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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 15, 2018

Education and Participation in Political Violence: A Look into Non-Linear Associational Patterns

  • Luqman Saeed EMAIL logo


This paper presents empirical evidence for nonlinear relationship between education attainment and participation in political violence. The results are based on unweighted and weighted Probit estimations using a consolidated dataset of 200 militants and representative sample of over 13,000 Pakistanis. The results reveal that likelihood of participation in political violence increases with education attainment. However, the response of education attainment to political violence is diverse and those with education around high school are more likely to engage in political violence than any other level of education. At no level of education, the likelihood for participation in political violence is found to be negative. Hence, while political violence seems to be associated with literacy, there are noteworthy variations in the extent to which literacy affects political violence.

JEL Classification: K00; K42; K49; I2; I3 1


I am grateful to Dr. Raul Caruso, Editor in Chief Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy and Dr. Michael Spagat, Department of Economics, Royal Holloway University of London for their useful comments on the initial draft of this paper.


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Published Online: 2018-09-15

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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