Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton October 10, 2016

Nataayej reproducibility Nadaare: Introductory conceptualization and macrolinguistic functions of reverse code-switching

Shima Ghahari EMAIL logo

Abstract

The study revisits the concept of code-switching (CS) by focusing on a phenomenon in which bilinguals reverse switch from their L1 to L2 while speaking in their mother tongue. In the opening sections, the basic question of why CS occurs is addressed by reviewing relevant research and by looking beyond the formal interests to the social and cultural functions of CS in bilingual interactions. Then in the last two chapters, the study introduces and highlights a version of CS called reverse code-switching which is, to a large extent and despite its frequency of occurrence in outer circle societies, ignored in language studies. Attempt has been made to survey possible psycholinguistic and sociocultural explanations that may account for and common perceptions which are held towards the latter phenomenon in the light of the former.

References

Albakri, M. and P. Hancock. 2008. “Code-switching in Ahdaf Soueif s The Map of Love”. Language and Literature 17. 221-234.10.1177/0963947008092502Search in Google Scholar

Altarriba, J. 1992. “The representation of translation equivalents in bilingual memory”. In: Harris, R. (ed.)., Cognitive processing in bilinguals. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. 157-174.10.1016/S0166-4115(08)61493-4Search in Google Scholar

Altarriba, J. 2000. “Language processing and memory retrieval in Spanish-English bilinguals”. Spanish Applied Linguistics 4. 215-245.Search in Google Scholar

Altarriba, J. and A. Santiago-Rivera. 1994. “Current perspectives on using linguistic and cultural factors in counseling the Hispanic client”. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 25. 388-397.10.1037/0735-7028.25.4.388Search in Google Scholar

Auer, P. 1984. Bilingual conversation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/pb.v.8Search in Google Scholar

Auer, P. 1991. “Bilingualism in/as social action: A sequential approach to code-switching”. In: European Science Foundation (ed.), Papers for the symposium on code-switching in bilingual studies: Theory, significance and perspectives. Strasbourg, France: European Science Foundation. 319-352.Search in Google Scholar

Auer, P. 1995. “The pragmatics of code-switching: A sequential approach”. In: Milroy, L. and P. Muysken (ed.), One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 115-135.10.1017/CBO9780511620867.006Search in Google Scholar

Auer, P. 1998. Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity. London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Bachman, L. 1990. Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Bailey, B. 2002. Language, race, and negotiation of identity: A study of Dominican Americans. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Bialystok, E. 1990. Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second-language use. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Bamiro, E. 1997. “Lexical innovation in Ghanaian English: Some examples from recent fiction”. American Speech 72. 105-112.10.2307/455612Search in Google Scholar

Bani-Shoraka, H. 2005. Language choice and code-switching in the Azerbaijani community in Tehran: A conversation analytic approach to bilingual practices. (PhD dissertation, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala, Sweden).Search in Google Scholar

Blom, J. and J. Gumperz. 1972. “Social meaning in linguistic structures: Code-switching in Norway”. In: Gumperz, J. and D. Hymes (ed.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 407-434.Search in Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P. 1977. “Cultural reproduction and social reproduction”. In: Karabel, J. and A. Halsey (ed.), Power and ideology in education. New York: Oxford University Press. 487-511.Search in Google Scholar

Brice, A. and R. Anderson. 1999. “Code-mixing in a young bilingual child”. Communication Disorders Quarterly 21. 17-22.10.1177/152574019902100103Search in Google Scholar

Brice, A., B. Gorman and C. Leung. 2013. “Spanish-English speech perception in children and adults: Developmental trends”. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 27. 220-234.10.3109/02699206.2012.757805Search in Google Scholar

Canale, M. and M. Swain. 1981. “A theoretical framework for communicative competence”. In: Palmer, A., P. Groot and G. Trosper (ed.), The construct validation of test of communicative competence. Washington, DC: TESOL. 31-36.Search in Google Scholar

Chen, L. 2013. “Motivation for code-switching in the Chinese Christian Church in the United States”. In: Texas Linguistics Forum (ed.), Proceedings of the 21st annual symposium about language and society at Austin. Austin: Texas. 1—11.Search in Google Scholar

Cieślicka, A. and R. Heredia. 2015. “Priming and on-line multiple language activation”. In: Heredia, R., J. Altarriba and A. Cieslicka (ed.), Methods in bilingual reading comprehension research. Berlin: Springer. 123-156.Search in Google Scholar

Cromdal, J. 2001. “Overlap in bilingual play: Some implications of code-switching for overlap resolution”. Research on Language and Social Interaction 34. 421-451.10.1207/S15327973RLSI3404_02Search in Google Scholar

Crystal, D. 1987. The Cambridge encyclopedia of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

De Fina, A. 2007. “Code-switching and the construction of ethnic identity in a community of practice”. Language in Society 36. 371-392.10.1017/S0047404507070182Search in Google Scholar

D’Souza, J. 1991. “Speech acts in Indian English fiction”. World Englishes 10. 307-316.10.1111/j.1467-971X.1991.tb00165.xSearch in Google Scholar

Duran, L. 1994. “Toward a better understanding of code-switching and interlanguage in bilinguality: Implications for bilingual instruction”. The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students 14. 69-88.Search in Google Scholar

Dussias, P. 2002. “On the relationship between comprehension and production data in code-switching”. In: Wiltshire, C. and J. Camps (ed.), Romance phonology and’variation. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 27-38.10.1075/cilt.217.05dusSearch in Google Scholar

Faerch, C. and G. Kasper. 1983. Strategies in interlanguage communication. London: Longman.Search in Google Scholar

Fung, L. and R. Carter. 2007. “Discourse markers and spoken English: Native and learner use in pedagogic settings”. Applied Linguistics 28. 410^139.10.1093/applin/amm030Search in Google Scholar

Gafaranga, J. 2001. “Linguistic identities in talk-in-interaction: Order in bilingual conversation”. Journal of Pragmatics 33. 1901-1925.10.1016/S0378-2166(01)00008-XSearch in Google Scholar

Garcia, O. 2009. Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. West Sussex: Wiley, Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Garcia, O. andL. Wei. 2014. Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism, and education. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.10.1057/9781137385765Search in Google Scholar

Gardner-Chloros, P. 2009. “Sociolinguistic factors in code-switching”. In: Bullock, B. and A. Toribio (ed.), The handbook of linguistic code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 97-113.10.1017/CBO9780511576331.007Search in Google Scholar

Ghahari, S. 2014. “Iranian bilinguals’ reverse code-switching: An implicit quest for power?” Journal ojWorldLanguages 1. 171-191.10.1080/21698252.2014.988430Search in Google Scholar

Giles, H. and T. Ogay. 2007. “Communication accommodation theory”. In: Whaley, B. and W. Samter (ed.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 325-344.Search in Google Scholar

Gumperz, J. 1982. Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511611834Search in Google Scholar

Harding, E. and P. Riley. 1986. The bilingual family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Heller, M. 1988. “Strategic ambiguity: Code-switching in the management of conflict”. In: Heller, M. (ed.), Code-switching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 77-96.10.1515/9783110849615Search in Google Scholar

Heller, M. 1992. “The politics of code-switching and language choice”. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13.123-142.10.1080/01434632.1992.9994487Search in Google Scholar

Heredia, R. 1997. “Bilingual memory and hierarchical models: A case for language dominance”. Current Directions in Psychological Science 6. 34-39.10.1111/1467-8721.ep11512617Search in Google Scholar

Heredia, R. and J. Altarriba. 2001. “Bilingual language mixing: Why do bilinguals code-switch?” Current Directions in Psychological Science 10. 164-168.10.1111/1467-8721.00140Search in Google Scholar

Hong, Y., Y. Fang, Y. Yang and D. Phua. 2013. “Cultural attachment: A new theory and method to understand cross-cultural competence”. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 44. 1024-1044.10.1177/0022022113480039Search in Google Scholar

Huerta, A. 1978. Code-switching among Spanish-English bilinguals: A sociolinguistic perspective. (PhD dissertation, University of Texas, Austin).Search in Google Scholar

Hymes, D. 1972. “On communicative competence”. In: Pride, J. and J. Holmes (ed.), Sociolinguistics. Baltimore: Penguin Education, Penguin Books Ltd. 269-293.Search in Google Scholar

Jørgensen, J. 2005. “Plurilingual conversations among bilingual adolescents”. Journal of Pragmatics 37. 391-402.10.1016/j.pragma.2004.10.009Search in Google Scholar

Kabuto, B. 2010. “Code-switching during parent-child reading interactions: Taking multiple theoretical perspectives”. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy 10. 131— 157.10.1177/1468798409345109Search in Google Scholar

Khetrapal, N. 2010. “Load theory of selective attention and the role of perceptual load: Is it time for revision?” European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 22. 149-156.10.1080/09541440902787014Search in Google Scholar

Kroll, J. and E. Stewart. 1994. “Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations”. Journal of Memory and Language 33. 149-174.10.1006/jmla.1994.1008Search in Google Scholar

Lavie, N., A. Hirst, J. de Fockert and E. Viding. 2004. “Load theory of selective attention and cognitive control”. Journal of Experimental Psychology 133. 339-354.10.1037/0096-3445.133.3.339Search in Google Scholar

Legenhausen, L. 1991. “Code-switching in learners’ discourse”. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 29. 61-74.Search in Google Scholar

Li, W. 1998. “The why and how questions in the analysis of conversational code-switching”. In: Auer, P. (ed.). Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity. London: Routledge. 156-176.Search in Google Scholar

Lin, H. and T. Chen. 2006. “Decreasing cognitive load for novice EFL learners: Effects of question and descriptive advance organizers in facilitating EFL learners’ comprehension of an animation-based content lesson”. System 34. 416-431.10.1016/j.system.2006.04.008Search in Google Scholar

Mejìa, A. 2002. Power, prestige, and bilingualism: International perspectives on elite bilingual education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.10.21832/9781853595929Search in Google Scholar

Miccio, A., C. Scheffner Hammer and B. Rodriguez. 2009. “Code-switching and language disorders in bilingual children”. In: Bullock, B. and A. Toribio (ed.), The Handbook of linguistic code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 241-252.10.1017/CBO9780511576331.015Search in Google Scholar

Munat, J. 2005. “English as a vehicular language: A case of globalization or linguistic imperialism”. In Isaacs, A. (ed.), Languages and identities in historical perspective. Pisa: University of Pisa. 143-154.Search in Google Scholar

Myers-Scotton, C. 1993. Social motivation for code-switching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford, England: Clarendon.Search in Google Scholar

Myers-Scotton, C. 2002. Contact linguistics: Bilingual encounters and grammatical outcomes. New York: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Nikula, T. 2007. “Speaking English in Finnish content-based classrooms”. WorldEnglishes 26.206-223.10.1111/j.1467-971X.2007.00502.xSearch in Google Scholar

Nilep, C. 2006. “Code-switching in socio-cultural linguistics”. Colorado Research in Linguistics 19. 1-22.Search in Google Scholar

Noraishah, B. 2003. Code-switching among the undergraduates of University Technology Malaysia. (PhD dissertation, University Technology of Malaysia).Search in Google Scholar

Quinto-Pozos, D. 2006. “Code-switching between sign languages”. In: Bullock, B. and A. Toribio (ed.), The Handbook of linguistic code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 221-238.Search in Google Scholar

Rampton, B. 1995. Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents. London: Longman.Search in Google Scholar

Sebba, M. and T. Wooten. 1998. “We, they and identity: Sequential versus identity-related explanation in code-switching”. In: Auer, P. (ed.), Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity. London: Routledge. 262-286.Search in Google Scholar

Skiba, R. 1997. “Code-switching as a countenance of language interference”. Retrieved from <http://teslj.org/articles/skiba-code-switching.html>.Search in Google Scholar

Szymaniak, W. 2002. “Code-switching and English language as a free-culture medium: Case study of the novel Necessary Lies by Eva Stachniak”. Revista de Filolo Rlay su Diddctica 2. 311-322.Search in Google Scholar

Van Der Meij, H. and X. Zhao. 2010. “Code-switching in English courses in Chinese universities”. The Modern Language Journal 94. 396-411.10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01090.xSearch in Google Scholar

Watson, G. 2005. “A model for the functional interpretation of code-switching in NNS-NS contact situations”. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. 2324-2337.Search in Google Scholar

Weast, R. andN.Neiman. 2010. “The effect of cognitive load and meaning on selective attention”. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Portland: Oregan, USA. 1477-1482.Search in Google Scholar

Wheeler, R. andR. Swords. 2010. Code-switching lessons: Grammar strategies for linguistically diverse writers. Heinemann, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.Search in Google Scholar

Widdowson, H. 1983. Learning purpose andlanguage use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Widdowson, H. 2007. “J.R. Firth, 1957, Papers in Linguistics 1934-51”. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 17. 402-113.10.1111/j.1473-4192.2007.00164.xSearch in Google Scholar

Yule, G. 1996. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Zabus, C. 1991. The African palimpsest: Indigenization of language in the WestAfrican Europhobe novel. Atlanta: Rodopi.Search in Google Scholar

Zanotti, L. 2009. “Code-switching among English and Swiss-German speaking couples”. Retrieved from <http://laureen.zanotti.name/wordpress>.Search in Google Scholar

Zentella, A. 1997. Growing up bilingual. Maiden, MA: Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2016-10-10
Published in Print: 2016-9-1

© Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland

Downloaded on 29.1.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/psicl-2016-0016/html
Scroll Up Arrow