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Emotional and linguistic prosody development in Polish children: Three different paths

Joanna Śmiecińska EMAIL logo

Abstract

The development of prosodic competence in children is a complex process. Various, often conflicting developmental paths have been proposed in the literature, with both the general testing method and language specific factors seeming to be responsible for the variety of the outcomes. In the present study receptive prosodic skills of over 100 Polish children aged 3;6–11 were assessed and compared to the skills of young adults (20–30) in three tasks; emotion recognition of single word utterances, question vs. statement distinction, and synthetic vs. recorded human voice discrimination. No age effect was found in the emotion recognition task; the question vs. statement distinction ability had a clear developmental threshold at the age between 7 and 8, and the ability to spot rhythmic and temporal distortions of synthetic speech gradually improved with age, but was generally not developed in 3;6 to 5;6 year olds. The results suggest a complex path of acquisition of the above skills.

References

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Appendix 1

Percentage Results by Respondent

Resp. No.GenderAge in monthsLike% 7Quest% 7Display mode 1 =booklet; 2=computerIvona% 6
1.m420.860.862
2.m580.860.862
3.f610.860.861
4.m670.860.431
5.m481.001.001
6.m481.000.431
7.f511.000.001
8.f511.000.002
9.f511.000.001
10.f511.000.001
11.m521.000.002
12.m531.000.002
13.f531.000.001
14.m531.000.431
15.m531.000.002
16.m541.001.001
17.f541.001.002
18.m541.000.862
19.m561.000.572
20.m561.000.431
21.m561.000.001
22.m571.000.432
23.m601.001.002
24.f621.000.572
25.m621.001.001
26.f621.000.572
27.f631.000.141
28.m641.000.572
29.m641.000.431
30.f641.000.711
31.f651.001.001
32.m661.000.712
33.f661.000.572
34.m661.000.432
35.m671.001.001
36.m681.000.572
37.m681.000.432
38.m691.000.862
39.m691.000.431
40.f691.000.572
41.f711.000.431
42.m711.000.431
43.f711.000.002
44.m711.000.432
45.m721.001.001
46.m741.000.001
47.m751.001.002
48.m761.000.862
49.m761.000.292
50.m761.000.002
51.f771.000.572
52.f771.001.001
53.m781.000.572
54.f821.001.0020.83
55.m831.000.001
56.m951.001.0021.00
57.m981.001.0021.00
58.f1011.001.0021.00
59.f1131.001.0010.67
60.m1131.001.0020.83
61.f1151.001.0020.83
62.f1151.001.0021.00
63.m1171.001.0011.00
64.m1171.001.0011.00
65.m1181.001.0011.00
66.f1181.001.0011.00
67.f1211.001.0010.83
68.f1211.001.0011.00
69.f1211.001.0020.50
70.f1211.001.0011.00
71.f1211.001.0021.00
72.f1221.001.0021.00
73.f1231.001.0010.83
74.f1231.001.0021.00
75.m1241.001.0020.50
76.f1291.001.0011.00
77.f2401.001.0011.00
78.m2401.001.0011.00
79.m2521.001.0011.00
80.f2521.001.0021.00
81.f2521.001.0021.00
82.m2521.001.0021.00
83.f2521.001.0021.00
84.f2641.001.0011.00
85.f2641.001.0011.00
86.f2641.001.0011.00
87.f2641.001.0021.00
88.m2881.001.0011.00
89.m2881.001.0021.00
90.m2881.001.0011.00
91.f3001.001.0011.00
92.f3241.001.0021.00
93.m3361.001.0021.00
94.f3361.001.0011.00
95.f3361.001.0011.00
96.f3481.001.0021.00
97.f3601.001.0011.00
98.m3601.001.0021.00
99.f3601.001.0011.00
100.m3601.001.0021.00
101.f3601.001.0011.00
102.m3601.001.0011.00
103.f410.67
104.m410.33
105.m430.83
106.m440.50
107.f440.33
108.m480.50
109.m480.33
110.m490.50
111.m510.67
112.m520.50
113.m530.50
114.m540.33
115.m550.33
116.m550.50
117.m590.50
118.m620.33
119.f620.33
120.m650.33
121.m670.33
122.m711.00
123.m771.00
124.m771.00
125.f770.83
126.m780.50
127.m780.67
128.m800.67
129.f800.83
130.f800.83
131.m810.67
132.m811.00
133.m830.83
134.m841.00
135.m840.83
136.m840.50
137.f840.83
138.f851.00
139.f851.00
140.f851.00
141.f860.67
142.m861.00
143.f861.00
144.f861.00
145.f860.50
146.m870.50
147.m870.67
148.m870.33
149.f870.83
150.m900.33
151.m910.50
152.f910.83
153.f930.83
154.m930.17
155.m930.33
156.f930.50
157.f940.33
158.f950.33
159.f970.50
160.m970.67
161.f980.83
162.m990.67
163.f990.50
164.m1011.00
165.m1021.00
166.m1030.67
167.m1031.00
168.f1030.83
169.f1041.00
170.m1040.83
171.f1050.83
172.m1060.83
173.f1061.00
174.f1070.00
175.f1120.83
176.f1130.83
177.m1141.00
178.m1181.00
179.f1190.67
180.m1190.67
181.m1201.00
182.m2401.00
183.f2521.00
184.f2641.00
185.m2641.00
186.f2641.00
187.f2641.00
188.f2641.00
189.m2641.00
190.f2641.00
191.m2641.00
192.f2641.00
193.f2641.00
194.f2641.00
195.f2641.00
196.f2641.00
197.m2641.00
198.m2641.00
199.m2641.00
200.m2761.00
201.m2881.00
202.m3481.00
203.f3601.00
204.f3601.00
205.f3601.00

Appendix 2

Kruskal-Wallis test for independent variables, pair-wise comparisons – groups 1–4, Question test.

Test statisticsSt. errorStandardised test statisticsSignificanceCorrected sig.
1–2−6.7177.398−.908.3641.000
1–3−44.9528.226−5.464.000.000
1–4−44. 9527.821−5.748.000.000
2–3−38.2357.398−5.168.000.000
2–4−38.2356.945−5.506.000.000
3–4.0007.821.0001.0001.000

Each row tests the H0 that the distributions in samples 1 and 2 are the same. Significance level = 0.05.

Appendix 3

Kruskal-Wallis test for independent variables, pair-wise comparisons – groups 1–5, IVONA test.

Test statisticsSt. errorStandardised test statisticsSignificanceCorrected sig.
1–3−34.18711.282−2.889.004.039
1–2−47.31111.746−4.028.000.001
1–4−61.25312.112−5.057.000.000
1–5−89.05310.725−8.303.000.000
3–213.3410.5441.246.2131.000
3–4−27.07510.950−2.473.013.134
3–5−54.8759.393−5. 842.000.000
2–4−13.94110.861−1.284.1991.000
2–5−41.7419.289−4.494.000.000
4–5−27.8009.748−2.852.004.043

Each row tests the H0 that the distributions in samples 1 and 2 are the same. Significance level = 0.05.

Appendix 4

 Visual stimulus example in the Like test.

Visual stimulus example in the Like test.

 Visual stimulus example in the Question test.

Visual stimulus example in the Question test.

Published Online: 2016-10-10
Published in Print: 2016-9-1

© Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland

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