Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter Open Access August 23, 2021

Moving From Me to We: Interpersonal Coordination’s Effects on Self-Construal

Liam Cross, Liam Whiteman, Sarah Ward and Gray Atherton
From the journal Open Psychology

Abstract

We all move in time together throughout our lives, and doing so has been shown to lead to more pro-social attitudes and behaviors towards co-actors. However, little research has investigated how coordinated movement affects how individuals feel about themselves. This mixed-methods study took self-generated qualitative responses of how participants construed their own identities after either coordinated movement or a carefully matched control task. Responses were analysed qualitatively using thematic analyses, and quantitatively using content analysis. Four themes were identified from thematic analysis, and inferential statistical testing showed significant differences in how participants construed their identities post coordination (cf. control). Participants in the coordinated condition generated a higher proportion of interdependent (social) rather than independent (personal) self-construals, driven by differences in broad social structures/constructs rather than close specific social relations. Furthermore, participants in the coordinated condition reported less mental state items, and more sexual/romantic items. These findings may explain how and why coordinated movement leads to prosociality amongst those who take part, by leading individuals to think of themselves and each other in group terms.

References

Anshel, A., & Kipper, D.A. (1988). The influence of group singing on trust and cooperation. Journal of Music Therapy, 25(3), 145-155. doi:10.1093/jmt/25.3.14510.1093/jmt/25.3.145Search in Google Scholar

Ashton-James, C., Van Baaren, R. B., Chartrand, T.L., Decety, J., & Karremans, J. (2007). Mimicry and me: The impact of mimicry on self-construal. Social Cognition, 25(4), 518-535. doi:10.1177/194855060935571810.1177/1948550609355718Search in Google Scholar

Atherton, G., Sebanz, N., & Cross, L. (2019). Imagine All The Synchrony: The effects of actual and imagined synchronous walking on attitudes towards marginalised groups. PloS one, 14(5), e0216585.10.1371/journal.pone.0216585Search in Google Scholar

Brewer, M. B. (1991). The Social Self: On Being the Same and Different at the Same Time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17(5), 475-482.10.1177/0146167291175001Search in Google Scholar

Cirelli, L.K., Einarson, K.M., & Trainor, L.J. (2014). Interpersonal synchrony increases pro-social behaviour in infants. Developmental Science, 17(6), 1003-1011. doi:10.1111/desc.1219310.1111/desc.12193Search in Google Scholar

Chung, C., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2007). The psychological functions of function words. Social communication, 343-359.Search in Google Scholar

Cross, L., Atherton, G., Wilson, A. D., & Golonka, S. (2017). Imagined Steps: Can Mental Simulation of Coordinated Rhythmic Movement Affect Pro-Sociality? Frontiers in psychology, Cognitive Section. 8:1798 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.0179810.3389/fpsyg.2017.01798Search in Google Scholar

Cross, L., Wilson, A. D., & Golonka, S. (2016). How Moving Together Brings Us Together: When coordinated rhythmic movement affects cooperation. Frontiers in Psychology, 7:1983. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01983.10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01983Search in Google Scholar

Cross, L Wilson, A. D & Golonka, S. (2019a). I’ll Just Watch: Do the pro-social effects of coordination really generalise to non actors?. The journal of Social Psychology, dOI: 10.1080/00224545.2019.162316110.1080/00224545.2019.1623161Search in Google Scholar

Cross, L., & Turgeon, M., & Atherton, G., (2019b). How Moving Together Binds Us Together: The Social Consequences of Interpersonal Entrainment and Group Processes. Open Psychology. 1. 273-302. 10.1515/psych-2018-0018.10.1515/psych-2018-0018Search in Google Scholar

Cross, L., Turgeon, M., & Atherton, G. (2019c). How Moving Together Binds Us Together: The Social Consequneces of Interpersonal Entrainment and Group Processes. Open Psychology,1: 273-302. 10.1515/psych-2018-0018.10.1515/psych-2018-0018Search in Google Scholar

Cross, L., Wilsdon, L., Henson, H., Michael, J., Atherton G., (2020) Still want to help: Entrainments effects on helping behaviour after a 24-hour delay. Acta Psychologica. 206, 10.1016/j.actpsy.2020.103062Search in Google Scholar

Crossey, B. P., Atherton, G., & Cross, L. (2021). Lost in the crowd: Imagining walking in synchrony with a crowd increases affiliation and deindividuation. PloS one, 16(7), e0254017. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.025401710.1371/journal.pone.0254017Search in Google Scholar

Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.Search in Google Scholar

Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition & Emotion, 19(3), 313-332. doi:10.1080/0269993044100023810.1080/02699930441000238Search in Google Scholar

Good, A., Choma, B., & Russo, F. A. (2017). Movement Synchrony Influences Intergroup Relations in a Minimal Groups Paradigm. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 39(4), 231-238.10.1080/01973533.2017.1337015Search in Google Scholar

Good, A., & Russo, F. A. (2016). Singing promotes cooperation in a diverse group of children. Social Psychology. doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a00028210.1027/1864-9335/a000282Search in Google Scholar

Hart, R. P. (2001). Redeveloping diction: Theoretical considerations. Progress in communication sciences, 43-60.Search in Google Scholar

Hove, M.J. (2008). Shared circuits, shared time, and interpersonal synchrony. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 31(01), 29-30. doi:10.1017/S0140525X0700320210.1017/S0140525X07003202Search in Google Scholar

Hove, M.J., & Risen, J.L. (2009). It’s all in the timing: Interpersonal synchrony increases affiliation. Social Cognition, 27(6), 949-961. doi:10.1521/soco.2009.27.6.94910.1521/soco.2009.27.6.949Search in Google Scholar

Hruschka, D. J., Schwartz, D., St.John, D. C., Picone-Decaro, E., Jenkins, R. A., & Carey, J. W. (2004). Reliability in Coding Open-Ended Data: Lessons Learned from HIV Behavioral Research. Field methods, 16(3), 307-331. doi:10.1177/1525822x0426654010.1177/1525822X04266540Search in Google Scholar

Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15(9), 1277-1288. doi: 10.1177/104973230527668710.1177/1049732305276687Search in Google Scholar

Hutter, R., Wood, C., & Turner, R. (2013). Individuation moderates impressions of conflicting categories for slower processors. Social Psychology, 43(4), 239. Doi:10.1027/1864-9335Search in Google Scholar

Isbell, L. M., McCabe, J., Burns, K. C., & Lair, E. C. (2013). Who am I?: The influence of affect on the working self-concept. Cognition & Emotion, 27(6), 1073-1090. doi:10.1080/02699931.2013.76538810.1080/02699931.2013.765388Search in Google Scholar

Jarosz, A. F., & Wiley, J. (2014). What are the odds? A practical guide to computing and reporting Bayes factors. The Journal of Problem Solving, 7(1), 2.10.7771/1932-6246.1167Search in Google Scholar

Karremans, J. C., Van Lange, P. A. M., & Holland, R. W. (2005). Forgiveness and Its Associations With Pro-social Thinking, Feeling, and Doing Beyond the Relationship With the Offender. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(10), 1315-1326. doi: 10.1177/014616720527489210.1177/0146167205274892Search in Google Scholar

Kass, R. E., & Raftery, A, E. (a995) Bayes Factors. Journal of American statistical association, 90(430), 773-79510.1080/01621459.1995.10476572Search in Google Scholar

Kuhn, M. H., & McPartland, T. S. (1954). An empirical investigation of self-attitudes. American Sociological Review, 19(1), 68-76. doi:10.2307/208817510.2307/2088175Search in Google Scholar

Kühnen, U., & Hannover, B. (2000). Assimilation and contrast in social comparisons as a consequence of self-construal activation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(6), 799-811. doi: 10.1002/1099-0992(200011/12)30:6<799::AID-EJSP16>3.0.CO;2-210.1002/1099-0992(200011/12)30:6<799::AID-EJSP16>3.0.CO;2-2Search in Google Scholar

Launay, J., Dean, R.T., & Bailes, F. (2014). Synchronising movements with the sounds of a virtual partner enhances partner likeability. Cognitive Processing, 15(4), 491-501. doi:10.1007/s10339-014-0618-0.10.1007/s10339-014-0618-0Search in Google Scholar

Launay, J., Tarr, B., & Dunbar, R. I. (2016). Synchrony as an Adaptive Mechanism for Large-Scale Human Social Bonding. Ethology, 122(10), 779-789.10.1111/eth.12528Search in Google Scholar

Lumma, A.-L., Böckler, A., Vrticka, P., & Singer, T. (2017). Who am i? Differential effects of three contemplative mental trainings on emotional word use in self-descriptions. Self and Identity, 16(5), 607-628.doi:10.1080/15298868.2017.129410710.1080/15298868.2017.1294107Search in Google Scholar

MacQueen, K. M., McLellan, E., Kay, K., & Milstein, B. (1998). Codebook development for team-based qualitative analysis. Field methods, 10, 31-36.Search in Google Scholar

McNeil, W. H. (1995). Keeping Together in Time: Dance and drill in human history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Merker, B. (2000). Synchronous chorusing and human origins (pp. 315-327). In Wallin, N. L., Merker, B., & Brown, S. (eds.) (2000). The Origins of Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

O’Cathain, A., & Thomas, K. J. (2004). “Any other comments?” Open questions on questionnaires – a bane or a bonus to research? BMC Medical Research Methodology, 4(1), 25. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-4-2510.1186/1471-2288-4-25Search in Google Scholar

Pennebaker, J. W., Mehl, M. R., & Niederhoffer, K. G. (2003). Psychological aspects of natural language use: Our words, our selves. Annual review of psychology, 54(1), 547-577. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.14504110.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145041Search in Google Scholar

Phillips-Silver, J., Aktipis, C., & Bryant, G.A. (2010). The ecology of entrainment: Foundations of coordinated rhythmic movement. Music Perception, 28(1), 3-14. doi:10.1525/mp.2010.28.1.310.1525/mp.2010.28.1.3Search in Google Scholar

Rabinowitch, T. C., & Knafo-Noam, A. (2015). Synchronous rhythmic interaction enhances children’s perceived similarity and closeness towards each other. PloS One, 10(4), e0120878. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.012087810.1371/journal.pone.0120878Search in Google Scholar

Rabinowitch, T. C., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2017). Joint Rhythmic Movement Increases 4-Year-Old Children’s Prosocial Sharing and Fairness Toward Peers. Frontiers in psychology, 8. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.0105010.3389/fpsyg.2017.01050Search in Google Scholar

Reddish, P., Fischer, R., & Bulbulia, J. (2013). Let’s Dance Together: Synchrony, Shared Intentionality and Cooperation. PLoS ONE 8(8): e71182. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.007118210.1371/journal.pone.0071182Search in Google Scholar

Reddish, P. Bulbulia, J. & Fischer, R., (2014). Does Synchrony Promote Generalised Prosociality?. Religion, Brain & Behaviour. 4 (1), pp 3-19. doi:10.1080/2153599X.2013.76454510.1080/2153599X.2013.764545Search in Google Scholar

Safron, A. (2016). What is orgasm? A model of sexual trance and climax via rhythmic entrainment. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 6(1), 31763.10.3402/snp.v6.31763Search in Google Scholar

Schiffrin, D. (1998). Approaches to discourse. Journal of Pragmatics, 3(29), 355-359.Search in Google Scholar

Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2003). Classifying the findings in qualitative studies. Qualitative health research, 13(7), 905-923.10.1177/1049732303253488Search in Google Scholar

Schwarz, N. (1999). Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers. American Psychologist, 54(2), 93. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.2.9310.1037/0003-066X.54.2.93Search in Google Scholar

Singelis, T. M., Bond, M. H., Sharkey, W. F., & Lai, C. S. Y. (1999). Unpackaging culture’s influence on self-esteem and embarrassability. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(3), 315-341. doi:10.1177/002202219903000300310.1177/0022022199030003003Search in Google Scholar

Smith, C. P. (1992). Motivation and personality: Handbook of thematic content analysis: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511527937Search in Google Scholar

Spitzer, S. P., Couch, C. J., & Stratton, J. R. (1971). The assessment of the self: Sernoll.Search in Google Scholar

Stapel, D. A., & Koomen, W. (2001). I, we, and the effects of others on me: How self-construal level moderates social comparison effects. Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(5), 766.10.1037/0022-3514.80.5.766Search in Google Scholar

Tarr, B., Launay, J., & Dunbar, R. I. (2014). Music and social bonding:“self-other” merging and neurohormonal mechanisms. Frontiers in psychology, 5, 1096.10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01096Search in Google Scholar

Utz, S. (2004). Self-Construal and Cooperation: Is the Interdependent Self More Cooperative Than the Independent Self? Self and Identity,3(3), 177-190. doi: 10.1080/1357650044400000110.1080/13576500444000001Search in Google Scholar

Vaismoradi, M., Turunen, H., & Bondas, T. (2013). Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing & health sciences, 15(3), 398-405. doi: 10.1111/nhs.1204810.1111/nhs.12048Search in Google Scholar

Vicaria, I. M., & Dickens, L. (2016). Meta-analyses of the intra- and interpersonal outcomes of interpersonal coordination. J. Nonverbal Behaviour. 40, 335–361.10.1007/s10919-016-0238-8Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, A. D., Collins, D. R., & Bingham, G. P. (2005)a. Human movement coordination implicates relative direction as the information for relative phase. Experimental Brain Research, 165(3), 351-361. doi:10.1007/s00221-005-2301-210.1007/s00221-005-2301-2Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, A. D., Collins, D. R., & Bingham, G. P. (2005)b. Perceptual coupling in rhythmic movement coordination: stable perception leads to stable action. Experimental Brain Research, 164(4), 517-528. doi:1 0.1007/s00221-005-2272-3Search in Google Scholar

Wiltermuth, S. (2012a). Synchrony and destructive obedience. Social Influence, 7(2), 78-89. doi:10.1080/15534510.2012.658653.10.1080/15534510.2012.658653Search in Google Scholar

Wiltermuth, S. (2012b). Synchronous activity boosts compliance with requests to aggress. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(1), 453-456. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.007.10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.007Search in Google Scholar

Wiltermuth, S., & Heath, C. (2009). Synchrony and cooperation. Psychological Science, 20(1), 1-5. doi:12010.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.0225310.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02253.xSearch in Google Scholar

Received: 2020-10-07
Accepted: 2021-07-15
Published Online: 2021-08-23

© 2020 Liam Cross et al., published by De Gruyter

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Scroll Up Arrow