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Publicly Available Published by De Gruyter May 27, 2014

Abbreviations of polymer names and guidelines for abbreviating polymer names (IUPAC Recommendations 2014)

  • Jiasong He EMAIL logo , Jiazhong Chen , Karl-Heinz Hellwich , Michael Hess , Kazuyuki Horie , Richard G. Jones , Jaroslav Kahovec , Tatsuki Kitayama , Pavel Kratochvíl , Stefano V. Meille , Itaru Mita , Claudio dos Santos , Michel Vert and Jiří Vohlídal

Abstract

This document provides some basic rules and guidelines regarding the use and creation of abbreviations for the names of polymers. An extended list of currently used abbreviations for polymers and polymeric materials is appended.

1 Introduction

Abbreviations are commonly used by authors of manuscripts to avoid repetition of lengthy polymer names, and for the benefit of the editors and readers of scientific and professional journals and other written material. People working within industry use a well-established ISO list of abbreviations of polymer names which contains more than 100 entries (138 in ISO 1043-1:2011 [1]). In fact, mainly selected on the basis of the scale of production, the ISO abbreviations are used in industry, standards, trade, and legislation. On the other hand, scientific and professional journals in the polymer field deal with several hundreds of polymers annually, including many new ones, some with complicated structures. Thus, IUPAC has also recognised the importance of abbreviations and has published recommendations on the use of common abbreviations for polymer names [2–4].

It is impossible to derive a systematic and unique abbreviation from a polymer name while maintaining a one-to-one correspondence that makes it self-explanatory. Ad hoc abbreviations of polymer names are produced in daily research activities and those presently in widespread use have been constructed for convenience and ready comprehension. Nonetheless, it is incontestable that any abbreviation has to be explained whenever it occurs for the first time in a text [5]. However, in order to minimize any difference in the abbreviations used for the same polymer from one author to another, three fundamental rules and some elaborating guidelines for creating an abbreviation from a polymer name are proposed in this document. Full respect is accorded to existing and widely accepted abbreviations (see Appendix) so these rules and guidelines are mainly directed towards abbreviating names of newly synthesized polymers as may in future be described in scientific and professional journals.

In order to receive widespread acceptance, abbreviations of the names of polymers, especially those of newly synthesized polymers, should be concise, clear, and distinguishable from abbreviations that are already accepted [3]. They should use as few letters as possible, and the combinations of letters should come from the initials of the names of the comprising monomers or constitutional units in the order in which they appear in the name of the polymer. If possible, they should also evoke in readers a prompt and clear recognition of their full names. It should be noted here that an abbreviation is different from an acronym. An abbreviation is simply a shortened or contracted form of a word, words, or a phrase, which is only used written but not spoken as such, whilst an acronym is made from a series of initial letters or parts of a group of words, spoken as such and sometimes even forming a pronounceable word. Some abbreviations of polymer names might therefore also be acronyms.

The commonly accepted and currently used abbreviations of polymer names that are listed in the Appendix are referenced to the organization that approved and adopted them and the year of publication. In some instances, variants are presented. This list, though extensive, is certainly not exhaustive.

2 Rules

Rule 1.Each abbreviation of a polymer name shall be fully defined the first time it appears in the text of publications or other written material [5].

Rule 2.No abbreviations of polymer names shall be used in titles of publications [5].

Rule 3.Starting from either the source-based (Guideline 3.1), structure-based (Guideline 3.5), or traditional polymer name (Guideline 3.5), an abbreviation shall be constructed by

  • retaining P from the prefix “poly”, except when abbreviating traditional names of polymers for which it is not a component part, typically cellulose nitrate;

  • followed by capital letters and subsequent lowercase letters, if necessary, indicating the important parts of the name being abbreviated and retaining, if deemed essential, parentheses, locants (Guideline 3.3), connectives (Guideline 3.2), prefixes (Guideline 3.3), and chain configurational indicators such as co, block, stat, R, S, etc. (Guidelines 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4).

Note: In scientific publications, the letter P at the beginning of the abbreviation is basic and should be applied to all polymers irrespective of ISO adopting abbreviations for copolymers that do not use it. For example, poly(butadiene-acrylonitrile) or poly(buta-1,3-diene-co-acrylonitrile) should be abbreviated to PBDAN, instead of AB abbreviated from acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer by ISO.

Examples

poly(ethylene terephthalate)PET
polyacrylonitrilePAN
polyanilinePANI or PAn
poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)P(St-co-AN) or P(St-AN) or PStAN
poly[(butyl methacrylate)-co-styrene]P(BMA-co-St) or P(BMA-St)
poly[(R)-methyloxirane]PR-MO
poly{(R)-[oxy(1-methylethylene)]}PR-OME
poly{(S)-[oxy(1-methylethylene)]}PS-OME
poly(hexa-1,3-diene)PH1,3D
poly(hexa-1,5-diene)PH1,5D

3 Guidelines

3.1

Where there might be ambiguity, one or more letters and locants of the full source-based name of the polymer should be used to make the abbreviation distinguishable from those of other polymers (referred to within the publication). Both consonants and vowels can be used without preference.

Examples

poly[(2-chlorophenyl)acetylene]P2CPA
poly(1-chloro-2-phenylacetylene)P1C2PA
poly[1-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)acetylene]P1C2CPA
poly(N-ethylaniline)PNEANI
poly(2-ethylaniline)P2EANI

3.2

For copolymers, the abbreviations for monomer names are given in parentheses after P and, if required for the sake of clarity or to avoid ambiguity, a hyphen or hyphens and connectives should be used to separate them. The use of parentheses is applied to all copolymers with the exception of block and graft copolymers.

The italicized connectives and prefixes used in copolymer source-based names should be retained in the abbreviations in their properly abbreviated form. These connectives and prefixes should also be in positions that correspond to those in the full name of the copolymer. The use of approved short versions of the connectives is strongly recommended: -a- for -alt-, -b- for -block-, and -g- for -graft-. Connectives such as -co-, -ran-, -per-, and -stat- should be used without further abbreviation.

Examples

poly[styrene-stat-(methyl methacrylate)]P(St-stat-MMA) or P(St-MMA)
polystyrene-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate)PSt-g-PMMA
poly(buta-1,3-diene)-graft-poly(acrylonitrile-co-styrene)PBD-g-P(AN-co-St) or PBD-g-P(AN-St)
polystyrene-block-poly(buta-1,3-diene)PSt-b-PBD
poly[styrene-alt-(maleic anhydride)]P(St-a-MAH)
polystyrene-block-poly(buta-1,3-diene)-block-polystyrenePSt-b-PBD-b-PSt
polystyrene-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate)PSt-g-PMMA
poly[styrene-stat-(methyl methacrylate)]P(St-stat-MMA), P(St-MMA)

3.3

Prefixes and connectives characterizing the constitution or assembly of polymer molecules, such as star-, comb-, net- (network), ipn- (interpenetrating polymer network), and sipn- (semi-interpenetrating polymer network), may be used as such. Some adjectives and nouns can be shortened to make prefixes, for example, cyc- (cyclic), br- (branched), hybr- (hyperbranched), and compl- (polymer-polymer complex).

Examples

6-star-poly(ε-caprolactone)6-star-Pε-CL or 6-star-PCL
polystyrene-comb-[polyacrylonitrile; poly(methyl methacrylate)]PSt-comb-(PAN;PMMA)
net-poly[styrene-co-(1,3-divinylbenzene)]net-P(St-co-1,3DVB) or net-P(St-1,3DVB)
net-poly[styrene-co-(1,4-divinylbenzene)]net-P(St-co-1,4DVB) or net-P(St-1,4DVB)
[net-poly(buta-1,3-diene)]-ipn-(net-polystyrene)(net-PBD)-ipn-(net-PSt)
net-poly(phenol-co-formaldehyde)net-P(P-co-F) or P(P-F)
net-poly(diallyl phthalate)net-PDAP or PDAP
br-poly[styrene-co-(1,3-divinylbenzene)]br-P(St-co-1,3DVB) or br-P(St-1,3DVB)
hybr-poly[styrene-co-(1,3-divinylbenzene)]hybr-P(St-co-1,3DVB) or hybr-P(St-1,3DVB)
polyaniline-compl-poly(4-vinylbenzenesulfonic acid)PANI-compl-PVBSA

3.4

For polymers that differ in sequences of configurational base units [6], qualifiers such as atactic, isotactic, and syndiotactic are abbreviated to the italic descriptors at, it, and st, respectively. For those based on chiral monomers, stereodescriptors for enantiomers such as R or S and/or l or d are retained unchanged, as are descriptors (RS) or dl used for racemates.

Examples

atactic polypropyleneat-PP
isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate)it-PMMA
syndiotactic polystyrenest-PSt
poly(dl-lactic acid) or poly[(RS)-lactic acid]P(dl-LA) or P(RS-LA)
poly(l-lactic acid) or poly[(S)-lactic acid]PLLA or P(S-LA)

3.5

Abbreviations of structure-based polymer names are based on the systematic names of the constitutional repeating units (CRUs) instead of those of monomers in source-based names.

Note: The most commonly used names for polymers are source-based names in which the name of a monomer, real or apparent, follows the prefix “poly”. However, IUPAC has introduced structure-based nomenclature as an alternative naming system for polymers, which is based on a method of naming the sequence of constitutional or structural units that represent the repeating pattern of the structure of a macromolecule. Examples of abbreviations of source- and structure-based names of the same polymers are as follows:

Polymer nameAbbreviation
Source-basedStructure-basedSource-basedStructure-based
polyethene (traditional name: polyethylene)poly(methylene)PEPM
polypropenepoly(1-methylethane-1,2-diyl)PPPME
poly(2-methylpropene), polyisobutene (traditional name: polyisobutylene)poly(1,1-dimethylethane-1,2-diyl)PMP, PIBPDME
poly(ethylene oxide)poly(oxyethane-1,2-diyl)PEOPOE
polystyrenepoly(1-phenylethane-1,2-diyl)PStPPE
poly(1,4-phenylene oxide)poly(oxy-1,4-phenylene)PPOPOP
polystyrene-block-polyacrylonitrilepoly(1-phenylethane-1,2-diyl)- poly(1-cyanoethane-1,2-diyl)PSt-b-PANPPE-PCE

4 Membership of sponsoring bodies

Membership of the IUPAC Polymer Division Committee for the period 2012–2013 was as follows:

President: M. Buback (Germany); Vice President: G. T. Russell (New Zealand); Secretary: M. Hess (Germany); Past President: C. K. Ober (USA); Titular Members: D. Dijkstra (Germany); R. C. Hiorns (France); P. Kubisa (Poland); G. Moad (Australia); W. Mormann (Germany); D. W. Smith (USA); Associate Members: J. He (China); R. G. Jones (UK); I. Lacik (Slovakia); M. Sawamoto (Japan); Y. Yagci (Turkey); M. Žigon (Slovenia); National Representatives: V. P. Hoven (Thailand); M. A. Khan (Bangladesh); J.-S. Kim (Korea); M. Malinconico (Italy); N. Manolova (Bulgaria); S. Margel (Isreal); G. S. Mhinzi (Tanzania); A. M. Muzafarov (Russia); M. I. Sarwar (Pakistan); J. Vohlídal (Czech Republic).

Membership of the Subcommittee on Polymer Terminology for the period 2009–2012 was as follows: Chair: R. G. Jones (UK); Secretary: T. Kitayama (Japan), 2008–2009; R. C. Hiorns (France), 2010–2013; Members: G. Allegra (Italy); M. Barón (Argentina); T. Chang (Korea); A. Fradet (France); J. He (China); K.-H. Hellwich (Germany); M. Hess (Germany); P. Hodge (UK); K. Horie1 (Japan); A. D. Jenkins (UK); J.-I. Jin (Korea); J. Kahovec (Czech Republic); P. Kratochvíl (Czech Republic); P. Kubisa (Poland); C. K. Luscombe (USA); S. V. Meille (Italy); I. Mita1 (Japan); G. Moad (Australia); W. Mormann (Germany); T. Nakano (Japan); C. K. Ober (USA); S. Penczek (Poland); G. T. Russell (New Zealand); C. dos Santos (Brazil); F. Schué (France); S. Słomkowski (Poland); D. W. Smith (USA); R. F. T. Stepto (UK); N. Stingelin (UK); D. Tabak (Brazil); J.-P. Vairon (France); M. Vert (France); J. Vohlídal (Czech Republic); M. G. Walter (USA); E. S. Wilks (USA).

Membership of the Subcommittee on Polymer Terminology during the preparation of this report (2006–2013) was as follows: Chair: R. G. Jones (UK); Secretary: M. Hess (Germany), 2006–2007; T. Kitayama (Japan), 2008–2009; R. C. Hiorns (France), 2010–2013; Members: G. Allegra (Italy); M. Barón (Argentina); T. Chang (Korea); C. dos Santos (Brazil); A. Fradet (France); K. Hatada (Japan); J. He (China); K.-H. Hellwich (Germany); P. Hodge (UK); K. Horie1 (Japan); A. D. Jenkins (UK); J.-I. Jin (Korea); J. Kahovec (Czech Republic); P. Kratochvíl (Czech Republic); P. Kubisa (Poland); I. Meisel (Germany); W. V. Metanomski1 (USA); S. V. Meille (Italy); I. Mita1 (Japan); G. Moad (Australia); W. Mormann (Germany); C. K. Ober (USA); S. Penczek (Poland); L. P. Rebelo (Portugal); M. Rinaudo (France); I. Schopov (Bulgaria); M. Schubert (USA); F. Schué (France); V. P. Shibaev (Russia); S. Słomkowski (Poland); R. F. T. Stepto (UK); D. Tabak (Brazil); J.-P. Vairon (France); M. Vert (France); J. Vohlídal (Czech Republic); E. S. Wilks (USA); W. J. Work (USA).


Article note: IUPAC Polymer Division, Subcommittee on Polymer Terminology: see more details on p. 1007.



Corresponding author: Jiasong He, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, e-mail:
aDeceased.
  1. 1

    Deceased.

Appendix: Extended list of currently used abbreviations for polymer names

In the following table, the superscripted letters refer to the Notes and the numbers refer to the References.

AbbreviationaIUPAC abbreviationb,cIUPAC namedName of polymer on which abbreviation is basedeSource
ABpoly(acrylonitrile-stat-butadiene)acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer[1, 2]
ABApoly(acrylonitrile-stat-butadiene-stat-acrylate)acrylonitrile-butadiene-acrylate copolymer[2]
ABAKpoly(acrylonitrile-stat-butadiene-stat-acrylate)acrylonitrile-butadiene-acrylate copolymer[1]
ABSpoly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene)acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer[1, 2]
ACPESpolyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(chlorinated polyethylene)-graft-polystyreneacrylonitrile-chlorinated polyethylene-styrene copolymer[2]
ACSpolyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(chlorinated polyethylene)-graft-polystyreneacrylonitrile-(chlorinated polyethylene)-styrene copolymer[1]
AEPDMSpolyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethene-co-propene-co-diene)-graft-polystyreneacrylonitrile-(ethene-propene-diene)-styrene copolymer[2]
AEPDSpolyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(ethene-co-propene-co-diene)-graft-polystyreneacrylonitrile-(ethene-propene-diene)-styrene copolymer[1]
AESpolyacrylonitrile-graft-polyethylene-graft-polystyreneacrylonitrile-ethene-styrene copolymer[2]
AMABpolyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate)-graft-polyacrylonitrile-graft-polybutadieneacrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer[2]
AMMApolyacrylonitrile-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate)acrylonitrile-(methyl methacrylate) copolymer, acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate copolymer[1, 2]
ARParomatic polyester[2]
ARPthermoplastic polyester: copolyester [poly(aryl terephthalate)][2]
ASApoly(acrylonitrile-stat-styrene-stat-acrylate)acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer[1, 2]
CAcellulose acetatecellulose acetate[1, 2]
CABcellulose acetate butyratecellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate-butyrate[1, 2]
CAPcellulose acetate propionatecellulose acetate propionate[1, 2]
CEFnet-(cellulose-co-formaldehyde)cellulose formaldehyde copolymer[1, 2]
CFnet-poly(cresol-co-formaldehyde)cresol-formaldehyde copolymer[1, 2]
CMCcarboxymethyl cellulosecarboxymethyl cellulose[1, 2]
CNcellulose nitratecellulose nitrate[1, 2]
COCcycloolefin copolymer[1]
CPcellulose propionatecellulose propionate[1, 2]
CPEchlorinated polyethylenechlorinated polyethylene[2]
CPVCchlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)[2]
CScaseincasein[2]
CSFnet-(casein-co-formaldehyde)casein-formaldehyde copolymer[2]
CTAcellulose triacetatecellulose triacetate[1, 2]
EAApoly[ethene-stat-(acrylic acid)]ethene-(acrylic acid) copolymer[1]
EBAKpoly[ethene-stat-(butyl acrylate)]ethene-(butyl acrylate) copolymer[1]
ECethyl celluloseethyl cellulose[1, 2]
E-CTFEpoly(ethene-co-chlorotrifluoroethene)ethene-chlorotrifluoroethene copolymer[2]
EEApoly[ethene-stat-(ethyl acrylate)]ethene-ethyl acrylate copolymer[2]
EEAKpoly[ethene-stat-(ethyl acrylate)]ethene-(ethyl acrylate) copolymer[1]
EMApoly[ethene-stat-(methacrylic acid)]ethene-(methacrylic acid) copolymer, ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer[1, 2]
EPepoxy, epoxide copolymer[1, 2]
E/Ppolyethylene-block-polypropyleneethylene-propylene copolymer[1]
EPDpoly(ethene-ran-propene-ran-diene)ethene-propene-diene copolymer[2]
EPMpolyethylene-block-polypropyleneethylene-propylene copolymer[2]
ETFEpoly(ethene-co-tetrafluoroethene)ethene-tetrafluoroethene copolymer[1, 2]
EVApoly[ethene-stat-(vinyl acetate)]ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer[2]
EVACpoly[ethene-stat-(vinyl acetate)]ethene-(vinyl acetate) copolymer[1]
EVOHpoly[ethene-co-(vinyl alcohol))ethene-(vinyl alcohol) copolymer, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer[1, 2]
FECAthermoplastic elastomer, fully crosslinked elastomer alloy[2]
FEPpoly(hexafluoropropene-co-tetrafluoroethene)perfluoro(ethylene-propylene) copolymer[1, 2]
FFpoly(furan-alt-formaldehyde)furan-formaldehyde copolymer[1, 2]
HBVpoly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate)[1]
HCTPVthermoplastic elastomer, highly crosslinked thermoplastic vulcanizate[2]
HDPEhigh-density polyethylene[2]
HIPShigh impact-resistant polystyrene[2]
IPSimpact-resistant polystyrene[2]
LCPliquid-crystal polymer[1, 2]
LDPElow-density polyethylene[2]
LLDPElinear low-density polyethylene[2]
LMDPElinear medium-density polyethylene[2]
MABSpoly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene](methyl methacrylate)-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer[1]
MBSpoly(methyl methacrylate)-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene(methyl methacrylate)-butadiene-styrene copolymer[1]
MBSpolymethacrylate-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrenemethacrylate-butadiene-styrene copolymer[2]
MCmethyl cellulosemethyl cellulose[1, 2]
MDPEmedium-density polyethylene[2]
MFnet-poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde)melamine-formaldehyde copolymer[1, 2]
MFAperfluoromethoxy copolymer[2]
MMABSpoly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene]methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer[2]
MPnet-poly(melamine-co-phenol)melamine-phenol copolymer[1]
MPAfluorocarbon perfluoromethoxy[2]
MPFnet-poly(melamine-co-phenol-co-formaldehyde)melamine/phenol-formaldehyde copolymer[2]
MSANpoly(α-methyl styrene-stat-acrylonitrile)α-methylstyrene-acrylonitrile copolymer[1]
PAPAcpolyamidepolyamide[1, 2]
PA11poly(11-aminoundecanoic acid)polyamide 11[2]
PA12polylauryllactampolyamide 12[2]
PA1212poly(dodecamethylene dodecamide)polyamide 1212[2]
PA46poly(tetramethylene adipamide)polyamide 46[2]
PA6poly(ε-caprolactam), poly(hexano-6-lactam)polyamide 6[2]
PA610poly(hexamethylene sebacamide)polyamide 610[2]
PA612poly(hexamethylene laurylamide)polyamide 612[2]
PA66poly(N,N′-hexamethylene adipamide)polyamide 66[2]
PA69poly(hexamethylene azelamide)polyamide 69[2]
PAAPAAcpoly(acrylic acid)poly(acrylic acid)[1, 2]
PADCpoly(oxydiethane-2,1-diyl diprop-2-en-1-yl biscarbonate)poly(allyl diglycol carbonate)[2]
PAEPAEcpolyaryletherpolyarylether[2]
PAEKPAEKcpoly(aryletherketone)polyaryletherketone, poly(aryl ether ketone)[1, 2]
PAIPAIcpoly(amide-imide)polyamideimide, polyamide-imide[1, 2]
PAKpolyacrylatepolyacrylate, polyester alkyd[1, 2]
PANPANb,cpolyacrylonitrilepolyacrylonitrile[1, 2]
PARPARcpolyarylatepolyarylate[1, 2]
PARAPARAcpolyarylamidepolyarylamide, polyaryl amide[1, 2]
PASUPASUcpoly(arylsulfone)polyarylsulfone[2]
PATpoly(aryl terephthalate)poly(aryl terephthalate)[2]
PAT1,5DPAT1,5Dcpoly(alkylthiophenes)-1,5-diyl
P3ATP3ATcpoly(3-alkylthiophenes)
PAURpolyesterurethanepoly(ester urethane)[2]
PBPBcpoly(but-1-ene), polybutylenepolybutene, polybutene-1[1, 2]
PBAPBAcpoly(butyl acrylate)poly(butyl acrylate)[2]
PBAKpoly(butyl acrylate)poly(butyl acrylate)[1]
PBDANPBDANcpoly(buta-1,3-diene-co-acrylonitrile), poly(butadiene-acrylonitrile)polybutadiene-acrylonitrile[2]
PBDPBDcpoly(buta-1,3-diene), polybutadiene1,2-polybutadiene[1]
PBIPBIcpoly(benzimidazole)poly(benzimidazole)
PBMAPBMAcpoly(butyl methacrylate)poly(butyl methacrylate)
PBNPBNcpoly(tetramethylene naphthalene-1,8-diyl), poly(butylene naphthalate)poly(butylene naphthalate)[1]
PBSpoly(butylene succinate)[1]
PBSPBStcpoly(butadiene-co-styrene)polybutadiene-styrene[2]
PBSApoly(butylene succinate adipate)[1]
PBTPBTcpoly(tetramethylene terephthalate), poly(butylene tererphthalate)poly(butylene tererphthalate)[1, 2]
PCPCcbisphenol-A polycarbonatepolycarbonate[1, 2]
PCCEpoly[cyclohexane-1,4-diylbis(methylene) cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylate]poly(cyclohexylene dimethylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate)[1, 2]
PCLPCLcpolycaprolactonepolycaprolactone, poly(ε-caprolactone)[1, 2]
PCOpolycycloolefin[1]
PCTpoly[cyclohexane-1,4-diylbis(methylene) terephthalate]poly(cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate)[1, 2]
PCTApoly[cyclohexane-1,4-diylbis(methylene) terephthalate]poly(cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate), acid comonomer[2]
PCTFEPCTFEb,cpoly(chlorotrifluoroethene)polychlorotrifluoroethylene[1, 2]
PCTGpoly(cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate), glycol[2]
PDAPPDAPcpoly(diallyl phthalate)poly(diallyl phthalate)[1, 2]
PDCPDPDCPDcpoly(dicyclopentadiene)polydicyclopentadiene[1]
PDHSPDHScpoly(dihexylsilane)
PDLAPDLAcpoly(d-lactic acid), poly[(R)-lactic acid]poly(d-lactic acid)
PDMSPDMScpoly(dimethylsiloxane)
PEPEb,cpolyethene, polyethylenepolyethene, polyethylene[1, 2]
PE-Cpolyethylene, chlorinated[1]
PE-HDpolyethylene, high density[1]
PE-LDpolyethylene, low density[1]
PE-LLDpolyethylene, linear low density[1]
PE-MDpolyethylene, medium density[1]
PE-UHMWpolyethylene, ultra high molecular weight[1]
PE-VLDpolyethylene, very low density[1]
PEBApoly(ether block amide)[2]
PECPECcpolyestercarbonatepolyestercarbonate[1]
PEDOTpoly[3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene]
PEEKPEEKcpolyetheretherketonepolyetheretherketone, polyetheretherketone[1, 2]
PEEKKPEEKKcpolyetheretherketoneketonepolyetheretherketoneketone[2]
PEKEKKPEKEKKcpolyetherketoneetherketoneketonepolyetherketoneetherketoneketone[2]
PEESTPEESTcpolyetheresterpolyetherester[1]
PEIPEIcpolyetherimidepolyetherimide[1, 2]
PEKPEKcpolyetherketonepolyetherketone[1, 2]
PEKKPEKKcpolyetherketoneketonepolyetherketoneketone[2]
PENPENcpoly(ethylene naphthalate)poly(ethylene naphthalate)[1, 2]
PEOPEOb,cpoly(ethylene oxide)poly(ethylene oxide)
PEOXpoly(ethylene oxide)poly(ethylene oxide), poly(oxyethylene)[1, 2]
PESpoly(ethylene succinate)[1]
PESTURPESTURcpolyesterurethanepolyesterurethane[1]
PESUPESUcpolyethersulfonepolyethersulfone, poly(ether sulfone)[1, 2]
PETPETcpoly(ethylene terephthalate)poly(ethylene terephthalate)[1, 2]
PETGpoly(ethylene terephthalate) glycol comonomer[2]
PETPPETPbpoly(ethylene terephthalate)poly(ethylene terephthalate)
PEURPEURcpolyetherurethanepolyetherurethane, poly(ether urethane)[1, 2]
PFnet-poly(phenol-co-formaldehyde)phenol-formaldehyde copolymer[1, 2]
PFAperfluoro(alkyl vinyl ether)-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer[1]
PFAperfluoro(alkoxy alkane)[2]
PFFnet-poly(phenol-co-furfural)phenol-furfural copolymer[2]
PHApolyhydroxyalkanoate[1]
PHBpoly(3-hydroxybutanoate)poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), polyhydroxy butyrate[1, 2]
P3HBP3HBcpoly(3-hydroxybutanoate)
P3HTP3HTcpoly(3-hexylthiophene)
PIPIcpolyimidepolyimide[1, 2]
PIBPIBb,cpoly(2-methylpropene), polyisobutylene, polyisobutenepolyisobutylene[1, 2]
PIPPIPcpoly(imino-1,4-phenylene)
PIRpolyisocyanuratepolyisocyanurate[1, 2]
PISUPISUcpolyimidesulfonepolyimidesulfone[2]
PKPKcpolyketonepolyketone[1, 2]
PLAPLAcpoly(lactic acid), polylactidepoly(lactic acid), polylactide[1]
PLLAPLLAcpoly(l-lactic acid), poly[(S)-lactic acid]poly(l-lactic acid)
PMAPMAcpoly(methyl acrylate)poly(methyl acrylate)
PMCAPMCAcpoly(methyl-2-chloroacrylate)poly(methyl-α-chloroacrylate)[2]
PMHSPMHScpoly[methyl(hexyl)silane]
PMIPMIcpoly(methacryl imide)polymethacrylimide[1, 2]
PMMAPMMAb,cpoly(methyl methacrylate)poly(methyl methacrylate)[1, 2]
PMMIPMMIcpoly(methyl methacrylimide)poly(N-methylmethacrylimide), poly(methyl methacrylimide)[1, 2]
PMPPMPcpoly(4-methylpent-1-ene)poly(4-methylpent-1-ene), poly-4-methylpentene-1[1, 2]
PMPSPMPScpoly[methyl(phenyl)silane]
PMSPMStcpoly(methyl styrene), poly(isopropenylbenzene), poly[(1-methylvinyl)benzene], poly(2-phenylpropene)poly(α-methylstyrene), poly-α-methylstyrene[1, 2]
POBpoly(4-hydroxybenzoate)poly-p-oxybenzoate[2]
POMPOMb,cpoly(oxymethylene), polyformaldehydepolyoxymethylene, polyacetal, polyformaldehyde[1, 2]
PPPPb,cpolypropene, polypropylenepolypropylene[1, 2]
PP-HIpolypropene, high impact[1]
PPAPPAcpolyphthalamidepolyphthalamide[2]
PPEpoly(1,4-phenylene oxide)poly(phenylene ether)[1, 2]
PPOPPOcpoly(1,4-phenylene oxide)
PPOXpoly(propylene oxide)poly(propylene oxide)[1, 2]
PPSPPScpoly(p-phenylene sulfide)poly(phenylene sulfide)[1, 2]
PPSUPPSUcpoly(p-phenylene sulfone)poly(phenylene sulfone), poly(phenyl sulfone)[1, 2]
PPTAPPTAcpoly(p-phenylene terephthalamide)poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide)
PSPSb, PSt cpolystyrenepolystyrene[1, 2]
PSSpoly(4-vinylbenzenesulfonic acid)poly(styrene sulfonate)
PS-Spolystyrene, sulfonated[1]
PSUPSUcpolysulfonepolysulfone[1, 2]
PTFEPTFEb,cpoly(tetrafluoroethene), poly(tetrafluoroethylene)polytetrafluoroethylene[1, 2]
PTTPTTcpoly(trimethylene terephthalate)poly(trimethylene terephthalate)[1]
PURPURcpolyurethanepolyurethane[1, 2]
PVACPVACb,cpoly(vinyl acetate)poly(vinyl acetate)[1, 2]
PVALPVALb,cpoly(vinyl alcohol)poly(vinyl alcohol)[1]
PVBPVBcpoly(vinyl butyral)poly(vinyl butyral)[1, 2]
PVCPVCb,cpoly(vinyl chloride)poly(vinyl chloride)[1, 2]
PVCAPVCAcpoly(vinyl chloride-acetate)poly(vinyl chloride-acetate)[2]
PVC-Cpoly(vinyl chloride), chlorinated[1]
PVDCPVDCb,cpoly(vinylidene chloride), poly(1,1-dichloroethene)poly(vinylidene chloride)[1, 2]
PVDFPVDFb,cpoly(vinylidene fluoride), poly(1,1-difluoroethene)poly(vinylidene fluoride)[1, 2]
PVFPVFb,cpoly(vinyl fluoride)poly(vinyl fluoride)[1, 2]
PVFMPVFMcpoly(vinyl formal)poly(vinyl formal)[1, 2]
PVKpoly(N-vinylcarbazole)poly(N-vinylcarbazole), poly-N-vinylcarbazole, poly(vinyl carbazole)[1, 2]
PVOHpoly(vinyl alcohol)poly(vinyl alcohol)[2]
PVPpoly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)[1, 2]
SANpoly(styrene-stat-acrylonitrile)styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer[1, 2]
SBpoly(styrene-stat-butadiene)styrene-butadiene copolymer[1, 2]
SBSpolystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrenestyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer[2]
SEBSpolystyrene-block-poly(ethene-co-butadiene)-block-polystyrenestyrene-ethene/butadiene-styrene block copolymer[2]
SEPSpolystyrene-block-poly(ethene-co-propene)-block-polystyrenestyrene-ethene/propene-styrene block copolymer[2]
SIsilicone polymer[1]
SISpolystyrene-block-polyisoprene-block-polystyrenestyrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer[2]
SMAHpoly[styrene-alt-(maleic anhydride)]styrene-(maleic anhydride) copolymer[1]
S/MApoly[styrene-alt-(maleic anhydride)]styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer[2]
SMSpoly[styrene-stat-(α-methylstyrene)]styrene-α-methylstyrene copolymer[1, 2]
SPsaturated polyester[2]
TEEEthermoplastic elastomer, ether-ester[2]
TEOthermoplastic elastomer, olefinic[2]
TESthermoplastic elastomer, styrenic[2]
TESSthermoplastic elastomer, styrenic, saturated[2]
TESUthermoplastic elastomer, styrenic, unsaturated[2]
TPEthermoplastic elastomer[2]
TPESthermoplastic polyester[2]
TPUthermoplastic polyurethane[2]
TSPUthermoset polyurethane[2]
UFnet-poly(urea-co-formaldehyde)urea-formaldehyde copolymer[1, 2]
UHMWPEultra-high molecular weight polyethylene[2]
UPunsaturated polyester copolymer[1, 2]
VCEpoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-ethene](vinyl chloride)-ethylene copolymer, vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymer[1, 2]
VCEMApoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-ethene-stat-(methyl acrylate)]vinyl chloride-ethene-methyl acrylate copolymer[2]
VCEMAKpoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-ethene-stat-(methyl acrylate)](vinyl chloride)-ethylene-(methyl acrylate) copolymer[1]
VCEVACpoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-ethene-stat-(vinyl acetate)](vinyl chloride)-ethylene-(vinyl acetate) copolymer, vinyl chloride-ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer[1, 2]
VCMApoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-(methyl acrylate)]vinyl chloride-methyl acrylate copolymer[2]
VCMAKpoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-(methyl acrylate)](vinyl chloride)-(methyl acrylate) copolymer[1]
VCMMApoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-(methyl methacrylate)](vinyl chloride)-(methyl methacrylate) copolymer, vinyl chloride-methyl methacrylate copolymer[1, 2]
VCOApoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-(octyl acrylate)]vinyl chloride-octyl acrylate copolymer[2]
VCOAKpoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-(octyl acrylate)](vinyl chloride)-(octyl acrylate) copolymer[1]
VCVACpoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-(vinyl acetate)](vinyl chloride)-(vinyl acetate) copolymer, vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymer[1, 2]
VCVDCpoly[(vinyl chloride)-stat-(vinylidene chloride)](vinyl chloride)-(vinylidene chloride) copolymer, vinyl chloride-vinylidene chloride copolymer[1, 2]
VEpoly(vinyl-co-ester)vinyl ester copolymer[1]

Notes:

aIUPAC Rule 3 and Guideline 3.2 recommend the use of the letter P for “poly” at the beginning of the abbreviations of both homopolymer and copolymer names except for traditional polymer names, such as cellulose nitrate, for which the prefix is not a component part of the name. Thus, when abbreviating copolymer names in scientific publications, IUPAC recommends the use of the letter P to be followed by the abbreviated monomer names in parentheses with a hyphen or hyphens and connectives separating them, regardless of the pre-existing abbreviations based on the ISO Standard [1] listed below.

bThose abbreviations labeled “b” are collected from IUPAC, Commission on Macromolecular Nomenclature, Use of Abbreviations for Names of Polymeric Substances, (Recommendations 1986), Pure Appl. Chem. 69, 691 (1987).

cThose abbreviations labeled “c” are consistent with the guidelines in the present IUPAC Recommendations.

dIUPAC names may be structure-based names, traditional names, or source-based names.

eAlthough they are not necessarily consistent with IUPAC nomenclature, names listed in this column are for understanding the origin of existing abbreviations.

Appendix References

[1] ISO 1043-1, 2011 Plastic – Symbols and Abbreviated Terms – Part 1: Basic polymers and their special characteristics.

[2] ASTM D1600-08 Standard Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics.

References

[1] International Organization for Standardization. Plastics – Symbols and Abbreviated Terms – Part 1: Basic polymers and their special characteristics. ISO 1043-1, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[2] IUPAC. Pure Appl. Chem. 40, 473 (1974).10.1177/001440297404000610Search in Google Scholar

[3] IUPAC. Pure Appl. Chem. 59, 691 (1987).10.1351/pac198759050691Search in Google Scholar

[4] IUPAC. “ISO abbreviations for names of polymeric substances”, in Compendium of Polymer Terminology and Nomenclature, IUPAC Recommendations 2008 (the “Purple Book”), R. G. Jones, J. Kahovec, R. Stepto, E. S. Wilks, M. Hess, T. Kitayama, W. V. Metanomski (Eds.), Chapter 22, RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK (2009).Search in Google Scholar

[5] IUPAC. Pure Appl. Chem. 52, 2229 (1980).10.1351/pac198052092229Search in Google Scholar

[6] IUPAC. “Stereochemical definitions and notations relating to polymers”, in Compendium of Polymer Terminology and Nomenclature, IUPAC Recommendations 2008 (the “Purple Book”), R. G. Jones, J. Kahovec, R. Stepto, E. S. Wilks, M. Hess, T. Kitayama, W. V. Metanomski (Eds.), Chapter 2, RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK (2009).Search in Google Scholar


Note: Republication or reproduction of this report or its storage and/or dissemination by electronic means is permitted without the need for formal IUPAC permission on condition that an acknowledgment, with full reference to the source, along with use of the copyright symbol ©, the name IUPAC, and the year of publication, are prominently visible. Publication of a translation into another language is subject to the additional condition of prior approval from the relevant IUPAC National Adhering Organization.


Received: 2012-12-13
Accepted: 2014-2-12
Published Online: 2014-5-27
Published in Print: 2014-6-18

©2014 IUPAC & De Gruyter Berlin/Boston

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