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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton October 10, 2016

Social variables and Turkish subject pronoun use in New York City: The effect of language contact

  • Didem Koban Koç EMAIL logo


Over recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to the influence of social variables on the usage of subject personal pronouns (SPP) in South and Central America as well as in immigrant communities in the USA (Avila-Jiménez 1996; Bayley and Pease-Álvarez 1997; Flores-Ferrán 2004; Labov 1963; Labov 1972; Otheguy and Lapidus 2005a; Otheguy, Zentella and Livert 2007; Silva Corvalán 1994); however, sociolinguistic research on the variable use of SPPs in Turkish communities living in the USA remains scarce. The present study examines the effect of several social variables on the usage of SPPs in the speech of 20 Turkish speakers living in New York City (NYC) and 20 in Turkey. The sample consisted of speakers who were between the ages of 20 and 80. Data analysis involved independent samples t-test, Anovas and linear regression analyses of social variables. The social variables that were analyzed were residence, gender, social class, age, age of arrival in NYC, length of residence in NYC and so forth. The results showed that residence, age of arrival, age and Turkish spoken with a father were the significant variables. The results are discussed with respect to language contact influence from English on Turkish.


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Published Online: 2016-10-10
Published in Print: 2016-9-1

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