Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 17, 2021

Methodological aspects of snow cover sampling for chemical analysis

  • Natalia I. Ianchenko EMAIL logo and Ekaterina I. Kotova


At present there is a steady increase in scientific publications on studying the chemical composition of snow cover. At the same time, there are practically no modern publications on the methods of snow cover sampling for chemical analysis. The rapid development of analytical ways to determine the composition of samples in general justifies the need to improve the methodology of snow cover sampling. Today, researchers use a variety of adapted sampling methods depending on the goal, the geographic location of the study area, and the analyzed component. Each publication contains a rationale for the sampling method used. This article describes the methodology of sampling snow cover to determine its density. Methods of taking snow cover samples to determine its chemical composition most often depend on the chosen practices. The primary systematization of snow cover sampling methods has been carried out. Synthesis of literature reveals some problems, including the need for improved standardized techniques of snow sampling for chemical analysis and for the development of applied instrumentation to address snow geochemistry.

Corresponding author: Natalia I. Ianchenko, Irkutsk National Research Technical University, 83, Lermontov Street, Irkutsk, 664074, Russia, e-mail:

Article note: Snow cover, atmospheric precipitation, aerosols: chemistry and climate: reports of the III Baikal international scientific conference endorsed by IUPAC (March 23–27, 2020).

Funding source: Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Award Identifier / Grant number: 0128-2021-0006

Funding source: Russian Foundation for Basic Research

Award Identifier / Grant number: 19-05-00938

  1. Research funding: The results of the studies were obtained within the state task (No. 0128-2019-0006). The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 19-05-00938.


[1] E. I. Kotova. Evaluation of the influence of factors on the composition of snow cover in the Russian Arctic, Adv. Curr. Nat. Sci. 10, 158–163 (2019), doi: in Google Scholar

[2] I. D. Kopanev. Methods for Studying Snow Cover, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad (1971).Search in Google Scholar

[3] B. A. Revich, Yu. I. Say, R. S. Smirnova, E. P. Sorokina. Methodological Recommendations for the Geochemical Assessment of Urban Pollution with Chemical Elements, IMGRE, Moscow (1982).Search in Google Scholar

[4] A. I. Kuzin, S. A. Melnikov, S. V. Vlasov, S. N. Vodovatova. In Temporary Guidelines for the Production of Sampling and Processing of Snow Cover Samples in Cities and Their Environs for a Complex of Pollutants, Goskomgidromet USSR, Moscow (1985).Search in Google Scholar

[5] V. N. Vasilenko, I. M. Nazarov, Sh. D. Fridman. Monitoring of snow cover pollution, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad (1985).Search in Google Scholar

[6] E. Y. Bezuglaya, M. E. Berlyand, N. S. Volberg, A. S. Zaitsev, G. I. Sidorenko, M. A. Pinigin. In Manual for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution (RD 52.04.186-89), Goskomgidromet SSSR, Moscow (1991).Search in Google Scholar

[7] Yu. E. Saet, I. L. Basharkevich, B. A. Revich. In Methodological Recommendations for the Geochemical Assessment of Sources of Environmental Pollution, IMGRE, Moscow (1982).Search in Google Scholar

[8] B. A. Revich, Yu. E. Saet, R. S. Smirnova. In Methodological Recommendations for Assessing the Degree of Atmospheric Air Pollution of Settlements by Metals Based on Their Content in Snow Cover and Soil, IMGRE, Moscow (1990).Search in Google Scholar

[9] Yu. E. Saet, B. A. Revich, E. P. Yanin, R. S. Smirnova, I. L. Basharkevich, T. L. Onishchenko, L. N. Pavlova, N. Ya. Trefilova, A. I. Achkasov, S. S. Sargsyan. Geochemistry of the Environment, Nedra Publishing House, Moscow (1990).Search in Google Scholar

[10] I. A. Koloskov, G. F. Voznesensky, G. M. Chernogaeva, M. M. Novikov, V. S. Eliseev, A. M. Tsarev, B. B. Goroshko, Yu. S. Kuklin, V. M. Goncharenok, A. V. Gerasimov, T. P. Lapshina, A. S. Demchenko, N. M. Trunov, A. P. Garanzha. In Comprehensive Survey of Pollution of Natural Environments of Industrial Areas With Intensive Anthropogenic Load (RD 52.44.2-94), IGKE, Moscow (1988).Search in Google Scholar

[11] A. T. Gorshkova, A. R. Valetdinov, F. A. Iskhakov, A. P. Shlychkov, R. K. Valetdinov, F. R. Valetdinov. In Assessment of aerotechnogenic pollution of natural environments by chemical elements based on the results of snow cover monitoring. Kazan,–opredelenie-postuplenij-himicheskih-e-lementov (accessed Nov 10, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

[12] L. S. Saraeva, L. I. Balakley, T. V. Volkova, K. N. Rudenko, V. M. Timets, N. S. Maltsev, D. A. Konovalov, V. Yu. Okorenkov, V. F. Komchatov, L.V. Ostroumov, Yu. M. Kachanovsky, E. A. Panshin, V. T. Minligareev, A. M. Balagurov. In The Main Measuring Instruments for Hydrometeorological Purposes Used on the State Observation Network (R 52.18.851-2016), Roshydromet, Moscow (2016).Search in Google Scholar

[13] VS-43M Weight snow meter, (accessed Nov 10, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

[14] Y. Wang, J. Bian, Y. Zhao, J. Tang, Z. Jia. Assessment of future climate change impacts on nonpoint source pollution in snowmelt period for a cold area using SWAT, Sci. Rep. 8, 2402 (2018).10.1038/s41598-018-20818-ySearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[15] G. Gulyakin. Method of snow sampling and device for its implementation. RF patent No. 2047121. Filed 14.01.1993. Issued 27.10.1995, (accessed Nov 10, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

[16] A. M. Zomarev, G. M. Batrakova, N. N. Slyusar, O. A. Kapitonova, Ya. Vaisman. I.Snow sampling device. RF patent No. 2247351, (accessed Nov 1, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

[17] M. Tentyukov. Snow-measuring sampler. RF patent No. RU 80587 U1, (accessed Feb 10, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

[18] Snow Cover Sampling Guide, (accessed Apr 17, 2018).Search in Google Scholar

[19] D. Dixon, S. Boon. In Proceedings of LXVIII Eastern Snow Conference, pp. 207–224, Montreal, Quebec (2011).Search in Google Scholar

[20] N. J. Kinar, J. W. Pomeroy. Rev. Geophys. 53, 2 (2015), in Google Scholar

[21] P. Farnes, N. Peterson, B. Goodison, R. Richards. Paper presented at L Western Snow Conference, pp. 120–132 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

[22] R. Pirazzini, L. Leppänen, G. Picard, J. I. Lopez-Moreno, C. Marty, G. Macelloni, A. Kontu, A. Lerber, C. M. Tanis, M. Schneebeli, P. Rosnay, A. N. Arslan. Sensors 18 (2018), in Google Scholar

[23] V. A. Masloboev, T. T. Gorbacheva, G. A. Evdokimova. Ecological State of Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Kola NPP Area, Publishing House Kola Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity (2010).Search in Google Scholar

[24] N. S. Kasimov, N. E. Kosheleva, D. V. Vlasov, E. V. Terskaya. MU Bull. Ser. 5: Geogr. 4, 14 (2012).Search in Google Scholar

[25] T. I. Prozhorina, E. V. Bespalova, S. A. Kurolap, P. M. Vinogradov. VGU Vest. Ser. 11: Nat. Sci. 3, 28 (2014), doi: in Google Scholar

[26] N. V. Saltan, E. P. Shlapak, V. K. Zhirov, O. B. Gontar, E. A. Svyatkovskaya. MSTU Bull. 18, 328 (2015).Search in Google Scholar

[27] Snegootbornik. RF patent No. 53436. Filed 19.07.2005. Issued 10.05.2006.Search in Google Scholar

[28] S. Kutuzov, M. Shahgedanova, V. Mikhalenko, I. Lavrentiev, S. Kemp. Desert dust deposition on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2009–2012 as recorded in snow and shallow ice core: high-resolution “provenancing”, transport patterns, physical properties and soluble ionic composition, Cryosphere Discuss. 7, 1621–1672 (2013).10.5194/tcd-7-1621-2013Search in Google Scholar

[29] A. A. Petriga, N. V. Goryunova. Composition of snow in the impact regions of the Arctic on the example of settlements in the Isfjord Bay of the Svalbard Archipelago, Bull. Sci. Educ. 2, 106 (2016).Search in Google Scholar

[30] V. N. Makarov, N. F. Fedoseev, V. I. Fedoseeva. Geochemistry of the Snow Cover of Yakutia, Institute of Permafrost Studies SB RAS of the USSR, Yakutsk (1990).Search in Google Scholar

[31] O. G. Netsvetaeva, T. V. Khodzher, L. P. Golobokova. Geogr. Nat. Resour. 1, 66 (2004).Search in Google Scholar

[32] A. V. Ukraintsev. In Snow Cover, Atmospheric Precipitation, Aerosols: Climate and Ecology of the Northern Territories and the Baikal Region: Materials of the I International Scientific and Practical Conference, pp. 139–142, Irkutsk (2017).Search in Google Scholar

[33] M. P. Tentyukov. Features of layer-by-layer variability of integral physico-chemical parameters of snow cover in the Middle taiga zone in the north-east of the European plain, Cryosphere Earth XXII. 2, 61 (2018).Search in Google Scholar

[34] J.-Ch. Gallet, M. P. Björkman, C. Larose, B. Luks, T. Martma, C. Zdanowicz. Protocols and recommendations for the measurement of snow physical properties, and sampling of snow for black carbon, water isotopes, major ions and microorganisms, (accessed May 26, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-12-17
Published in Print: 2022-03-28

© 2021 IUPAC & De Gruyter. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. For more information, please visit:

Downloaded on 21.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button