal ORDO

Abstract

The European Commission has proposed a new regulatory tool to govern of digital markets. The Digital Markets Act (DMA) intents to limit the market behavior of so-called gatekeepers to ensure contestable and fair digital markets. We review the provisions of the DMA both from a legal and from an economic perspective. Notwithstanding a number of benefits, we identify several issues with the current proposal. When looking at the core provisions of the proposal from an economic perspective, a number of of contention arise: many of the provisions seem to be quite narrow in scope and it seems difficult to extrapolate more general rules from them; the economic harm of some of the provisions is both uncertain and in principle debatable; the alleged (self-executing; non self-executing) distinction between different types of obligations cannot be verified; and, in addition, Art. 5–7 DMA seem to contain three distinct regulatory instruments; last but not least, while the DMA seeks to control existing gatekeepers, the “tipping” of markets and the rise of further gatekeepers is not guaranteed by the proposed regulation, this in turn leads to a larger critical analysis of the gatekeeper as the DMA’s norm addressee. While the goals and nature of the DMA have gained in clarity throughout the legislative process, its scope remains somewhat obtuse. On the one hand it seems set on regulating gatekeepers as they exist today, on the other, it also aims to bring about systemic change in the digital single market. How it expects to achieve the latter is not entirely clear. On closer examination, the DMA also contains a complex enforcement regime that not only depends on the compliance of gatekeepers but may also forestall the envisioned speed and efficacy of the instrumment. In this light and by critically looking at the nature of ex ante and ex post measures in broader competition policy, we conclude that a reform of the competition policy regime would better suit the overalls aims of reining in big tech in future.

JEL-Codes: K21; K23; K24; L40; L50; L81; L86

Note

We are thankful to Sarah Noriya Kraus for extremely helpful editorial assistance.


Literature

ACCC (2019), Digital Platforms Inquiry, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission Final Report, June. Search in Google Scholar

AGCM-AGCOM-AGPDP (2019), Big Data Joint Survey, Italian Competition Authority (AGCM), Italian Communications Regulator (AGCOM), and Italian Data Protection Authority (AGPDP) Final Report, July.Search in Google Scholar

Altmeier, P., Le Maire, B., Keijzer, M., & O C. (2021), Strengthening the Digital Markets Act and its Enforcement, Permanent Representations of the Netherlands, France and Germany: Letter and Proposal, https://www.permanentrepresentations.nl/permanent-representations/pr-eu-brussels/documents/publications/2021/09/9/strengthening-the-digital-markets-act-and-its-enforcement (last accessed 29.9.2021).Search in Google Scholar

Autoridade da Concurrencia (2019), Digital Ecosystems, Big Data and Algorithms. Issues Paper, July. Search in Google Scholar

Autorité de la Concurrence (2018), Avis 18-A-03 du 6 mars 2018 portant sur l’exploitation des données dans le secteur de la publicité sur internet. Opinion, March. Search in Google Scholar

Armstrong, M. (2006), Competition in Two-Sided Markets. Rand Journal of Economics, 37(3), 668–691.10.1111/j.1756-2171.2006.tb00037.xSearch in Google Scholar

Bagwell, K. (2007), The Economic Analysis of Advertising, in: M. Armstrong & R. H. Porter (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, Vol. 3, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1701–1844.10.1016/S1573-448X(06)03028-7Search in Google Scholar

Bank, M., Duffy, F., Leyendecker, V. & Silva, M. (2021), The Lobby Network: Big Tech's Influence in the EU, Corporate Observatory and LobbyControl e.V., https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/news/final-reports-eu-observatory-online-platform-economy.Search in Google Scholar

Barreto, A., Morita Sakowski, P. A. & Park, C. (2019), The First Report of the BRICS Competition Authorities Working Group on the Digital Economy. The Antitrust Chronicle, 3(2), 66–70.Search in Google Scholar

Basedow, J. (2021), Das Rad neu erfunden: Zum Vorschlag für einen Digital Markets Act. Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht 2021, forthcoming.Search in Google Scholar

Baumol, W. J. (1982), Contestable Markets – An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure. American Economic Review, 72(1), 1–15.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, G. S. & Murphy, K. M. (1993), A Simple Theory of Advertising as a Good or Bad. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(4): 941–964.10.2307/2118455Search in Google Scholar

Bentata, P. (2021), Regulating 'Gatekeepers': Predictable 'Unitended Consequences' of the DMA for Users' Welfare, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3804067 (last accessed 29.9.2021).10.2139/ssrn.3804067Search in Google Scholar

BMWi (2019), A New Competition Framework for the Digital Economy: Report by the Commission ‘Competition Law 4.0’. https://www.wettbewerbsrecht-40.de/KW40/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/a-new-competition-framework-for-the-digital-economy_.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3 (last accessed 9.6.2020). Search in Google Scholar

BMWK (2022), Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsstrukturen und zur Abschöpfung von Vorteilen aus Wettbewerbsverstößen (Wettbewerbsdurchsetzungsgesetz) 15.09.2022.https://www.bmwk.de/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/Wettbewerbspolitik/wettbewerbsdurchsetzungsgesetz-referentenentwurf-bmwk.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4 (last accessed 09.10.2022). Search in Google Scholar

Botta, M. (2021), Sector Regulation of Digital Platforms in Europe: Uno, Nessuno e Centomila. Journal of European Competition Law & Practice, 12(7), 500–512. 10.1093/jeclap/lpab046Search in Google Scholar

Bougette, P., Budzinski, O. & Marty, F. (2019), Exploitive Abuse and Abuse of Economic Dependence: What Can We Learn from an Industrial Organization Approach? Revue d'Economie Politique, 129(2), 261–286.10.3917/redp.292.0261Search in Google Scholar

Bougette, P., Budzinski, O. & Marty, F. (2022), Self-Preferencing and Competitive Damages: A Focus on Exploitative Abuses. The Antitrust Bulletin, 67(2), 190–207.10.1177/0003603X221082757Search in Google Scholar

Bourreau, M. & Gaudin, G. (2022), Streaming Platform and Strategic Recommendation Bias. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 31(1), 25–47.10.1111/jems.12452Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. (2004), The International Competition Network – Prospects and Limits on the Road towards International Competition Governance. Competition and Change, 8(3), 243–266.10.1080/1024529042000301944Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. (2008), The Governance of Global Competition: Competence Allocation in an International Multilevel Competition Policy System, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar10.4337/9781847209931.00010Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. (2010), An Institutional Analysis of the Enforcement Problems in Merger Control. European Competition Journal, 6(2), 445–474.10.5235/174410510792283727Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. (2016), Wettbewerbsordnung online: Aktuelle Herausforderungen durch Marktplätze im Internet. ORDO, 67, 385–409.10.1515/ordo-2016-0116Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. (2022), The Economics of International Competition Policy: New Challenges in Light of Digitization? in: D. Anderson & P. Lugard (eds.), The International Competition Network at Twenty: Origins, Accomplishments and Aspirations, Antwerp: Intersentia, 429–443. Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. (2021a), Gatekeeping in the Audiovisual Sector: Economic Background, Competition, and Regulation, in: Cappello M. (ed.), The Digital Services Act Package and the Audiovisual Sector, IRIS Special, Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory, S. 94–109.Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. (2021b), Algorithmic Search and Recommender Systems: The Brightside, The Darkside, and Regulatory Answers. Competition Forum, 2021, No 0019, https://competition-forum.com.Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O., Gaenssle, S. & Lindstädt-Dreusicke, N. (2021), The Battle of YouTube, TV and Netflix – An Empirical Analysis of Competition in Audiovisual Media Markets. SN Business & Economics, 9(116), 1–26.10.1007/s43546-021-00122-0Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O., Gaenssle, S. & Lindstädt-Dreusicke, N. (2022), Data (R)Evolution – The Economics of Algorithmic Search & Recommender Services, in: S. Baumann (Ed.), Handbook of Digital Business Ecosystems, Cheltenham: Elgar, 349–366.10.4337/9781839107191.00031Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O., Gaenssle, S. & Stöhr, A. (2020a), Outstanding Relevance across Markets: A New Concept of Market Power? Concurrences, 17(3), 38–43.Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O., Gaenssle, S. & Stöhr, A. (2020b), Der Entwurf zur 10. GWB Novelle: Interventionismus oder Laissez-faire? List Forum für Wirtschafts- und Finanzpolitik, 46(2), 157–184.10.1007/s41025-020-00204-1Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O., Grusevaja, M. & Noskova, V. (2021), The Economics of the German Investigation of Facebook’s Data Collection. Market and Competition Law Review, 5(1), 43–80.Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. & Haucap, J. (2020), Kartellrecht und Ökonomik: Institutions Matter! aIn: J. Haucap & O. Budzinski (Hrsg.), Recht und Ökonomie, Nomos: Baden-Baden, 331–361.10.5771/9783845266671-331Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. & Kuchinke, B. A. (2012), Deal Or No Deal: Consensual Arrangements as an Instrument of European Competition Policy? Review of Economics, 63(3), 265–292.10.1515/roe-2012-0301Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. & Kuchinke, B. A. (2020). Industrial Organization of Media Markets and Competition Policy, in: M. B. von Rimscha (ed.), Management and Economics of Communication, Berlin: DeGruyter, 21–45.10.1515/9783110589542-002Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. & Stöhr, A. (2019), Competition Policy Reform in Europe and Germany – Institutional Change in the Light of Digitization. European Competition Journal, 15(1), 15–54.10.1080/17441056.2018.1555942Search in Google Scholar

Budzinski, O. & Mendelsohn, J. (2022), Hintergründe, Ziele und wettbewerbspolitische Einordnung des Digital Markets Act, in: J. D. Schmidt & F. Hübener (ed.), Das neue Recht der digitalen Märkte, Baden-Baden: Nomos, S. 43–65.Search in Google Scholar

Buiten, M. C. (2021), Exploitative Abuses in Digital Markets: Between Competition Law and Data Protection Law. Journal of Antitrust Enforcement 9, https://doi.org/10.1093/jaenfo/jnaa041.10.1093/jaenfo/jnaa041Search in Google Scholar

Bundeskartellamt (2019), Decision of 6 February 2019, B6-22/16.Search in Google Scholar

Bundesgerichtshof (2020), Decision of 13 June 2023, KVR 69/19.Search in Google Scholar

Cabral, L., Haucap, J., Parker, G., Petropoulos, G., Valletti, T. & Van Alstyne, M. (2021), The Digital Markets Act: A Report from a Panel of Economic Experts, Luxembourg: European Union.Search in Google Scholar

Caffarra, C. & Scott Morton, F. (2021), How Will the Digital Markets Act Regulate Big Tech. ProMarket, 11.1.2021, https://promarket.org/2021/01/11/digital-markets-act-obligations-big-tech-uk-dmu/.Search in Google Scholar

Caillaud, B. & Jullien, B. (2003), Chicken and Egg: Competition among Intermediation Service Providers. Rand Journal of Economics, 34, 309–328.10.2307/1593720Search in Google Scholar

Cappello M. (ed.; 2021), The Digital Services Act Package and the Audiovisual Sector, IRIS Special, Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory, forthcoming.Search in Google Scholar

Chalmers, D., Davies, G. & Monti, G. (2014), European Union Law: Text and Materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139854542Search in Google Scholar

CJEU (1991), Judgement of the Court of 11. June 1991. Commission of the European Communities v Council of the European Communities. Directive on waste from the titanium dioxide industry – Legal basis. Case C-300/89.Search in Google Scholar

CJEU (2023), Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union of 4 July 2023. Meta Platforms Inc., formerly Faceboon Inc v Bundeskartellamt. Case C-252/21.Search in Google Scholar

CMA (2020), Online Platforms and Digital Advertising. UK Competition and Markets Authority Final report, July. Search in Google Scholar

Colomo, I. P. (2021), The Draft Digital Markets Act: A Legal and Institutional Analysis. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3790276.Search in Google Scholar

Congressional Majority Staff Report (2020), US Congressional Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law: Investigation of Competition in Digital Market. Report.Search in Google Scholar

Crémer, J., de Montjoye, Y-A. & Schweitzer, H. (2019), Competition Policy for the Digital Era. http://ec.europa.eu/competition/publications/reports/kd0419345enn.pdf (last accessed 31.3.2020).Search in Google Scholar

De Cornière, A. & Taylor, G. (2019), A Model of Biased Intermediation. Rand Journal of Economics, 50(4), 854–882.10.1111/1756-2171.12298Search in Google Scholar

De Cornière, A. & Taylor, G. (2020), Data and Competition: a General Framework with Applications to Mergers, Market Structure, and Privacy Policy. TSE Working Paper, n. 20–1076, February 2020.Search in Google Scholar

De Streel, A., Liebhaberg, B., Fletcher, A., Feasey, R., Krämer, J. & Monti, G. (2021), The European Proposal for a Digital Markets Act: A First Assessment, Cerre.Search in Google Scholar

Dworkin, R. (1977), Taking Rights Seriously, Cambridge; Harvard University Press.Search in Google Scholar

ECN (2021), How National Competition Agencies Can Strengthen the DMA, https://ec.europa.eu/competition/ecn/DMA_joint_EU_NCAs_paper_21.06.2021.pdf (last accessed 29.9.2021)Search in Google Scholar

Ecorys (2017), Business-to-Business relations in the online platform environment: Study for the European Commission. Report. Search in Google Scholar

Eifert, M., Metzger, A., Schweitzer, H., Wagner, G., (2021), Taming the Tech Giants: The DSA/DMA Package, 56/4 Common Market Law Review, 987–1028. 10.54648/COLA2021065Search in Google Scholar

European Commission (2020a), Proposal for a Digital Markets Act, COM(2020) 842 final, Brussels.Search in Google Scholar

European Commission (2020b), Proposal for a Digital Services Act, COM(2020) 825 final, Brussels.Search in Google Scholar

European Commission (2020c), DMA Impact Assessment Report, SWD(2020) 363 final, Brussels.Search in Google Scholar

European Parliament (2021), Amendments Adopted by the European Parliament on 15 December 2021 on the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on Contestable and Fair markets in the Digital Sector (Digital Markets Act), COM(2020)0842 – C9-0419/2020–2020/0374(COD))(1), Strasbourg.Search in Google Scholar

Evans, D. S. & Schmalensee, R. (2007), The Industrial Organization of Markets with Two-Sided Platforms. Competition Policy International 3(1), 151–179.Search in Google Scholar

EY (2018), Ernst & Young. Study on contractual relationships between online platforms and their professional users: Study for the European Commission. Search in Google Scholar

Farrell, J. & Katz, M. L. (2000), Innovation, Rent Extraction, and Integration in Systems Markets. Journal of Industrial Economics, 48(4), 413–432.10.1111/1467-6451.00131Search in Google Scholar

Farrell, J. & Saloner, G. (1985), Standardization, Compatibility, and Innovation. Rand Journal of Economics, 16(1), 70–83.10.2307/2555589Search in Google Scholar

Franck, J.-U., Monti, G. & de Streel, A. (2021), Art. 114 TFEU as a Legal Basis for Strengthened Control of Acquisitions by Digital Gatekeepers. Legal Opinion commissioned by the (German) Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/EN/Publikationen/Wirtschaft/article-114-tfeu-as-a-legal-basis-for-strengthened-control-of-acquisitions-by-digital-gatekeepers.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=5 (last accessed 29.9.2021).Search in Google Scholar

Franck, J.-U. & Peitz, M. (2021a), Digital Platforms and the New 19 a Tool in the German Competition Act. Journal of European Competition Law & Practice, 12(7), 513–528.10.1093/jeclap/lpab055Search in Google Scholar

Franck, J.-U., & Peitz, M. (2021b), How to Challenge Big Tech, Verfassungsblog, 2021/9/06, https://verfassungsblog.de/dsa-dma-power-12/ (last accessed 29.9.2021)Search in Google Scholar

Fox, E. M. (2000), Antitrust and Regulatory Federalism: Races Up, Down, and Sideways. New York University Law Review, 75(6), 1781–1807.Search in Google Scholar

Furman, J., Coyle, D., Fletcher, A., Marsden, P. & McAuley, D. (2019), Unlocking Digital Competition. Report of the Digital Competition Expert Panel. https://www.gov.uk/govern-ment/publications/unlocking-digital-competition-report-of-the-digital-competition-expert-panel. (last accessed 31.3.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Geradin, D. (2021), What Is a Digital Gatekeeper? Which Platforms Should Be Captured by the EC Proposal for a Digital Markets Act? https://ssrn.com/abstract=3788152 (last accessed 29.9.2021).10.2139/ssrn.3788152Search in Google Scholar

Geradin, D. & Katsifis, D. (2020), The Antitrust Case Against the Apple App Store, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3583029 (last accessed 29.9.2021).10.2139/ssrn.3583029Search in Google Scholar

Graef, I. (2021), Why End-User Consent Cannot Keep Markets Contestable: A suggestion for strengthening the limits on personal data combination in the proposed Digital Markets Act, Verfassungsblog, 2021/9/02, https://verfassungsblog.de/power-dsa-dma-08/ (last accessed 29.9.2021).Search in Google Scholar

Grossman, G. M. & Shapiro, C. (1984), Informative Advertising with Differentiated Products. Review of Economic Studies, 51(1), 63–81.10.2307/2297705Search in Google Scholar

Grünwald, A. (2021), in: Frankfurter Kommentar zum Kartellrecht, 100. Lieferung 11.2021, § 19a GWB.Search in Google Scholar

Hagiu, A., Teh, T.-H. & Wright, J. (2022), Should Platforms Be Allowed to Sell on Their Own Marketplaces? The Rand Journal of Economics, 53(2), 297–327.10.1111/1756-2171.12408Search in Google Scholar

Haucap, J. (2020), Plattformökonomie: neue Wettbewerbsregeln – Renaissance der Missbrauchsaufsicht. Wirtschaftsdienst, 100(13), 20–29.10.1007/s10273-020-2611-9Search in Google Scholar

Haucap, J., Kerber, W., Schweitzer, H. & Welker, R. (2019), Modernizing the Law on Abuse of Market Power in the Digital Age: A Summary of the Report for the German Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. The Antitrust Chronicle, 3(2), 39–46.Search in Google Scholar

Haucap, J. & Schweitzer, H. (2021), Die Fesselung der Tech-Giganten: Die deutsche GWB Novelle und der Vorschlag der Europäischen Kommission für einen Digital Markets Act im Vergleich. Böll Brief, Grüne Ordnungspolitik #15. May 2021. Search in Google Scholar

Haucap, J. & Stühmeier, T. (2016), Competition and Antitrust in Internet Markets, in: J. M. Bauer & M. Latzer (eds.), Handbook on the Economics of the Internet, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 183–210.10.4337/9780857939852.00017Search in Google Scholar

Hayek, F. A. von (1945), The Use of Knowledge in Society. American Economic Review, 35(4), 519–530.Search in Google Scholar

Hayek, F. A. von (1975), The Pretence of Knowledge. The Swedish Journal of Economics, 77(4), 433–442.10.2307/3439337Search in Google Scholar

Hayek, F. A. von (1968), Competition as a Discovery Procedure, in: F.A. von Hayek (ed.), New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas, Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1978, 179–190.10.7208/chicago/9780226321288.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Heimeshoff, U. (2020), Wettbewerbspolitik versus sektorspezifische Regulierung im Medien- und Telekommunikationssektor, in: J. Haucap & O. Budzinski (eds), Recht und Ökonomie, Nomos: Baden-Baden, 149–170.10.5771/9783845266671-149Search in Google Scholar

Jacobides, M. & Lianos I. (2021), Ecosystems and competition law in theory and practice, Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 30, Issue 5, 1199–1229.10.1093/icc/dtab061Search in Google Scholar

Jeon, D.-S. (2021), Expert Group for the Observatory on the Online Platform Economy – Market power and transparency in open display advertising: a case study, https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/library/expert-group-eu-observatory-online-platform-economy-final-reports.Search in Google Scholar

JFTC (2019), Report Regarding Trade Practices on Digital Platforms. Japan Fair Trade Commission, https://www.jftc.go.jp/en/pressreleases/yearly-2019/October/191031.html.Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, J. P. & Myatt D. P. (2006), On the Simple Economics of Advertising, Marketing and Product Design. American Economic Review 96(3), 756-78410.1257/aer.96.3.756Search in Google Scholar

Katz, M. L. & Shapiro, C. (1985), Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility. American Economic Review, 75(3), 424–440.Search in Google Scholar

Katz, M. L. & Shapiro, C. (1994), Systems Competition and Network Effects. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(2), 93–115.10.1257/jep.8.2.93Search in Google Scholar

Kerber, W. (2019), Updating Competition Policy for the Digital Economy? An Analysis of Recent Reports in Germany, UK, EU, and Australia. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3469624 (last accessed 31.03.2020).10.2139/ssrn.3469624Search in Google Scholar

Kerber, W. (2021), Taming Tech Giants With a Per-Se Rules Approach? The Digital Markets Act from the “Rules vs. Standard” Perspective. Concurrences, 18(3), 28–34.10.2139/ssrn.3861706Search in Google Scholar

Kerber, W. & Zolna, K. (2020), The German Facebook Case: The Law and Economics of the Relationship between Competition and Data Protection Law, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3719098.10.2139/ssrn.3719098Search in Google Scholar

Kirk, A., Offergeld, P. & Rohner, T. (Hrsg.), Kartellrecht in der Zeitenwende: Auf dem Weg zur 11. und 12. GWB-Novelle, Baden-Baden: Nomos 2023,10.5771/9783748937227Search in Google Scholar

Klemperer, P. (1995), Competition When Consumers Have Switching Costs. Review of Economic Studies, 62(4), 515–539.10.2307/2298075Search in Google Scholar

Komninos, A. (2021), The Digital Markets Act and Private Enforcement: Proposals for an Optimal System of Enforcement, Eleanor M. Fox Liber Amicorum, Antitrust Ambassador to the World, Concurrences, 2021.10.2139/ssrn.3914932Search in Google Scholar

Krämer, J. (2020; ed.), Digital Markets and Online Platforms: New Perspectives on Regulation and Competition Law, CERRE, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3733346.10.2139/ssrn.3733346Search in Google Scholar

Larouche, P. & de Streel, A. (2020), Interplay between the New Competition Tool and Sector-Specific Regulation in the EU, kd0120577enn.pdf (europa.eu).Search in Google Scholar

Marsden, P. (2008), Art. 82 and Structural Remedies After Microsoft, International Competition Form, Speech St. Gallen, https://www.biicl.org/files/3554_art_82_and_structural_remedies_(marsden).pdf (last accessed 29.9.2021).Search in Google Scholar

Marsden, P. & Podszun, R. (2020), Restoring Balance to Digital Competition – Sensible Rules, Effective Enforcement. Berlin: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.Search in Google Scholar

Marty, F. & Pillot, J. (2021), Cooperation, Dependence, and Eviction: How Platform-to-business Coopetition Relationships Should Be Addressed in Mobile Telephony Ecosystems, in: D. Bosco & M. Gal (eds.), Challenges to Assumptions in Competition Law, Cheltenham: Elgar, 2–22.10.4337/9781839109072.00007Search in Google Scholar

Mendelsohn, J. (2018), Systemrisiko und Wirtschaftsordnung im Bankensektor – Zum Ende von Too Big To Fail, Baden-Baden: NOMOS10.5771/9783845294940Search in Google Scholar

Monti, G. (2021), The Digital Markets Act – Institutional Design and Suggestions for Improvement. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3797730.10.2139/ssrn.3797730Search in Google Scholar

Monopolkommission (2021), DMA stärker auf marktübergreifende Ökosysteme ausrichten! MK Policy Brief. https://www.monopolkommission.de/images/Policy_Brief/MK_Policy_Brief_8.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Ofcom (2019), Online Market Failures and Harms: An Economic Perspective on the Challenges and Opportunities in Regulating Online Services. UK Office of Communications Report, October. Search in Google Scholar

OLG Düsseldorf (2019). Decision of 26. August 2019, VI-Kart 1/19 (V).Search in Google Scholar

Padilla, J., Perkins, J. & Piccolo, S. (2022), Self-Preferencing in Markets with Vertically-Integrated Gatekeeper Platforms. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 70(2), 371–395.10.1111/joie.12287Search in Google Scholar

Petit, N. (2021), The Proposed Digital Markets Act (DMA): A Legal and Policy Review. Journal of European Competition Law & Practice, 12(7), 529–541.10.1093/jeclap/lpab062Search in Google Scholar

Podszun, R. (2019), Regulatory Mishmash? Competition Law, Facebook and Consumer Protection. Journal of European Consumer and Market Law, 8(2), 49–52.Search in Google Scholar

Podszun, R., Bongartz, P. & Langenstein, S. (2021), Proposals on how to Improve the Digital Markets Act. Policy paper in preparation of the information session on the Digital Markets Act in the European Parliament’s Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) on 19 February 2021, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3788571 (last accessed 29.9.2021).10.2139/ssrn.3788571Search in Google Scholar

Richter, H., Straub, M. & Tuchtfeld, E. (2021, Hrsg.), To Break Up or Regulate Big Tech? – Avenues to Constraint Private Power in the DSA/DMA Package, München: MPI.10.2139/ssrn.3932809Search in Google Scholar

Robertson, V.H.S.E., (2023), The Complementary Nature of the Digital Markets Act and Articles 101 and 102 TFEU, DMA working group (European Parliament’s IMCO), https://ssrn.com/abstract=4458112 (last accessed 05.7.2023).10.2139/ssrn.4458112Search in Google Scholar

Rochet, J.-C. & Tirole, J. (2003), Platform Competition in Two-sided Markets. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1(4), 990–1029.10.1162/154247603322493212Search in Google Scholar

Rochet, J.-C. & Tirole, J. (2006), Two-sided Markets: A Progress Report. Rand Journal of Economics, 37(3), 645–667.10.1111/j.1756-2171.2006.tb00036.xSearch in Google Scholar

Rodríguez de las Heras Ballell, T. (2021), The Scope of the DMA: Pivotal for success, critically assessed, Verfassungsblog, 2021/8/30, https://verfassungsblog.de/power-dsa-dma-02/ (last accessed 29.9.2021).Search in Google Scholar

Ryna, A. (2021), Why the DMA is much more than competition law (and should not be treated as such). Comment Chillin’Competition 16.6.2021, https://chillingcompetition.com/2021/06/16/why-the-dma-is-much-more-than-competition-law-and-should-not-be-treated-as-such-by-agustin-reyna/ (last accessed 05.10.2021).Search in Google Scholar

Savin, A. (2021), The EU Digital Services Act: Towards a More Responsible Internet. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3786792 (last accessed 29.9.2021).Search in Google Scholar

Schallbruch, M., Schweitzer, H. & Wambach, A. (2019), A New Competition Framework for the Digital Economy. The Antitrust Chronicle, 3(2), 33–38.Search in Google Scholar

Schweitzer, H. (2020), The New Competition Tool – Its Institutional Set-up and Procedural Design, kd0420574enn.pdf (europa.eu) (last accessed 29.9.2021).Search in Google Scholar

Schweitzer, H. (2021), The Art to Make Gatekeeper Positions Contestable and the Challenge to Know What Is Fair: A Discussion of the Digital Markets Act Proposal. Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht 2021, 503.Search in Google Scholar

Schweitzer, H., Haucap, J., Kerber, W. & Welker, R. (2018), Modernising the Law on Abuse of Market Power: Report for the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (Germany). https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/DE/Downloads/Studien/modernisierung-der-missbrauchsaufsicht-fuer-marktmaechtige-unternehmen-zusammenfassung-englisch.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3. (last accessed 9.6.2020).Search in Google Scholar

Schweitzer, H. & Welker, R. (2019), Competition Policy for the Digital Era. The Antitrust Chronicle, 3(2), 16–24.Search in Google Scholar

Scott Morton, F. M., Bouvier, P., Esrachi, A., Jullien, B., Katz, R., Kimmelman, G., Melamed, A. D. & Morgenstern, J. (2019), Committee for the Study of Digital Platforms: Market Structure and Antitrust Subcommittee. Report.Search in Google Scholar

Scott Morton, F. M., Crawford, G. S., Crémer, J., Dinielli, D., Fletcher, A., Heidhues, P., Schnitzer, M. & Seim, K. (2021), Equitable Interoperability: The “Super Tool” of Digital Platform Governance, Tobin Center Policy Discussion Paper 4, Yale University.10.2139/ssrn.3923602Search in Google Scholar

Scott Morton, F.M. & Kades, M. (2021), Interoperability as a Competition Remedy for Digital Markets, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3808372 (last accessed 10.07.2023).10.2139/ssrn.3808372Search in Google Scholar

Seelinger, D. (2023), in: Podszun, Kommentar Digital Markets Act: DMA, Art. 13 DMA, Nomos.Search in Google Scholar

Shapiro, S.- J., (2007), The “Hart-Dworkin” Debate: A Short Guide for the Perplexed, Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series No. 77. 10.2139/ssrn.968657Search in Google Scholar

Steenbergen, J., Snoep, M. & Barthelmé, P. (2019), Benelux Competition Authorities on Challenges in a Digital World. The Antitrust Chronicle, 3(2), 54–58.Search in Google Scholar

Valletti, T. (2021), How to Tame the Tech Giants: Reverse the Burden of Proof in Merger Reviews. ProMarket.org-Blog, June, How to Tame Big Tech: Reverse the Burden of Proof in Merger Reviews (promarket.org).Search in Google Scholar

van Cleynenbruegel, P. (2020). Article 101 TFEU’s Association of Undertakings Notion and Its Surprising Potential to Help Distinguish Acceptable from Unacceptable Algorithmic Collusion. The Antitrust Bulletin, 63(7).10.1177/0003603X20929116Search in Google Scholar

Vezzoso, S. (2021), The Dawn of Pro-Competition Data Regulation for Gatekeepers in the EU, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3772724 (last accessed 29.9.2021).10.2139/ssrn.3772724Search in Google Scholar

von Kalben, J. (2018). Verpflichtungszusagen im EU-Wettbewerbsrecht: Eine Untersuchung Funktion und Grenzen von Verpflichtungsbeschlüssen nach Art. 9 VO 1/2003 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Energiesektors, Baden-Baden: NOMOS.10.5771/9783845291703-1Search in Google Scholar

Wagner-Von Papp, F. H. (2012). Best and even better practices in commitment procedures after Alrosa: The dangers of abandoning the “Struggle for Competition Law”. Common Market Law Review, 49(3), 929–970.10.54648/COLA2012035Search in Google Scholar

Zhu, F. & Liu, Q. (2018). Competing with Complementors: An Empirical Look at amazon.com. Strategic Management Journal, 39(10), 2618–2642.10.1002/smj.2932Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2023-11-20
Published in Print: 2023-11-01

© 2023 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 29.2.2024 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/ordo-2023-2015/html
Scroll to top button