Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton April 29, 2021

Word Prosody in Lung’Ie: One System or Two?

Ana Lívia Agostinho ORCID logo and Larry M. Hyman ORCID logo
From the journal Probus

Abstract

Creole languages have generally not figured prominently in cross-linguistic studies of word-prosodic typology. In this paper, we present a phonological analysis of the prosodic system of Lung’Ie or Principense (ISO 639-3 code: pre), a Portuguese-lexifier creole language spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe. Lung’Ie has produced a unique result of the contact between the two different prosodic systems common in creolization: a stress-accent lexifier and tone language substrates. The language has a restrictive privative H/Ø tone system, in which the /H/ is culminative, but non-obligatory. Since rising and falling tones are contrastive on long vowels, the tone must be marked underlyingly. While it is clear that tonal indications are needed, Lung’Ie reveals two properties more expected of an accentual system: (i) there can only be one heavy syllable per word; (ii) this syllable must bear a H tone. This raises the question of whether syllables with a culminative H also have metrical prominence, i.e. stress. However, the problem with equating stress with H tone is that Lung’Ie has two kinds of nouns: those with a culminative H and those which are toneless. The nouns with culminative H are 87% of Portuguese origin, incorporated through stress-to-tone alignment, while the toneless ones are 92% of African origin. Although other creole languages have been reported with split systems of “accented” vs. fully specified tonal lexemes, and others with mixed systems of tone and stress, Lung’Ie differs from these cases in treating African origin words as toneless, a quite surprising result. We consider different analyses and conclude that Lung’Ie has a privative /H/ tone system with the single unusual stress-like property of weight-to-tone.


Corresponding author: Ana Lívia Agostinho, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, E-mail:

Funding source: Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq)

Award Identifier / Grant number: 200519/2019-0

Acknowledgments

We are very grateful to Bob Ladd, Jeff Good, Tjerk Hagemeijer, Leo Wetzels, and Armin Schwegler for commenting on an earlier version of this paper. We also thank the audiences at the Berkeley Phonetics and Phonology Forum Talk Series 2020 and at the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics 2021 Winter Meeting as well as Amanda Macedo Balduino, Björn Köhnlein and Gerhard Seibert for discussing some of the issues presented here. Research by the first author was supported by the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), grant 200519/2019-0.

References

Agheyisi, Rebecca N. 1986. An Edo - English dictionary. Benin City: Ethiope Publishing Corporation. Search in Google Scholar

Agostinho, Ana Lívia. 2012. Fieldnotes and data collection - Malabo and Annobón. Manuscript. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo. Search in Google Scholar

Agostinho, Ana Lívia. 2015. Fonologia e Método Pedagógico do Lung’Ie. Tese de Doutorado em Filologia e Língua Portuguesa. Universidade de São Paulo. Search in Google Scholar

Agostinho, Ana Lívia. 2016. Fonologia do Lung’Ie. München: LINCOM. Search in Google Scholar

Agostinho, Ana Lívia & Gabriel Antunes de Araujo. 2021. Playing with language: Three language games in the Gulf of Guinea. Language Documentation & Conservation 15. 219–238. Search in Google Scholar

Agostinho, Ana Lívia, Gabriel Antunes de Araujo & Eduardo Ferreira dos Santos. 2019. Interrogative particle and phrasal pitch-accent in polar questions in Fa d’Ambô. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Ciências Humanas 14(3). https://doi.org/10.1590/1981.81222019000300009. Search in Google Scholar

Aigbokhan, Emmanuel Izaka, V. E. Omozuwa & B. Osemwegie. 2013. Extracts from Melzian’s Bini dictionary: Plant names in Edo language. Nigerian Journal of Botany 26(1). 1–39. Search in Google Scholar

Araujo, Gabriel Antunes de, Manuele Bandeira & Ana Lívia Agostinho. 2020. Vowel harmony in the Proto-Creole of the Gulf of Guinea. Entrepalavras 10(1). 35–38. https://doi.org/10.22168/2237-6321-11747. Search in Google Scholar

Araujo, Gabriel Antunes de & Tjerk Hagemeijer. 2013. Dicionário Livre Santome/Português. São Paulo: Hedra. Search in Google Scholar

Bakker, Peter, Aymeric Daval-Markussen, Mikael Parkvall & Ingo Plag. 2011. Creoles are typologically distinct from non-creoles. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 26(1). 5–42. https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.26.1.02bak. Search in Google Scholar

Balduino, Amanda Macedo. Processos Fonológicos no Português de São Tomé e do Príncipe. São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo, In preparation. Search in Google Scholar

Bandeira, Manuele. 2017. Reconstrução Fonológica e Lexical do Protocrioulo do Golfo da Guiné. Tese de Doutorado em Filologia e Língua Portuguesa. Universidade de São Paulo. Search in Google Scholar

Barth, Emily. 2016. Tone loss in Sranan Creole: Re-thinking contact driven change. Papers in Historical Phonology 1. 76–89. https://doi.org/10.2218/pihph.1.2016.1694. Search in Google Scholar

Becker, Michael, Bruna Franchetto, Arawa Didi Kuikuro, Yanapa Mehinaku Kuikuro & Andrija Petrovic. 2020. The incoherent stress of Kuikuro. Talk at Annual Meeting on Phonology. Santa Cruz: University of California. Search in Google Scholar

Bendor-Samuel, John. 1989. The Niger-Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa’s largest language family. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Search in Google Scholar

Bennett, Ryan & Robert Henderson. 2013. Accent in Uspanteko. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 31(3). 589–645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-013-9196-6. Search in Google Scholar

Bentley, William Holman. 1887. Dictionary and grammar of the Kongo language, as spoken at San Salvador, the Ancient Capital of the Old Kongo Empire, West Africa. London: Trübner & Co. Ltd. Search in Google Scholar

Blasi, Damián E., Susanne Maria Michaelis & Martin Haspelmath. 2017. Grammars are robustly transmitted even during the emergence of creole languages. Nature Human Behaviour 1(10). 723–729. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-017-0192-4. Search in Google Scholar

Boersma, Paul & David Weenink. 2017. Praat: Doing phonetics by computer. http://www.praat.org/. Search in Google Scholar

Caldeira, Arlindo Manuel. 2008. Tráfico de Escravos e Conflitualidade. O Arquipélago de São Tomé e Príncipe e o Reino Do Congo Durante o Século XVI. Revista Ciências e Letras 44. Search in Google Scholar

Caldeira, Arlindo Manuel. 2013. Escravos e Traficantes No Império Português. Lisboa: Esfera do Livro. Search in Google Scholar

Casali, Roderic F. 2020. Dekereke. https://casali.canil.ca/. Search in Google Scholar

Chapouto, Sandra Marisa da Costa. 2014. Contributo Para a Descrição de Aspetos Fonológicos e Prosódicos Do Crioulo Guineense. Dissertação de Mestrado em Linguística. Universidade de Coimbra. Search in Google Scholar

Chen, Aoju & Carlos Gussenhoven (eds.). 2020. The Oxford handbook of language prosody. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Clements, J. Clancy & Shelome Gooden. 2009. Language change in contact languages: Grammatical and prosodic considerations: An introduction. Studies in Language 33(2). 259–276. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.33.2.01cle. Search in Google Scholar

Couto, Hildo Honório do. 1994. O Crioulo Português Da Guiné-Bissau. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag. Search in Google Scholar

Cristófaro Silva, Thaís, Izabel Seara, Adelaide Silva, Andréia Rauber & Maria Cantoni. 2019. Fonética Acústica: Os Sons Do Português Brasileiro. São Paulo: Contexto. Search in Google Scholar

Daval-Markussen, Aymeric. 2013. First steps towards a typological profile of creoles. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 45(2). 274–295. https://doi.org/10.1080/03740463.2014.880606. Search in Google Scholar

Daval-Markussen, Aymeric & Peter Bakker. 2011. A phylogenetic networks approach to the classification of English-based atlantic creoles. English World-Wide 32(2). 115–146. https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.32.2.01dav. Search in Google Scholar

de Lacy, Paul. 2014. Evaluating evidence for stress. In Harry van der Hulst (ed.), Word stress: Theoretical and typological issues, 149–193. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Devonish, Hubert. 1989. Talking in tones: A study of tone in Afro-European Creole languages. Barbados: Caribbean Academic Publications. Search in Google Scholar

Downing, Laura J. 2017. Convergence of prosody under contact: Two african case studies. In Andrea Castro, Anton Granvik, Ester Fernández Incógnito, Sara Lindblad, Andreas Romeborn & Katharina Vajta (eds.), Språkens Magi: Festskrift for Ingmar Söhrman, 29–40. Göteborg: Göteborgs Universitet, Institutionen för Språk och Litterarturer. Search in Google Scholar

Elugbe, Ben. 1986. Comparative edoid: Phonology and lexicon. Search in Google Scholar

Elugbe, Ben. 2008. Nigerian pidgin English: Phonology. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), Varieties of English volume 4: Africa, South and Southeast Asia, 55–64. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Faraclas, Nicholas. 1984. Rivers pidgin English. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 14(2). 67–76. Search in Google Scholar

Ferraz, Luiz. 1979. The creole of São Tomé. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Good, Jeff. 2004. Tone and accent in saramaccan: Charting a deep split in the phonology of a language. Lingua 114(5). 575–619. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0024-3841(03)00062-7. Search in Google Scholar

Good, Jeff. 2006. The phonetics of tone in saramaccan. In Ana Deumert & Stephanie Durrleman (eds.), Structure and variation in language contact, 9–28. Amsterdam: Bejnamins. Search in Google Scholar

Good, Jeff. 2009. A twice-mixed creole?: Tracing the history of a prosodic split in the saramaccan lexicon. Studies in Language 33(2). 459–498. https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.33.2.09goo. Search in Google Scholar

Green, Christopher R. & Michelle E. Morrison. 2016. Somali wordhood and its relationship to prosodic structure. Morphology 26(1). 3–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-015-9268-x. Search in Google Scholar

Günther, Wilfried. 1973. Das portugiesische kreolisch der ilha do Príncipe. Marburg an der Lahn: Im Selbstverlag. Search in Google Scholar

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2009. Initial vowel agglutination in the Gulf of Guinea Creoles. Search in Google Scholar

Hagemeijer, Tjerk. 2011. The Gulf of Guinea creoles: Genetic and typological relations. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 26(1). 111–154. https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.26.1.05hag. Search in Google Scholar

Heine, Bernd & Derek Nurse. 2007. A linguistic geography of Africa A linguistic geography of Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Hualde, José Ignacio & Armin Schwegler. 2008. Intonation in palenquero. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 23(1). 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.23.1.02hua. Search in Google Scholar

Huttar, George L. & Mary L. Huttar. 1994. Ndyuka. London: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Hyman, Larry M. 1981. Tonal accent in Somali. Studies in African Linguistics 12(2). Search in Google Scholar

Hyman, Larry M. 2006. Word-prosodic typology. Phonology 23(2). 225–257. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0952675706000893. Search in Google Scholar

Hyman, Larry M. 2009. How (not) to do phonological typology: The case of pitch-accent. Language Sciences 31. 213–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2008.12.007. Search in Google Scholar

Hyman, Larry M. 2014. Do all languages have word accent? In Harry Van Der Hulst (ed.), Word stress: Theoretical and typological issues, 56–82. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Hyman, Larry M. & Ernest Rugwa Byarushengo. 1984. A model of Haya tonology. In George N. Clements & John Goldsmith (eds.), Autosegmental studies in bantu tone, 53–103. Dordrecht: Foris. Search in Google Scholar

INE. 2012. São Tomé e Príncipe Em Números 2011. São Tomé: Instituto Nacional de Estatística. Search in Google Scholar

Junior, A. de Assis. 1947. Dicionário Kimbundu-Português - Linguístico, Botânico, Histórico e Corográfico. Luanda: Argente, Santos e Cia Ltda. Search in Google Scholar

Kenstowicz, Michael. 1994. Phonology in generative grammar. Oxford: Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Kihm, A & Bernard Laks. 1989. De l’accent en kriyol. Linx (Analyse grammaticale des corpus oraux) 20. 89–111. Search in Google Scholar

Klein, Thomas B. 2004. Diversity and complexity in the typology of syllables in creole Languages. Search in Google Scholar

Kouwenberg, Silvia. 2004. The grammatical function of Papiamentu tone. Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 3(2). 55. https://doi.org/10.5334/jpl.11. Search in Google Scholar

Kouwenberg, Silvia. 2010a. Creole studies and linguistic typology: Part 1. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 25(1). 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.25.1.07kou. Search in Google Scholar

Kouwenberg, Silvia. 2010b. Creole studies and linguistic typology: Part 2. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 25(2). 359–380. https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.25.2.06kou. Search in Google Scholar

Ladd, D. Robert. 2017. Practical introduction to stress, accent and tone course materials – Part two. Search in Google Scholar

Ladhams, John. 2003. The formation of the Portuguese plantion creoles. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Westminster. Search in Google Scholar

Ladhams, John. 2012. Article agglutination and the african contribution to the Portuguese-based creoles. In Angela Bartens & Philip Baker (eds.), Black through white, 31–50. London: Battlebridgde. Search in Google Scholar

Lawton, David L. 1968. The implications of tone for Jamaican Creole. Anthropological Linguistics 10(6). 22–26. Search in Google Scholar

Lefebvre, Claire. 2000. What do creoles have to offer to mainstream linguistics? Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 15(1). 127–153. https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.15.1.06lef. Search in Google Scholar

Le Gac, David. 2003. Tonal alternations in Somali. In J. Lecarme (ed.), Research in afroasiatic grammar II, 287–304. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Lipski, John M. 2008. Spanish-based creoles in the caribbean. In Silvia Kouwenberg & John Victor Singler (eds.), The handbook of pidgin and creole studies, 565–592. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Lorenzino, Gerardo A. 1998. The angolar creole Portuguese of São Tomé: Its grammar and sociolinguistic history. Ph.D. Dissertation. The City University of New York. Search in Google Scholar

Lucchesi, Dante & Alan Baxter. 2009. A transmissão linguística irregular. In Dante Lucchesi, Alan Baxter & Ilza Ribeiro (eds.), O Português Afro-Brasileiro, 101–124. Salvador: EDUFBA. Search in Google Scholar

Macedo, Donaldo Pereira. 1979. A linguistic approach to the capeverdean language. Ph.D. Dissertation. Boston University. Search in Google Scholar

Maurer, Philippe. 1995. L’angolar: Un Créole Afro-Portugais Parlé à São Tomé. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag. Search in Google Scholar

Maurer, Philippe. 2008. A first step towards the analysis of tone in santomense. In Susanne Michaelis (ed.), Roots of creole structures, 253–261. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Maurer, Philippe. 2009. Principense (Lung’Ie). London: Battlebridge Publications. Search in Google Scholar

Maurer, Philippe. 2013. Tone. In Susanne Maria Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), The atlas of pidgin and creole language structures, 480–483. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

McWhorter, John H. 1998. Identifying the creole Prototype: Vindicating a typological class. Language 74(4). 788–818. https://doi.org/10.2307/417003. Search in Google Scholar

McWhorter, John H. 2005. Defining creole. New York: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

McWhorter, John H. 2011. Tying up loose ends: The creole Prototype after all. Diachronica 28(1). 82–117. https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.28.1.04mcw. Search in Google Scholar

McWhorter, John H. 2018. The creole debate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

McWhorter, John H. 2020. What adults do to language and how they create new one. Talk at Abralin ao Vivo: Linguists Online. https://aovivo.abralin.org/lives/john-h-mcwhorter/. Search in Google Scholar

Michael, Lev. 2011. The interaction of tone and stress in the prosodic system of Iquito (zaparoan). Amerindia 35. 53–74. Search in Google Scholar

Newman, Paul. 1981. Syllable weight and tone. Linguistic Inquiry 12(4). 670–673. Search in Google Scholar

Nishida, Gustavo. 2009. A Natureza Intervocálica Do Tap Em PB. Search in Google Scholar

Odden, David. 1999. Typological issues in tone and stress in Bantu. In Shegeki Kaji (ed.), Cross-linguistic studies of tonal phenomena: Tonogenesis, typology, and related topics, 187–215. Tokyo: ILCAA. Search in Google Scholar

Post, Marike. 1994. Fa d’Ambu. In Jacques Arends, Pieter Muysken & John Victor Singler (eds.), Pidgins and creoles: An introduction, 191–204. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Prince, Alan. 1990. Quantitative consequences of rhythmic organization. Chicago Linguistic Society 26(2). 355–398. Search in Google Scholar

Quint, Nicolas & Biagui Noël Bernard. 2012. Casamance creole. In Susanne Maria Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), The survey of pidgin and creole languages, 40–49. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Remijsen, Bert. 2002. Lexically contrastive stress accent and lexical tone in ma’ya. Laboratory Phonology 7. 585–614. Search in Google Scholar

Remijsen, Bert & Vincent J. van Heuven. 2005. Stress, tone and discourse prominence in the curaçao dialect of Papiamentu. Phonology 22(2). 205–235. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0952675705000540. Search in Google Scholar

Rivera-Castillo, Yolanda. 1998. Tone and stress in papiamentu: The contribution of a constraint-based analysis to the problem of creole genesis. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 13(2). 297–334. https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.13.2.04riv. Search in Google Scholar

Rivera-Castillo, Yolanda & Lucy Pickering. 2004. Phonetic correlates of stress and tone in a mixed system. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19(2). 261–284. https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.19.2.02riv. Search in Google Scholar

Seibert, Gerhard. 2013. São Tomé and Príncipe: The first plantation economy in the tropics. Search in Google Scholar

Seibert, Gerhard. 2014. Crioulização Em Cabo Verde e São Tomé e Príncipe: Divergências Históricas e Identitárias. Afro-Ásia 49. 41–70. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0002-05912014000100002. Search in Google Scholar

Smith, Norval. 2008. Creole phonology. In Silvia Kouwenberg & John Victor Singler (eds.), Handbook of pidgins and creoles studies, 98–129. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Smith, Norval & Lilian Adamson. 2006. Tonal phenomena in sranan. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 59(2). 211–218. https://doi.org/10.1524/stuf.2006.59.2.211. Search in Google Scholar

Steien, Guri Bordal & Kofi Yakpo. 2020. Romancing with tone: On the outcomes of prosodic contact. Language 96(1). 1–41. https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2020.0000. Search in Google Scholar

Swolkien, Dominika. 2015. The Cape Verdean Creole of São Vicente: Its genesis and structure. Tese de Doutorado. Universidade de Coimbra. Search in Google Scholar

Thomason, Sarah G. 2001. Language contact. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Thomason, Sarah G. & Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press. Search in Google Scholar

Thompson, Dahlia & Hubert Devonish. 2010. A concise grammar of guyanese creole (creolese). München: LINCOM. Search in Google Scholar

Tomás, Gil, Luísa Seco, Susana Seixas, Paula Faustino, João Lavinha & Jorge Rocha. 2002. The peopling of São Tomé (Gulf of Guinea): Origins of slave settlers and admixture with the Portuguese. Human Biology 74(3). 397–411. https://doi.org/10.1353/hub.2002.0036. Search in Google Scholar

Torreira, Francisco. 2005. Draw objects. Available at: https://github.com/MinhChauNGUYEN/praatfig/blob/master/Script3_DrawObjects_byFranciscoTorreira/DrawObjects_Origin.PraatScript. Search in Google Scholar

Traill, Anthony & Luiz Ferraz. 1981. The interpretation of tone in Principense creole. Studies in African Linguistics 12(2). 205–215. Search in Google Scholar

van der Hulst, Harry, Rob Goedemans & Ellen Van Zanten. 2010. A survey of word accentual patterns in the languages of the world. Berlin/New York: De Gruyter Mouton. Search in Google Scholar

Voorhoeve, Jan. 1961. Le Ton et La Grammaire Dans Le Saramaccan. WORD 17(2). 146–163. https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1961.11659750. Search in Google Scholar

Wetzels, W. Leo. 2007. Primary word stress in Brazilian Portuguese and the weight parameter. Journal of Portuguese Linguistics 6(1). 9–58. https://doi.org/10.5334/jpl.144. Search in Google Scholar

Xu, Yi. 1999. F0 peak delay: When, where, and why it occurs. In Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 1881–1884. San Francisco: Berkeley University of California. Search in Google Scholar

Yakpo, Kofi. 2009. A grammar of Pichi. Berlin, Accra: Isimu Media. Search in Google Scholar

Yakpo, Kofi. 2019. A grammar of Pichi. Berlin: Language Science Press. Search in Google Scholar

Zamora Segorbe, Armando. 2010. Gramática Descriptiva del Fá d’Ambô. Madrid: CEIBA Search in Google Scholar

Zee, Eric. 1978. Duration and intensity as correlates of F0. Journal of Phonetics 6(3). 213–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0095-4470(19)31153-2. Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, Jie. 2001. The effects of duration and sonority on contour tone distribution. Los Angeles: University of California. Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2021-04-29
Published in Print: 2021-05-26

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston