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BY-NC-ND 3.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter August 10, 2013

Urinary Neopterin Indicates Early Infection and Disease Progression: Model Studies with Simian and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses in Macaques

  • Christiane Stahl-Hennig EMAIL logo , Claudia Fendrich , Wolfgang Lüke , Bernhard Widner , Gerhard Hunsmann and Dietmar Fuchs
From the journal Pteridines


The value of urinary neopterin as a predictive marker for disease progression in SIV- and HIV-2-infected rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) was assessed by comparing pre- with postinfection data. Before infection stable baselines for neopterin were observed in both species with significantly higher concentrations in cynomolgus macaques than in rhesus macaques. After infection of cynomolgus macaques with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) neopterin concentrations exceeded 1.2 - 4.2 times preinfection values, whereas rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) yielded concentrations of more than 8 times above baseline. Increased neopterin concentrations always preceded seroconversion. No rise of neopterin was observed in cynomolgus macaques remaining seronegative after inoculation with HIV-2, whereas after inoculation with SIV neopterin was slightly elevated in rhesus monkeys despite remaining seronegative. In animals with high virus replication a pronounced increase of neopterin levels was followed by signs of immunodeficiency. Therefore like in HIV-1-infected man, in macaques infected with SIV or HIV-2 the urinary neopterin concentration is an early and reliably predictive marker for AIDS disease progression and reflects pathogenicity. This parameter can be easily assessed in study protocols for drug and vaccine tests in monkeys as in man.

Published Online: 2013-08-10
Published in Print: 2002-02

© 2013 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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