Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published online by De Gruyter August 5, 2022

Molding process and properties of polyimide-fiber-fabric-reinforced polyether ether ketone composites

Jindong Zhang ORCID logo, Wencai Wang, Gang Liu, Rui Cao, Guofeng Tian, Jianan Yao, Chunhai Chen and Ming Wang


As the most outstanding type of organic fiber in terms of the comprehensive performance, polyimide fiber is more conducive to reduce the composites weight than inorganic fibers, such as carbon fiber or glass fiber. A polyimide-fabric-reinforced polyether ether ketone (PEEK) composite was prepared by a hot-press molding process. The melt flow rate of the PEEK resin was measured to reveal its rheological behavior and guide the selection of the molding process parameters of the composite. The tensile properties of the composites were determined. The results revealed that the rheological properties of the resin manifested through the melt viscosity, which was more sensitive to pressure changes than to temperature changes. The tensile properties of the composites were affected by two competitive mechanisms. First, increases of molding temperature and duration time could facilitate the infiltration of the resin into the fiber fabric and improve the internal quality and tensile properties of the composite. Second, an excessively high molding temperature and long duration time could decrease the strength of the polyimide fiber, thereby reducing the tensile properties of the composites.

Corresponding authors: Jianan Yao and Chunhai Chen, Center for Advanced Low-Dimension Materials, State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, P. R. China, E-mail: ,

Funding source: Research Startup Program of Donghua University

Award Identifier / Grant number: 285-07-005702


Thanks are due to Dr. Lei Liu and Dr. Li Wei for their help with the measurement and characterization.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: The authors are grateful for the financial support from Research Startup Program of Donghua University (285-07-005702).

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could influence the work reported in this article.


1. Ahmed, T. J., Stavrov, D., Bersee, H. E. N., Beukersand, A. Induction welding of thermoplastic composites – an overview. Compos. A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2006, 10, 1638–1651; in Google Scholar

2. Park, J. M., Kim, D. S. The influence of crystallinity on interfacial properties of carbon and SiC two-fiber/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites. Polym. Compos. 2000, 5, 789–797; in Google Scholar

3. Gonzalez, D. G., Millan, M. R., Rusinek, A., Arias, A. Low temperature effect on impact energy absorption capability of PEEK composites. Compos. Struct. 2015, 134, 440–449; in Google Scholar

4. Ma, C. C. M., Lee, C. L., Chang, M. J., Tai, N. H. Hygrothermal behavior of carbon fiber reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(phenylene) composites. Polym. Compos. 1992, 6, 448–453; in Google Scholar

5. Avanzini, A., Donzella, G., Gallina, D., Pandini, S., Petrogalli, C. Fatigue behavior and cyclic damage of PEEK short fiber reinforced composites. Compos. B Eng. 2013, 1, 397–406; in Google Scholar

6. Fujihara, K., Huang, Z. M., Ramakrishna, S., Hamada, H. Influence of processing conditions on bending property of continuous carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2004, 16, 2525–2534; in Google Scholar

7. Ning, H., Pillay, S., Vaidya, U. K. Design and development of thermoplastic composite roof door for mass transit bus. Mater. Des. 2009, 4, 983–991; in Google Scholar

8. Li, N., Chen, J. L., Liu, H. S., Dong, A. Q., Wang, K., Zhao, Y. Effect of preheat treatment on carbon fiber surface properties and fiber/PEEK interfacial behavior. Polym. Compos. 2019, 40, 1407–1415; in Google Scholar

9. Duan, Q., Deegan, B., Byrne, L., Scarselli, G., Ivankovic, A., Murphy, N. Rapid surface activation of carbon fibre reinforced PEEK and PPS composites by high-power UV-irradiation for the adhesive joining of dissimilar materials. Compos. A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2020, 137, 105976.Search in Google Scholar

10. Chen, J. L., Wang, K., Zhao, Y. Enhanced interfacial interactions of carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composites by regulating PEI and graphene oxide complex sizing at the interface. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2018, 154, 175–186; in Google Scholar

11. Chen, J. L., Wang, K., Dong, A. Q., Li, X. K., Fan, X., Zhao, Y. A comprehensive study on controlling the porosity of CCF300/PEEK composites by optimizing the impregnation parameters. Polym. Compos. 2017, 10, 3765–3779; in Google Scholar

12. Chanteli, A., Bandaru, A. K., Peeters, D., O’Higgins, R. M., Weaver, P. M. Influence of repass treatment on carbon fibre-reinforced PEEK composites manufactured using laser-assisted automatic tape placement. Compos. Struct. 2020, 248, 112539; in Google Scholar

13. Stepashkin, A. A., Chukov, D. I., Senatov, F. S., Salimon, A. I., Korsunsky, A. M., Kaloshkin, S. D. 3D-printed PEEK-carbon fiber (CF) composites: structure and thermal properties. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2018, 164, 319–326; in Google Scholar

14. Xu, Z. P., Zhang, M., Gao, S. H., Wang, G. B., Zhang, S. L., Luan, J. S. Study on mechanical properties of unidirectional continuous carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK composites fabricated by the wrapped yarn method. Polym. Compos. 2019, 1, 56–69; in Google Scholar

15. Gao, X. P., Huang, Z. G., Zhou, H. M., Li, D. Q., Li, Y., Wang, Y. M. Higher mechanical performances of CF/PEEK composite laminates via reducing interlayer porosity based on the affinity of functional s-PEEK. Polym. Compos. 2019, 9, 3749–3757; in Google Scholar

16. Bismarck, A., Hofmeler, M., Doerner, G. Effect of hot water immersion on the performance of carbon reinforced unidirectional poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) composites: stress rupture under end-loaded bending. Compos. A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2007, 2, 407–426; in Google Scholar

17. Niu, H. Q., Qi, S. L., Han, E. L., Tian, G. F., Wang, X. D., Wu, D. Z. Fabrication of high-performance copolyimide fibers from 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, p-phenylenediamine and 2-(4-aminophenyl)-6-amino-4(3H)-quinazolinone. Mater. Lett. 2012, 89, 63–65; in Google Scholar

18. Cheng, Y., Dong, J., Yang, C. R., Wu, T. T., Zhao, X., Zhang, Q. H. Synthesis of poly(benzobisoxazole-co-imide) and fabrication of high-performance fibers. Polymer 2017, 133, 50–59; in Google Scholar

19. Bhuvana, S., Devi, M. S. Bisphenol containing novel polyimides/glass fiber composites. Polym. Compos. 2007, 3, 372–380; in Google Scholar

20. Niu, H. Q., Huang, M. J., Qi, S. L., Han, E. L., Tian, G. F., Wang, X. D., Wu, D. Z. High-performance copolyimide fibers containing quinazolinone moiety: preparation, structure and properties. Polymer 2013, 6, 1700–1708; in Google Scholar

21. Sun, M., Chang, J. J., Tian, G. F., Niu, H. Q., Wu, D. Z. Preparation of high-performance polyimide fibers containing benzimidazole and benzoxazole units. J. Mater. Sci. 2016, 6, 2830–2840; in Google Scholar

22. Yan, X. N., Zhang, M. Y., Qi, S. L., Tian, G. F., Niu, H. Q., Wu, D. Z. A high-performance aromatic co-polyimide fiber: structure and property relationship during gradient thermal annealing. J. Mater. Sci. 2018, 3, 2193–2207; in Google Scholar

23. Sun, X. Y., Bu, J. F., Liu, W. W., Niu, H. Q., Qi, S. L., Tian, G. F., Wu, D. Z. Surface modification of polyimide fibers by oxygen plasma treatment and interfacial adhesion behavior of a polyimide fiber/epoxy composite. Sci. Eng. Compos. Mater. 2017, 4, 477–484; in Google Scholar

24. Stephen, C., Shivamurthy, B., Mourad, A. H. I., Selvam, R. High-velocity impact behavior of hybrid fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. 2021, 43, 431; in Google Scholar

25. Safamanesh, A., Mousavi, S. M., Khosravi, H., Tohidlou, E. On the low-velocity and high-velocity impact behaviors of aramid fiber/epoxy composites containing modified-graphene oxide. Polym. Compos. 2020, 42, e25851; in Google Scholar

26. Liu, H. B., Liu, J., Ding, Y. Z., Zheng, J., Kong, X. S., Zhou, J., Harper, L., Blackman, B. R. K., Kinloch, A. J., Dear, J. P. The behaviour of thermoplastic and thermoset carbon fibre composites subjected to low-velocity and high-velocity impact. J. Mater. Sci. 2020, 55, 15741–15768; in Google Scholar

27. Wagner, T., Heimbs, S., Franke, F., Burger, U., Middendorf, P. Experimental and numerical assessment of aerospace grade composites based on high-velocity impact experiments. Compos. Struct. 2018, 204, 142–152; in Google Scholar

28. Shenoy, A. V., Saini, D. R. Effects of temperature on the flow of copolymer melts. Mater. Chem. Phys. 1988, 1–2, 123–130; in Google Scholar

29. Ramgobin, A., Fontaine, G., Bourbigot, S. Oxygen concentration and modeling thermal decomposition of a high performance materials: a case study of polyimide (Cirlex). Polym. Adv. Technol. 2020, 2, 1–13; in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (

Received: 2022-04-14
Accepted: 2022-06-03
Published Online: 2022-08-05

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Scroll Up Arrow