Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 8, 2014

Is There an International Convergence in Defence Burdens? Some Initial Findings

  • Paschalis Arvanitidis EMAIL logo , Christos Kollias and Konstantinos Anastasopoulos


This paper examines whether or not there is convergence in defence burdens across the world. To this effect, σ-convergence and β-convergence methodologies are employed. The sample consists of 128 countries and covers the period 1988–2008. Initial findings reported herein point to a process of convergence in defence burdens possibly reflecting the emergence of defence policies that share similar characteristics at least in terms of the allocation of resources.

Corresponding author: Paschalis Arvanitidis, Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, 43 Korai Street, 38333, Volos, Greece, E-mail:


We sincerely thank an anonymous referee for spotting flaws and typos in a previous version of the manuscript. The usual disclaimer applies.


Artelaris, P., Arvanitidis, P., Petrakos, G., (2011), Convergence Patterns in the World Economy: Exploring the Non-Linearity Hypothesis, Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 236–252.Search in Google Scholar

Arvanitidis, P., Kollias, C., (2012), An Analysis of the Distribution of World Military Spending using Zipf’s law, 16th Annual International Conference on Economics and Security, Cairo, June 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Barro, R.J., Sala-i-Martin, X., (1991), Convergence Across States and Regions, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. 1, pp. 107–182.Search in Google Scholar

Barro, R.J., Sala-i-Martin, X., (1992), Convergence, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 223–251.Search in Google Scholar

Barro, R.J., Sala-i-Martin, X., (1995), Economic Growth, McGraw-Hill, New York.Search in Google Scholar

Dunne, P., Perlo-Freeman, S., (2003), The Demand for Military Spending in Developing Countries, International Review of Applied Economics, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 2–48.Search in Google Scholar

Flores, A., (2011), Alliances as Contiguity in Spatial Models of Military Expenditures, Conflict Management and Peace Science, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 402–418.Search in Google Scholar

Fontanel, J., Samson, I., (2008), The Determinants of Military Expenditures, in Fontanel, J., Chatterji, M., (eds.), War, Peace and Security, Emerald, Bingley, pp. 125–132.Search in Google Scholar

de la Fuente, A., (1997), The Empirics of Growth and Convergence: A Selective Review, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, vol. 21, pp. 23–73.Search in Google Scholar

Hartley, K., Sandler, T., (eds.) (1990), The Economics of Defence Spending. An International Survey, Routledge, London.Search in Google Scholar

Hartley, K., Sandler, T., (eds.) (1995), Handbook of Defence Economics, North Holland, Amsterdam.Search in Google Scholar

Holzinger, K., (2006), Methodological Pitfalls of Convergence Analysis, European Union Politics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 271–287.Search in Google Scholar

McGuire, C.M., (2007), Economics of Defence in a Globalised World, in Sanlder, T., Hartley, K., (eds.), Handbook of Defense Economics, Vol. 2, Elsevier, North Holland, pp. 624–641.Search in Google Scholar

Petrakos, G., Artelaris, P., (2009), European Regional Convergence Revisited: A Weighted Least Squares Approach, Growth and Change, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 314–331.Search in Google Scholar

Quah, D.T., (1996), Empirics for Economic Growth and Convergence, European Economic Review, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1353–1375.Search in Google Scholar

Sandler, T., Hartley, K., (2001), Economics of Alliances: The Lesson for Collective Action, Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 869–896.Search in Google Scholar

Sandler, T., Hartley, K., (eds.) (2007), Handbook of Defense Economics, Vol. 2, Elsevier, North Holland.Search in Google Scholar

Schmitt, C., Starke, P., (2011), Explaining Convergence of OECD Welfare States: A Conditional Approach, Journal of European Social Policy, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 120–135.Search in Google Scholar

Smith, R., (1995), The Demand for Military Expenditure, in Hartley, K., Sandler, T., (eds.), Handbook of Defence Economics, North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 69–87.Search in Google Scholar

Smith, R., Fontanel, J., (2008), International Security, Defence Economics and the Powers of Nations, Contributions to Conflict Management, Peace Economics and Development, vol. 6, pp. 37–51.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2014-10-8
Published in Print: 2014-12-1

© 2014 by De Gruyter

Downloaded on 24.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button