Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton September 18, 2020

Marking of quality modifiers in 2nd-generation IE languages

  • Artemij Keidan EMAIL logo


In PIE, quality modifiers were expressed by stative verbs and nominal epithets, rather than by special adjectival lexemes. Adjectives did not form a separate lexical class. This made the encoding of the NP constituency less explicit. If we consider what I suggest calling “second-generation IE languages” we can observe a general tendency to create new, more explicit morphological means of dependency marking within a NP. The exact outcomes of this diachronic process vary from one language to another. However, if we parametrise the variation, a common pattern becomes clearly observable. In all the languages analysed in the present paper, there is a pronoun undergoing grammaticalisation as a dependency marker. What varies is (1) the position of this element with respect to the nominal base (pre- vs. postposed); (2) the degree of agglutination (bound morpheme vs. clitic vs. free morpheme); and (3) the locus of marking (head vs. modifier vs. double or alternant marking); (4) the source morpheme that undergoes grammaticalisation (relative vs. demonstrative pronoun).

Artemij Keidan Sapienza University of Rome Institute of the Oriental Studies Circonvallazione Tiburtina 4 Roma, RM 00185 Italy


5 Acknowledgments

I wish to thank my colleagues who kindly revised preliminary drafts of this paper providing invaluable feedback either on single linguistic examples, or on the paper in general, for instance: Claudia A. Ciancaglini, Alessandro del Tomba, Alessandro Papini, Irina Pekunova, Valerio Pisaniello, and Artūras Ratkus. My gratitude goes also to the anonymous PSiCL reviewers whose remarks helped me to correct regrettable mistakes and to refine the argumentation. As usual, the responsibility for any errors or deficiencies rests with me.


Adiego, I.J. 2007. The Carian language. Leiden & Boston: Brill.10.1163/ej.9789004152816.i-526Search in Google Scholar

Alfieri, L. 2016. “The definition of the root between history and typology”. Archivio Glottologico Italiano 101(2). 129–169.Search in Google Scholar

Bakker, S.J. 2009. The noun phrase in Ancient Greek. A functional analysis of the order and articulation of NP Constituents in Herodotus. Leiden & Boston: Brill.10.1163/ej.9789004177222.i-324Search in Google Scholar

Bammesberger, A. 1990. Die Morphologie des urgermanischen Nomens. Heidelberg: Winter.Search in Google Scholar

Bauer, B.L.M. 1995. The emergence and development of SVO patterning in Latin and French. Diachronic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Bauer, B.L.M. 2007. “The definite article in Indo-European: Emergence of a new grammatical category?” In: Stark, E., E. Leiss and W. Abraham (eds.), Nominal determination. Typology, context constraints, and historical emergence. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.10.1075/slcs.89.07bauSearch in Google Scholar

Belardi, W. 1990. “Genealogia, tipologia, ricostruzione e leggi fonetiche”. In: Linguistica generale, filologia e critica dell’espressione. Roma: Bonacci. 155–216.Search in Google Scholar

Belardi, W. 1993. “Sulla tipologia della struttura formale della parola nelle lingue indoeuropee”. Rendiconti dell’Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. Classe delle scienze morali 9(4.4). 535–570.Search in Google Scholar

Benveniste, É. 1966. “La phrase relative, problème de syntaxe générale”. In: Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris: Gallimard. 208–222.Search in Google Scholar

Burrow, T. 1937. The language of the Kharoṣṭhi documents from Chinese Turkestan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Caland, W. 1891. Zur Syntax der Pronomina im Avesta. Amsterdam: Müller.Search in Google Scholar

Chantraine, P. 1942–1953. Grammaire homérique. Paris: C. Klincksieck.Search in Google Scholar

Dahl, Ö. 2015. Grammaticalization in the North. Noun phrase morphosyntax in Scandinavian vernaculars. Berlin: Language Science Press.10.26530/OAPEN_559871Search in Google Scholar

Dini, P.U. 2014. Foundations of Baltic languages. Vilnius: Vilnius University.Search in Google Scholar

Dunkel, G.E. 2014. Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme. Vol. 2. Heidelberg: Winter.Search in Google Scholar

Durkin-Meisterernst, D. 2014. Grammatik des Westmitteliranischen (Parthisch und Mittelpersisch). Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.10.2307/j.ctt1vw0pjfSearch in Google Scholar

Dyen, I. 1990. “The homomeric argument for a Slavo-Germanic subgroup of Indo- European”. In: Baldi, P. (ed.), Linguistic change and reconstruction methodology. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 385–390.10.1515/9783110886092.385Search in Google Scholar

Edgerton, F. 1936. “Nouns of the a-declension in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit”. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 1(1). 65–83.10.2307/2718038Search in Google Scholar

Emmerick, R.E. 1968. Saka grammatical studies. London: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Emmerick, R.E. 2009. “Khotanese and Tumshuqese”. In: Windfuhr, G. (ed.), The Iranian languages. (Chap. 7.) London & New York: Routledge. 377–415.Search in Google Scholar

Evans, E. 2019. The origin, functions, and histories of Germanic adjective endings”. (PhD thesis, Indiana University, Department of Germanic Studies.)Search in Google Scholar

Franco, L., M.R. Manzini and L.M. Savoia. 2015. “Linkers and agreement”. The Linguistic Review 32(2). 277–332.10.1515/tlr-2014-0024Search in Google Scholar

Gildersleeve, B.L. 1900–1911. Syntax of Classical Greek. From Homer to Demosthenes. New York, Cincinnati & Chicago: American Book Company.Search in Google Scholar

Haider, H. and R. Zwanziger. 1984. “Relatively attributive: The ‘ezāfe’-construction from Old Iranian to Modern Persian”. In: Fisiak, J. (ed.), Historical syntax. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 137–172.10.1515/9783110824032.137Search in Google Scholar

Hajnal, I. 1997. “Definite nominale Determination im Indogermanischen”. IndogermanischeForschungen 102. 38–73.Search in Google Scholar

Haspelmath, M. 2001. “The European linguistic area. Standard Average European”. In: Language Typology and Language Universals. Berlin: De Gruyter. 1492– 1510.10.1515/9783110171549.2Search in Google Scholar

Held, W.H. 1957. “The Hittite relative sentence”. Language 33(4.2). 7–52.10.2307/522235Search in Google Scholar

Humbert, J. 1960. Syntaxe grecque. (3rd ed.) Paris: Klincksieck.Search in Google Scholar

Ivanov, V.V. 1979. “Sravnitel’no-istoričeskij analiz kategorii opredelennosti – neopredelennosti v slavjanskix, baltijskix i drevnebalkanskix jazykax v svete indoevropeistiki i nostratiki”. In: Nikolaeva, T.M. (ed.), Kategorija opredelennosti – neopredelennosti v slavjanskix i balkanskix jazykax. Moskva: Nauka. 11–63.Search in Google Scholar

Keidan, A. 2013. “Branch-crossing Indo-European isoglosses: A call for interest”. Indoevropejskoe âzykoznanie i klassičeskaâ filologiâ 17. 406–417.Search in Google Scholar

Kuryłowicz, J. 1975. “Die Flexionen des Adjektivs im Baltischen und im Slavischen”. In: Coseriu, E. (ed.), Esquisses Linguistiques II. München: Fink. 426–438.Search in Google Scholar

Lavency, M. 1998. Grammaire fondamentale du latin. V.2. La proposition relative. Louvain & Paris: Peeters.Search in Google Scholar

Lehmann, C. 2018. “Adjective and attribution. Category and operation”. In: Baumann, C., V. Dabóczi and S. Hartlmaier (eds.), Adjektive. Grammatik, Pragmatik, Erwerb. Berlin: De Gruyter. 13–76.10.1515/9783110584042-002Search in Google Scholar

Lejeune, M. 1973. “La grande inscription celtibère de Botorrita (Saragosse)”. Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 117(4). 622– 648.10.3406/crai.1973.12946Search in Google Scholar

Leskien, A. 1876. Die Declination im Slavisch-Litauischen und Germanischen. Leipzig: Hirzel.Search in Google Scholar

Luján, E.R. 2009. “On the grammaticalization of *kʷi-/kʷo- relative clauses in Proto-Indo-European”. In: Bubeník, V., J. Hewson and S. Rose (eds.), Grammatical change in Indo-European languages. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.10.1075/cilt.305.22lujSearch in Google Scholar

McFadden, T. 2004. “On the pronominal inflection of the Germanic strong adjective”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 10(1). 123–136.Search in Google Scholar

Meillet, A. 1906–1908. “La phrase nominale en indo-européen”. Mémoires de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 14. 1–26.Search in Google Scholar

Meillet, A. 1915. Grammaire du vieux Perse. Paris: Guilmoto.Search in Google Scholar

Meillet, A. 1934. Le slave commun. (Ed. by A. Vaillant. 2nd ed.) Paris: Champion.Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, R. 2017. Iranian-Armenian language contact in and before the 5th century CE. An investigation into pattern replication and societal multilingualism. (PhD thesis. Oxford: University of Oxford.)Search in Google Scholar

Nevis, J.A. and B.D. Joseph. 1993. “Wackemagel affixes: Evidence from Balto-Slavic”. In: Booij, C. and J. v. Marie (eds.), Yearbook of morphology 1992. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 93–11l.10.1007/978-94-017-3710-4_4Search in Google Scholar

Nichols, J. 1986. “Head-marking and dependent-marking grammar”. Language 62(1). 56–119.10.1353/lan.1986.0014Search in Google Scholar

Nyberg, H.S. 1964–1974. A manual of Pahlavi. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Search in Google Scholar

Oberlies, T. 2001. Pāli. A grammar of the language of the Theravāda Tipiṭaka. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.10.1515/9783110870930Search in Google Scholar

Orr, R. 1983. “The twofold adjective declension in Germanic and Slavic (with some reference to Baltic): A contrastive/comparative analysis”. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 96(1). 104–118.Search in Google Scholar

Parenti, A. 1996. “L’aggettivo determinato lituano e l’evoluzione delle marche di definitezza”. In: Benacchio, R., F. Fici and L. Gebert (eds.), Determinatezza e indeterminatezza nelle lingue slave. Padova: Unipress. 27–42.Search in Google Scholar

Petit, D. 2009. “La préhistoire des adjectifs déterminés du baltique et du slave”. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 104. 311–360.10.2143/BSL.104.1.2046994Search in Google Scholar

Pisani, V. 1950. “Studi sulla fonetica dell’armeno. I. Palatalizzazioni ed esiti di s + gutturale; esiti delle semivocali”. Ricerche Linguistiche 1. 165–193.Search in Google Scholar

Pischel, R. 1900. Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen. Strassburg: Trübner.10.1515/9783111700007Search in Google Scholar

Polivanova, A. K. 2013. Staroslavjanskij jazyk. Grammatika. Slovari. Moskva: Institut Slavjanovedenija.Search in Google Scholar

Probert, P. 2015. Early Greek relative clauses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713821.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Prokosch, E. 1939. A comparative Germanic grammar. Philadelphia: Linguistic society of America.Search in Google Scholar

Ratkus, A. 2015. “Gothic possessives, adjectives, and other modifiers in -ata”. Journal of Germanic Linguistics 27(3). 238–307.10.1017/S1470542714000233Search in Google Scholar

Ratkus, A. 2018. “Weak adjectives need not be definite. The evidence of variation in Gothic”. Indogermanische Forschungen 123(1). 27–64.10.1515/if-2018-0002Search in Google Scholar

Rosinas, A. 1975. “Ar baltų *i-, *i̯o- resp. *ı̄, *i̯ā- kamienai buvo reliatyviniai?” Baltistica 11(2). 165– 170.Search in Google Scholar

Schmitt, R. 2014. Wörterbuch der altpersischen Königsinschriften. Wiesbaden: Reichert.10.29091/9783954906437Search in Google Scholar

Schwyzer, E. and A. Debrunner. 1939–1950. Griechische Grammatik. München: C. H. Beck.Search in Google Scholar

Seiler, H. 1960. Relativsatz, Attribut und Apposition. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Search in Google Scholar

Sievers, E. 1876. “Kleine Beitrage zur deutschen Grammatik III. Die starke Adjectivdeclination”. Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 2. 98–124.10.1515/bgsl.1876.2.1.98Search in Google Scholar

Sims-Williams, N. 1990. “Chotano-Sogdica II. Aspects of the development of nominal morphology in Khotanese and Sogdian”. In: Gnoli, G. and A. Panaino (eds.), Proceedings of the first European conference of Iranian studies, held in Turin, September 7th–11th, 1987. (Vol. 1.) Rome: IsMEO. 276– 296.Search in Google Scholar

Strunk, K. 1967. “Wortstruktur und Pronomen im Altpersischen”. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der Indogermanischen Sprachen 81(3–4). 265–275.Search in Google Scholar

Trautmann, R. 1910. Die altpreussischen Sprachdenkmäler. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.Search in Google Scholar

Vaillant, A. 1942. “L’article en vieux slave”. Revue des Études Slaves 20. 5–12.10.3406/slave.1942.1398Search in Google Scholar

Večerka, R., R.M. Cejtlin and Ė. Blagova. 1994. Staroslavjanskij slovar’ po rukopisjam X–XI vekov. Moskva: Russkij jazyk.Search in Google Scholar

West, M.L. 2011. Old Avestan syntax and stylistics. Berlin: De Gruyter.10.1515/9783110253092Search in Google Scholar

Wissemann, H. 1957. “Zur nominalen Determination”. Indogermanische Forschungen 63. 61–78.Search in Google Scholar

Woolner, A.C. 1928. Introduction to Prakrit. (2nd ed.) Lahore: Punjab University.Search in Google Scholar

Zinkevičius, Z. 1958. “Nekotorye voprosy obrazovanija mestoimennyx prilagatel’nyx v litovskom jazyke”. Voprosy slavjanskogo jazykoznanija 3. 50–100.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2020-09-18
Published in Print: 2020-09-25

© 2020 Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland

Downloaded on 24.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button