Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter (O) June 8, 2016

Uses of alpha particles, especially in nuclear reaction studies and medical radionuclide production

Syed M. Qaim, Ingo Spahn, Bernhard Scholten and Bernd Neumaier
From the journal Radiochimica Acta
An erratum for this article can be found here: https://doi.org/10.1515/ract-2013-9566

Abstract

Alpha particles exhibit three important characteristics: scattering, ionisation and activation. This article briefly discusses those properties and outlines their major applications. Among others, α-particles are used in elemental analysis, investigation and improvement of materials properties, nuclear reaction studies and medical radionuclide production. The latter two topics, dealing with activation of target materials, are treated in some detail in this paper. Measurements of excitation functions of α-particle induced reactions shed some light on their reaction mechanisms, and studies of isomeric cross sections reveal the probability of population of high-spin nuclear levels. Regarding medical radionuclides, an overview is presented of the isotopes commonly produced using α-particle beams. Consideration is also given to some routes which could be potentially useful for production of a few other radionuclides. The significance of α-particle induced reactions to produce a few high-spin isomeric states, decaying by emission of low-energy conversion or Auger electrons, which are of interest in localized internal radiotherapy, is outlined. The α-particle beam, thus broadens the scope of nuclear chemistry research related to development of non-standard positron emitters and therapeutic radionuclides.

References

1. Alfassi, Z. B., Peisach, M. (Editors): Elemental Analysis by Particle Accelerators. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 1991; especially see contributions by Rauhala, E. (pp. 180– 241), England, J. B. A. (pp. 243–278), Pineda, C. A. (pp. 280– 305), Peisach, M. and Gihwala, D. (pp. 307–349).Search in Google Scholar

2. Composto, R. J., Walters, R. M., Genzer, J.: Application of ion scattering techniques to characterize polymer surfaces and interfaces. Materials Science and Engineering R38, 107–180 (2002).10.1016/S0927-796X(02)00009-8Search in Google Scholar

3. Pappalardo, L., Alberti, R., Cali, C., Garraffo, S., Litrico, P., Pappalardo, G., Rizzo, F., Romano, F. P.: The new PIXE-alpha spectrometer for the analysis of Roman nummi surfaces. XRay Spectrometry 42, 33 (2013).10.1002/xrs.2429Search in Google Scholar

4. Raghunatha Rao, V., Khathing, D. T., Chowdhury, D. P., Gangadharan, S.: An external-beam charged-particle (alpha) activation system for direct trace element analysis in liquids. Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 610 (1991).10.1088/0957-0233/2/7/006Search in Google Scholar

5. Ditrói, F., Fehsenfeld, P., Khanna, A. S., Konstantinov, I., Mahunka, I., Racolta, P. M., Sauvage, T., Thereska, J.: The thin layer activation method and its applications in industry, IAEA-TECDOC-924, Vienna, 1997, pp. 1–143.Search in Google Scholar

6. Abbas, K., Gilliland, D., Stroosnijder, M. F.: Radioactivity measurements for the thin layer activation technique. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 53, 179 (2000).10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00130-5Search in Google Scholar

7. Chowdhury, D. P., Datta, J., Reddy, A. V. R.: Applications of thin layer activation technique for the measurement of surface loss of materials: An Indian perspective. Radiochim. Acta 100, 139 (2012).10.1524/ract.2011.1889Search in Google Scholar

8. Ditrói, F., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S.: Wear measurement using radioactive tracer technique based on proton, deuteron and α-particle induced nuclear reactions on molybdenum. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 290, 30 (2012).10.1016/j.nimb.2012.08.013Search in Google Scholar

9. Watson, I. A., Waters, S. L., Silvester, D. J.: Excitation functions for the reactions producing 121I, 123I and 124I from irradiation of natural antimony with 3He and 4He particles with energies up to 30 MeV. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 35, 3047 (1973).10.1016/0022-1902(73)80001-6Search in Google Scholar

10. Homma, Y., Murakami, Y.: Production of 123I by bombarding antimony target with α and 3He particles. Radioisotopes (Tokyo) 25, 315 (1976).10.3769/radioisotopes.25.6_315Search in Google Scholar

11. Prasad, R., Bhardwaj, H. D.: Excitation functions for 121,123Sb(α,xn), (x=1–4), reactions in 10–40 MeV range. Report No. IC/86/41, ICTP, Trieste, Italy (1986).Search in Google Scholar

12. Ismail, M.: Measurement and analysis of the excitation functions for alpha-induced reactions on Ga and Sb isotopes. Phys. Rev. C 41, 87 (1990).10.1103/PhysRevC.41.87Search in Google Scholar PubMed

13. Singh, B. P., Bhardwaj, H. D., Prasad, R.: A study of preequilibrium emission in α-induced reactions on 121,123Sb. Can. J. Phys. 69, 1376 (1991).10.1139/p91-205Search in Google Scholar

14. Bhardwaj, M. K., Rizvi, I. A. Chaubey, A. K.: Alpha induced reactions in antimony. Int. J. Mod. Phys. E3, 239 (1994).10.1142/S0218301394000103Search in Google Scholar

15. Singh, B. P., Sharma, M., Musthafa, M. M., Bhardwaj, H. D., Prasad, R.: A study of pre-equilibrium emission in some proton- and alpha induced reactions. Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 562, 717 (2006).10.1016/j.nima.2006.02.030Search in Google Scholar

16. Hassan, K. F., Qaim, S. M., Saleh, Z. A., Coenen, H. H.: Alphaparticle induced reactions on natSb and 121Sb with particular reference to the production of the medically interesting radionuclide 124I. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 64, 101 (2006).10.1016/j.apradiso.2005.07.007Search in Google Scholar

17. Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Király, B., Szelecsényi, F., Andó, L., Bergman, J., Heselius, S. J., Solin, O., Hermanne, A., Shubin, Yu.N., Ignatyuk, A. V.: Excitation functions of 3He- and α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natSb for production of medically relevant 123I and 124I radioisotopes. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67, 1001 (2009).10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.02.067Search in Google Scholar

18. Aslam, M. N., Sudár, S., Hussain, M., Malik, A. A., Qaim, S. M.: Evaluation of excitation functions of 3He- and α-particle induced reactions on antimony isotopes with special relevance to the production of iodine-124. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 69, 94 (2011).10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.07.022Search in Google Scholar

19. Uddin, M. S., Hermanne, A., Sudár, S., Aslam, M. M., Scholten, B., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of α-particle induced reactions on enriched 123Sb and natSb for production of 124I. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 69, 699 (2011).10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.12.007Search in Google Scholar

20. Hohn, A., Nortier, F.M., Scholten, B., van der Walt, T. N., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of 125Te(p,xn) reactions from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV with pecial reference to the production of 124I. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55, 149 (2001).10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00388-2Search in Google Scholar

21. Kastleiner, S., Shubin, Yu.N., Nortier, F. M., van der Walt, T. N., Qaim, S. M.: Experimental studies and nuclear model calculations on (p,xn) and (p,pxn) reactions on 85Rb from their thresholds up to 100 MeV. Radiochim. Acta 92, 449 (2004).10.1524/ract.92.8.449.39282Search in Google Scholar

22. Bayhurst B. P., Gilmore, J. S., Prestwood, R. J., Wilhelmy, J. B., Jarmie, N., Erkkila, B. H., Hardekopf, R. A.: Cross sections for (n,xn) reactions between 7.5 and 28 MeV, Phys. Rev. C12, 451 (1975).10.1103/PhysRevC.12.451Search in Google Scholar

23. Rahman, M. M., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of some neutron threshold reactions on isotopes of molybdenum. Nucl. Phys. A435, 43 (1985).10.1016/0375-9474(85)90301-XSearch in Google Scholar

24. Qaim, S. M., Mushtaq, A., Uhl, M.: Isomeric cross-section ratio for the formation of 73m,gSe in various nuclear reactions. Phys. Rev. C38, 645 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

25. Qaim, S. M.: Recent developments in the study of isomeric cross sections. Proc. Int. Conf. Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, USA, May 1994, American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, Illinois, p. 186 (1994).Search in Google Scholar

26. Qaim S. M., Sudár, S., Fessler, A.: Influence of reaction channel on the isomeric cross-section ratio. Radiochim. Acta 93, 503 (2005).10.1524/ract.2005.93.9-10.503Search in Google Scholar

27. Qaim, S. M.: Activation cross sections, isomeric cross-section ratios and systematics of (n,2n) reactions at 14–15 MeV. Nucl. Phys. A185, 614 (1972).10.1016/0375-9474(72)90036-XSearch in Google Scholar

28. Qaim, S. M., Ibn Majah, M., Wölfle, R., Strohmaier, B.: Excitation functions and isomeric cross-section ratios for the 90Zr(n,p)90m,gY and 91Zr(n,p)91m,gY processes. Phys. Rev. C42, 363 (1990).Search in Google Scholar

29. Nesaraja, C. D., Sudár, S., Qaim, S. M.: Cross sections for the formation of 69m,gZn and 71m,gZn in neutron induced reactions near their thresholds: Effect of reaction channel on the isomeric cross-section ratio. Phys. Rev. C68, 024603 (2003).Search in Google Scholar

30. Al-Abyad, M., Sudár, S., Comsan, M. N., Qaim, S. M.: Cross sections and isomeric cross-section ratios in the interactions of fast neutrons with isotopes of mercury. Phys. Rev. C73, 064608 (2006).10.1103/PhysRevC.73.064608Search in Google Scholar

31. Sudár, S. Szelecsényi, F., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation function and isomeric cross-section ratio for the 61Ni(p,α)58m,gCo process. Phys. Rev. C48, 3115 (1993).Search in Google Scholar

32. Sudár, S., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of proton and deuteron induced reactions on iron and α-particle induced reactions on manganese in the energy region up to 25 MeV. Phys. Rev. C50, 2408 (1994).10.1103/PhysRevC.50.2408Search in Google Scholar

33. Sudár, S., Qaim, S. M.: Isomeric cross-section ratio for the formation of 58m,gCo in neutron, proton, deuteron and α-particle induced reactions in the energy region up to 25 MeV. Phys. Rev. C53, 2885 (1996).Search in Google Scholar

34. Sudár, S., Hohn, A., Qaim, S. M.: Nuclear model calculations on proton and deuteron induced reactions on 122Te and 120Te with particular reference to the formation of the isomeric states 120m,gI. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 52, 937 (2000).10.1016/S0969-8043(99)00157-8Search in Google Scholar

35. Strohmaier, B., Faßbender, M., Qaim, S. M.: Production cross sections of ground and isomeric states in the reaction systems 93Nb+3He, 92Mo+α and 94,95Mo+p. Phys. Rev. C56, 2654 (1997).Search in Google Scholar

36. Hilgers, K., Sudár, S., Qaim, S. M.: Formation of the isomeric pairs 139m,gNd and 141m,gNd in proton and 3He-particle induced nuclear reactions. Phys. Rev. C76, 064601 (2007).Search in Google Scholar

37. Sudár, S., Qaim, S. M.: Cross sections for the formation of 195m,gHg, 197m,gHg and 196m,gAu in alpha and 3He-particle induced reactions on Pt: Effect of level density parameter on the calculated isomeric cross-section ratio. Phys. Rev. C73, 034613 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

38. Uddin, M. S., Sudár, S., Qaim, S. M.: Formation of the isomeric pair 194m,gIr in interactions of α-particles with 192Os. Phys. Rev. C84, 024605 (2011).Search in Google Scholar

39. Rösch, F., Qaim, S. M.: Nuclear data relevant to the production of the positron emitting technetium isotope 94mTc via the 94Mo (p,n)-reaction. Radiochim. Acta 62, 115 (1993); Erratum 75, 227 (1996).Search in Google Scholar

40. Rösch, F., Novgorodov, A. F., Qaim, S. M.: Thermochromatographic separation of 94mTc from enriched molybdenum targets and its large scale production for medical application. Radiochim. Acta 64, 113 (1994).10.1524/ract.1994.64.2.113Search in Google Scholar

41. Faßbender,M., Novgorodov, A. F., Rösch, F., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of 93Nb(3He,xn)93m,g,94m,g,95m,gTc processs from threshold up to 35 MeV: possibility of production of 94mTc in high radiochemical purity using a thermochromatographic separation technique. Radiochim. Acta 65, 215 (1994).10.1524/ract.1994.65.4.215Search in Google Scholar

42. Denzler, F.-O., Rösch, F., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of α-particle induced nuclear reactions on highly enriched 92Mo: comparative evaluation of production routes for 94mTc. Radiochim. Acta 68, 13 (1995); Erratum 75, 227 (1996).10.1524/ract.1995.68.1.13Search in Google Scholar

43. Filatenkov, A. A., Chuvaev, S. V.: Experimental determination of cross sections of a set of badly known neutron induced reactions for heavy elements (Z = 74 − 79). Leningrad Report No. 259, Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

44. Stöcklin, G., Qaim, S. M., Rösch, F.: The impact of radioactivity on medicine. Radiochim. Acta 70/71, 249 (1995).10.1524/ract.1995.7071.special-issue.249Search in Google Scholar

45. Qaim, S. M.: The present and future of medical radionuclide production. Radiochim. Acta 100, 635 (2012).10.1524/ract.2012.1966Search in Google Scholar

46. Qaim, S. M.: Development of novel positron emitters for medical applications: Nuclear and radiochemical aspects. Radiochim. Acta 99, 611 (2011).10.1524/ract.2011.1870Search in Google Scholar

47. Qaim, S. M.: Nuclear data relevant to the production and application of diagnostic radionuclides. Radiochim. Acta 89, 223 (2001).10.1524/ract.2001.89.4-5.223Search in Google Scholar

48. Guillaume, M., Lambrecht, R. M., Wolf, A. P.: Cyclotron isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals – XXVII, 73Se. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 29, 411 (1978).10.1016/0020-708X(78)90076-5Search in Google Scholar

49. Nozaki, T., Itoh, Y., Ogawa, K.: Yield of 73Se for various reactions and its chemical processing. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30, 595 (1979).10.1016/0020-708X(79)90076-0Search in Google Scholar

50. Mushtaq, A., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Production of 73Se via (p,3n) and (d,4n) reaction son arsenic. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 39, 1085 (1988).10.1016/0883-2889(88)90146-3Search in Google Scholar

51. Mushtaq, A., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of α- and 3Heparticle induced nuclear reaction son natural germanium: Evaluation of production routes for 73Se. Radiochim. Acta 50, 27 (1990).10.1524/ract.1990.50.12.27Search in Google Scholar

52. Brodovitch, J. C., Hogan, J. J., Burns, K. I.: The pre-equilibrium statistical model: Comparison of calculation with two (p,xn) reactions. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 38, 1581 (1976).10.1016/0022-1902(76)80639-2Search in Google Scholar

53. Calboreanu, A., Salagean, O., Pencea, C., Zimmer, K. W., Ciocanel, A.: Formation and decay of the compound nucleus in alpha induced reaction on 70Ge. Rev. Roum. Phys. 32, 725 (1987).Search in Google Scholar

54. Qaim, S. M.: Nuclear data for medical applications: An overview. Radiochim. Acta 89, 189 (2001).10.1524/ract.2001.89.4-5.189Search in Google Scholar

55. Blessing, G., Lavi, N., Qaim, S. M.: Production of 73Se via the 70Ge(α,n)-process using high current target materials. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 43, 455 (1992).10.1016/0883-2889(92)90121-TSearch in Google Scholar

56. Probst, H. J., Qaim, S. M., Weinreich, R.: Excitation functions of high-energy α-particle induced nuclear reactions on aluminium and magnesium: Production of 28Mg. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 27, 431 (1976).10.1016/0020-708X(76)90062-4Search in Google Scholar

57. Weinreich, R., Qaim, S. M., Michael, H., Stöcklin, G.: Production of 123I and 28Mg by high-energy nuclear reactions for applications in life science. J. Radioanalyt. Chem. 30, 53 (1976).10.1007/BF02516618Search in Google Scholar

58. Morrison, D. L., Caretto, Jr., A. A.: Excitation functions of (p,xp) reactions. Phys. Rev. 127, 1731 (1962).10.1103/PhysRev.127.1731Search in Google Scholar

59. Lundqvist, H., Malmberg, P.: Production of carrier-free 28Mg and 24Na by 50–180 MeV protons on Si, P, S, Cl, Ar and K: excitation functions and chemical separation. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30, 33 (1979).10.1016/0020-708X(79)90094-2Search in Google Scholar

60. Sahakundu, S. M., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Cyclotron production of short-lived 30P. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30, 3 (1979).10.1016/0020-708X(79)90088-7Search in Google Scholar

61. Qaim, S. M., Ollig, H., Blessing, G.: A comparative investigation of nuclear reactions leading to the formation of short-lived 30P and optimization of its production via the 27Al(α,n)30P process at a compact cyclotron. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 33, 271 (1982).10.1016/0020-708X(82)90026-6Search in Google Scholar

62. Tilbury, R. S., Myers, W. G., Chandra, R., Dahl, J. R., Lee, R. J.: Production of 7.6 minute potassium-38 for medical use. J. Nucl. Med. 21, 867 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

63. Vandecasteele, C., Vanderwalle, T., Slegers, G.: Production of 38K using the 35Cl (α,n)38K reaction. Radiochim. Acta 29, 71 (1981).10.1524/ract.1981.29.23.71Search in Google Scholar

64. Qaim, S. M., Sutisna, M. S., Ollig, H.: Production of 38K via the 35Cl (α,n)-process at a compact cyclotron. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 39, 479 (1988).10.1016/0883-2889(88)90193-1Search in Google Scholar

65. Guillaume, M., De Landsheere, C., Rigo, P., Czichosz, R.: Automated production of potassium-38 for the study of myocardial perfusion using positron emission tomography. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 39, 97 (1988).10.1016/0883-2889(88)90154-2Search in Google Scholar

66. Blessing, G., Qaim, S. M.: A remotely controlled target and processing system for routine production of 38 K via the 35Cl (α,n)-reaction. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 41, 1229 (1990).10.1016/0883-2889(90)90212-YSearch in Google Scholar

67. Tárkányi, F., Kovács, Z., Mahunka, I., Solin, O., Bergman, J.: Excitation function of the 35Cl(α,n)38K reaction using gas targets. Radiochim. Acta 54, 165 (1991).10.1524/ract.1991.54.4.165Search in Google Scholar

68. Tárkányi, F., Kovács, Z., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Production of 38K via the 38Ar (p,n)-process at a small cyclotron. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 43, 503 (1992).10.1016/0883-2889(92)90132-XSearch in Google Scholar

69. Lambrecht, R. M., Hara, T., Gallagher, B. M., Wolf, A. P., Ansari, A., Atkins, H.: Cyclotron isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals – XXVIII. Production of potassium-38 for myocardial perfusion studies. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 29, 667 (1978).10.1016/0020-708X(78)90104-7Search in Google Scholar

70. Nagatsu, K., Kubodera, A., Suzuki, K.: Excitation function measurements of 40Ar(p,3n)38K, 40Ar(p,2pn)38Cl, 40Ar(p,2p)39Cl reactions. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 50, 389 (1999).10.1016/S0969-8043(98)00096-7Search in Google Scholar

71. Helus, F., Gasper, H., Maier-Borst, W.: Routine production of 38K for medical use. J. Radioanal. Chem. 55, 191 (1980).10.1007/BF02514551Search in Google Scholar

72. Yagi, H., Amano, R.: Production of carrier-free 38K by means of photonuclear reactions. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 32, 225 (1981).10.1016/0020-708X(81)90054-5Search in Google Scholar

73. Daube, M. E., Nickles, R. J.: Development of myocardial perfusion tracers for positron emission tomography. Int. J. Nucl. Med. Biol. 12, 303 (1985).10.1016/0047-0740(85)90185-8Search in Google Scholar

74. Clark, J. C., Thakur, M. L., Watson, I. A.: The production of potassium-43 for medical use. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 329 (1972).10.1016/0020-708X(72)90011-7Search in Google Scholar

75. Guillaume, M.: Production en routine par cyclotron de fluor- 18 et potassium-43 á usage medical au moyen d’une cible gazeuse télécommandée. Nucl. Instr. Meth. 36, 185 (1976).10.1016/0029-554X(76)90415-8Search in Google Scholar

76. Fenyvesi, A., Tárkányi, F., Szelecsényi, F., Takács, S., Szücs, Z., Molnár, T., Sudár, S.: Excitation function and thick target yield of the 40Ar(α,p)43K reaction: Production of 43K. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 46, 1413 (1995).10.1016/0969-8043(95)00217-2Search in Google Scholar

77. Oka, Y., Kato, T., Namura, K.: A study on the yield of (γ,p) reactions with 20 MeV bremsstrahlung. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jap. 41, 380 (1968).10.1246/bcsj.41.380Search in Google Scholar

78. Gray, F. C., Cole, C. M., Meaburn, G. M., Bruhhart, G.: Electron linear accelerator production of 43K. J. Nucl. Med. 14, 931 (1973).Search in Google Scholar

79. Poggenburg, J. K.: 43K: the reactor production, physical properties and potential availability of a useful radioisotope. J. Nucl. Med. 12, 457 (1971).Search in Google Scholar

80. Qaim, S. M., Probst, H. J.: Excitation functions of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on vanadium with special reference to the production of 43K: systematics of (d,xn) reaction cross sections relevant to the formation of highly neutron deficient radioisotopes. Radiochim. Acta 35, 11 (1984).10.1524/ract.1984.35.1.11Search in Google Scholar

81. Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Production of some medically important short-lived neutron-deficient radioisotopes of halogens. Radiochim. Acta 34, 25 (1983).10.1524/ract.1983.34.12.25Search in Google Scholar

82. Qaim, S. M.: Recent developments in the production of 18F, 75,76,77Br and 123I. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 37, 803 (1986).10.1016/0883-2889(86)90275-3Search in Google Scholar

83. Hassan, H. E., Qaim, S. M.: A critical survey of experimental cross section data, comparison with nuclear model calculations and estimation of production yields of 77Br and 77Kr in no-carrier-added form via various nuclear processes. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 269, 1121 (2011).10.1016/j.nimb.2011.02.080Search in Google Scholar

84. Helus, F.: Preparation of carrier-free bromine-77 for medical use. Radiochem. Radioanal. Lett. 3, 45 (1970).Search in Google Scholar

85. Nunn, A. D., Waters, S. L.: Target materials for the cyclotron production of carrier-free 77Br. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 26, 731 (1975).10.1016/0020-708X(75)90130-1Search in Google Scholar

86. Blessing, G., Weinreich, R., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Production of 75Br and 77Br via the 75As(3He,3n)75Br and As(α,2n)77Br reactions using Cu3As-alloy as a high-current target material. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 33, 333 (1982).10.1016/0020-708X(82)90145-4Search in Google Scholar

87. Blessing, G., Qaim, S. M.: An improved internal Cu3As-alloy cyclotron target for the production of 75Br and 77Br and separation of the by-product 67Ga from the matrix activity. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 35, 927 (1984).10.1016/0020-708X(84)90204-7Search in Google Scholar

88. Norton, E. F., Kondo, K., Karlstrom, K., Lambrecht, R. M., Wolf. A. P., Treves, S.: Cyclotron isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals XXVI. A carrier-free separation of 77Br from Se. J. Radioanal. Chem. 44, 207 (1978).10.1007/BF02517691Search in Google Scholar

89. Janssen, A. G. M., van den Bosch, R. L. P., De Goeij, J. J. M., Theelen, H. M. J.: The reactions 77Se(p,n) and 78Se(p,2n) as production routes for 77Br. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 31, 405 (1980).10.1016/0020-708X(80)90077-0Search in Google Scholar

90. Madhusudhan, C. P., Treves, S., Wolf, A. P., Lambrecht, R. M.: Cyclotron isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals XXXI. Improvements in 77Br production and radiochemical separation from enriched 78Se. J. Radioanal. Chem. 53, 299 (1979).10.1007/BF02517928Search in Google Scholar

91. Diksic, M., Galinier, J.-L., Marshall, H., Yaffe, L.: Preparation of carrier-free Kr by (p,xn) reactions on natural bromine. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 28, 885 (1977).10.1016/0020-708X(77)90029-1Search in Google Scholar

92. De Jong, D., Kooiman, H.; Veenboer, J.Th.: 76Br and 77Br from decay of cyclotron produced 76Kr and 77Kr. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30, 786 (1979)10.1016/0020-708X(79)90161-3Search in Google Scholar

93. Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G., Weinreich, R.: Excitation functions for the formation of neutron deficient isotopes of bromine and krypton via high-energy deuteron induced reactions on bromine: Production of 77Br, 76Br and 79Kr. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 28, 947 (1977).10.1016/0020-708X(77)90059-XSearch in Google Scholar

94. Hassan, H. E., Qaim, S. M., Shubin, Y., Azzam, A., Morsy, M., Coenen, H. H.: Experimental studies and nuclear model calculations on proton-induced reactions on natSe, 76Se and 77Se with particular reference to the production of medically interesting radionuclides 76Br and 77Br. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 899 (2004).10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.001Search in Google Scholar

95. El-Azony, K. M., Suzuki, K., Fukumura, T., Szelecsényi, F., Kovács, Z.: Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on natural selenium up to 62MeV. Radiochim. Acta 97, 71 (2009).10.1524/ract.2009.1580Search in Google Scholar

96. Spahn, I., Steyn, G. F., Vermeulen, C., Kovács, Z., Szelecsényi, F., Shehata, M. M., Spellerberg, S., Scholten, B., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: New cross section measurements for the production of the Auger electron emitters 77Br and 80mBr. Radiochim. Acta 98, 749 (2010).10.1524/ract.2010.1781Search in Google Scholar

97. Comar, D., Crouzel, C.: Ruthenium-97 preparation with a compact cyclotron. Radiochem. Radioanalyt. Letters 27, 307 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

98. Comparetto, G., Qaim, S. M.: A comparative study of the production of short-lived neutron deficient isotopes 94,95,97Ru in α- and 3He particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum. Radiochim. Acta 27, 177 (1980).10.1524/ract.1980.27.4.177Search in Google Scholar

99. Gessner, M., Music, S., Babarovic, B., Vlatkovic, M.: Investigation of the preparation of 97Ru. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30, 578 (1979).10.1016/0020-708X(79)90177-7Search in Google Scholar

100. Denzler, F.-O., Rösch, F., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of α- and 3He-particle induced nuclear reactions on highly enriched 144Sm and 147Sm: comparative evaluation of production routes for 147Gd. Radiochim. Acta 69, 209 (1995).10.1524/ract.1995.69.4.209Search in Google Scholar

101. Denzler, F.-O., Lebedev, N. A., Novgorodov, A. F., Rösch, F., Qaim, S. M.: Production and radiochemical separation of 147Gd. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 48, 319 (1997).10.1016/S0969-8043(96)00221-7Search in Google Scholar

102. Lebedev, N. A., Novgorodov, A. F., Slovak, J., Khalkin, V. A., Ekhu, L.: 146,147,149Gd preparations prepared from europium irradiated by 100 MeV protons. Radioisotopy 29, 240 (1988).Search in Google Scholar

103. Buchholz, M., Spahn, I., Coenen, H. H.: Cross section measurements of proton and deuteron induced reactions on natural europium and yields of SPECT-relevant radioisotopes of gadolinium. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 91, 8 (2014).10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.04.022Search in Google Scholar

104. Meyer, G.-J., Rössler, K.: Preparation of inorganic forms and interhalogen compounds of 211At via distillation techniques. Radiochem. Radioanal. Lett. 25, 377 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

105. Beyer, G.-J., Dreyer, R., Odrich, H., Rösch, F.: Production of 211At at the Rossendorf cyclotron. Radiochem. Radioanal. Lett. 47, 63 (1981).Search in Google Scholar

106. Doberenz, V., Nhan, D. D., Dreyer, R., Milanov, M., Khalkin, V. A.: Preparation of astatine of high specific activity in solutions of a given composition. Radiochem. Radioanal. Lett. 52, 119 (1982).Search in Google Scholar

107. Henriksen, G., Messelt, S., Olsen, E., Larsen, R. H.: Optimisation of cyclotron production parameters for the 209Bi(α,2n)211At reaction related to biomedical use of 211At. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 54, 839 (2001).10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00346-8Search in Google Scholar

108. Lindegren, S., Bäck, T., Jensen, H. J.: Dry distillation of 211At from irradiated bismuth targets: A time-saving procedure with high recovery yields. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55, 157 (2001).10.1016/S0969-8043(01)00044-6Search in Google Scholar

109. Lahiri, S., Maiti, M.: Recent developments in nuclear data measurements and chemical separation methods in accelerator production of astatine and technetium radionuclides. Radiochim. Acta 100, 85 (2012).10.1524/ract.2011.1888Search in Google Scholar

110. Zalutsky, M., Pruszynski, M.: Astatine-211: production and availability. Curr. Radiopharm. 4, 177 (2011).10.2174/1874471011104030177Search in Google Scholar

111. Qaim, S. M., Tárkányi, F., Capote, R. (Editors): Nuclear Data for the Production of Therapeutic Radionuclides. Technical Reports Series No. 473, IAEA, Vienna, 2011, pp. 1–377.Search in Google Scholar

112. Vachtel, V. M., Vinel, G. V., Vylov, C., Gromova, I. I., Novgorodov, A. F., Norseev, Yu.V., Khalkin, V. A., Tschumin, V. G.: Gasthermochromatographic method for astatine extraction. Radiokhimiya 18, 886 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

113. Meyer, G.-J., Lambrecht, R. M.: Excitation function for the 209Bi(7Li,5n)211Rn nuclear reaction. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 31, 351 (1980).10.1016/0020-708X(80)90125-8Search in Google Scholar

114. Greene, J. P.: Nolen, J., Baker, S.: Nickel-backed Bitargets for the production of 211At. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 305, 943 (2015).10.1007/s10967-015-4079-4Search in Google Scholar

115. Jia, Z., Pu, M., Yang, Y., Luo, S., Deng, H.: Synthesis and characterization of novel water-soluble 117mSn labeled porphyrin conjugates. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 305, 681 (2015).10.1007/s10967-015-4042-4Search in Google Scholar

116. Mirzadeh, S., Knapp Jr., F. F., Alexander, C. W., Mausner, L. F.: Evaluation of neutron inelastic scattering for radioisotope production. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 48, 441 (1997).10.1016/S0969-8043(96)00284-9Search in Google Scholar

117. Mausner, L. F., Mirzadeh, S., Ward, T. E.: Nuclear data for production of 117mSn for biomedical application. Radiation Effects 94, 59 (1986).10.1080/00337578608208354Search in Google Scholar

118. Ermolaev, S. V., Zhuikov, B. L., Kokhanyuk, V. M., Abramov, A. A., Togaeva, N. R., Khamianov, S. V., Srivastava, S. C.: Production of no-carrier added 117mSn from proton irradiated antimony. J. Radioanalyt. Nucl. Chem. 280, 319 (2009).10.1007/s10967-009-0520-xSearch in Google Scholar

119. Qaim, S. M., Döhler, H.: Production of carrier-free 117mSn. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 35, 645 (1984).10.1016/0020-708X(84)90110-8Search in Google Scholar

120. Fukushima, S., Hayashi, S., Kume, S., Okamura, H., Otozai, K., Sakamoto, K., Tsujino, R., Yoshizawa, Y.: The production of high specific activities of tin. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 36, 1225 (1963).10.1246/bcsj.36.1225Search in Google Scholar

121. Montgomery, D. M. Porile, N. T.: Reactions of 116Cd with intermediate energy 3He and 4He ions. Nucl. Phys. A130, 65 (1969).10.1016/0375-9474(69)90960-9Search in Google Scholar

122. Adam Rebeles, R., Hermanne, A., van den Winkel, P., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Daraban, L.: Alpha induced reactions on 114Cd and 116Cd: an experimental study of excitation functions. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 4731 (2008).10.1016/j.nimb.2008.07.013Search in Google Scholar

123. Stevenson, N. R., George, G. S., Simón, J., Srivastava, S. C., Mueller, D. W., Gonzales, G. R., Roger, J. A., Frank, R. K., Horn, I. M.: Methods of producing high specific activity Sn−117m with commercial cyclotrons. J. Radioanalyt. Nucl. Chem. 305, 99 (2015).10.1007/s10967-015-4031-7Search in Google Scholar

124. Hilgers, K., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: Production of the therapeutic radionuclides 193mPt and 195mPt with high specific activity via α-particle induced reactions on 192Os. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 66, 545 (2008).10.1016/j.apradiso.2007.10.009Search in Google Scholar

125. Uddin, M. S., Scholten, B., Hermanne, A., Sudár, S., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: Radiochemical determination of cross sections of alpha particle induced reactions on 192Os for the production of the therapeutic radionuclide 193mPt. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68, 2001 (2010).10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.05.002Search in Google Scholar

126. Uddin, M. S., Hermanne, A., Scholten, B., Spellerberg, S., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: Small scale production of high purity 193mPt by the 192Os(α,3n)-process. Radiochim. Acta 99, 131 (2011).10.1524/ract.2011.1807Search in Google Scholar

127. Lange, R. C., Spencer, R. P., Harder, H. C.: The antitumor agent cis-Pt(NH3)2Cl2: distribution studies and dose calculations for 193mPt and 195mPt. J. Nucl. Med. 14, 191 (1973).Search in Google Scholar

128. Tóth, G.: A novel target for reactor-produced 193mPt. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 31, 411 (1980).10.1016/0020-708X(80)90078-2Search in Google Scholar

129. Huclier-Markai, S., Kerdjoudj, R., Alliot, C., Bonraisin, A., Michel, N., Haddad, F., Barbet, J.: Optimization of reaction conditions for the radiolabeling of DOTA and DOTA-peptide with 44m,gSc and experimental evidence of the feasibility of an in-vivo PET generator. Nucl. Med. Biol. 41, 36 (2014).Search in Google Scholar

130. Alliot, C., Kerdjoudj, R., Michel, N., Haddad, F., Huclier-Markai, S.: Cyclotron production of high purity 44m,gSc with deuterons from 44CaCO3targets. Nucl. Med. Biol. 42, 524 (2015).10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2015.03.002Search in Google Scholar

131. Duchemin, C., Guertin, A., Haddad, F., Michel, N., Métivier, V.: Production of 44mSc and 44gSc with deuterons on 44Ca: Cross section measurements and production yield calculations. Phys. Med. Biol. 60, 6847 (2015).10.1088/0031-9155/60/17/6847Search in Google Scholar

132. Bailey, S.: Yield ratios for the isomeric pair 44m,gSc formed in (α, αn) and (α,n) reactions. Phys. Rev. 123, 579 (1961).10.1103/PhysRev.123.579Search in Google Scholar

133. Riley, C., Ueno, K., Linder, B.: Cross sections and isomer ratios for the 41K(α,n)44m,gSc reaction. Phys. Rev. 135, B 1340 (1964).10.1103/PhysRev.135.B1340Search in Google Scholar

134. Keedy, C. R., Haskin, L., Wing, J., Huizenga, J. R.: Isomer ratios for the 41K(α,n)44m,gSc and 55Mn(α,n)58m,gCo reactions. Nucl. Phys. 82, 1 (1966).10.1016/0029-5582(66)90519-0Search in Google Scholar

135. Matsuo, T., Matuszek, Jr. J. M., Dudey, N. D., Sugihara, T. T.: Cross section ratios of isomeric nuclides produced in medium-energy (α,xn) reactions. Phys. Rev. 139, B 886 (1968).10.1103/PhysRev.139.B886Search in Google Scholar

136. Zheltonozhsky, V. A., Mazur, V. M.: Investigation of the isomeric ratio for 44m,gSc. Physics of Atomic Nuclei 63, 323 (2000), translated from Yadernaya Fizika 63, 389 (2000).10.1134/1.855638Search in Google Scholar

137. Rösch, F., Baum, R. P.: Generator-based PET radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging of tumours: On the way to theranostics. Dalton Transactions 40, 6104 (2011)10.1039/c0dt01504kSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

138. Pruszyński, M., Loktionova, N. S., Filosofov, D. V., Rösch, F.: Post-elution processing of 44Ti/44Sc generator-derived 44Sc for clinical application. Appl Radiat Isot. 68, 1636 (2010)10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.04.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

139. Filosofov, D. V., Loktionova, N. S., Rösch, F.: A 44Ti/44Sc radionuclide generator for potential application of 44Sc-based PET-radiopharmaceuticals. Radiochim. Acta 98, 149 (2010)10.1524/ract.2010.1701Search in Google Scholar

140. Vandenbosch, R., Huizenga, J. R.: Isomeric cross section ratios for reactions producing the isomeric pair 197m,gHg. Phys. Rev. 120, 1313 (1960).10.1103/PhysRev.120.1313Search in Google Scholar

141. Tilbury, R. S., Yaffe, L.: Nuclear isomers 197m,gHg, 195m,gHg and 196m,gAu formed by bombardment of gold with protons of energies from 8 to 60 MeV. Can. J. Chem. 41, 2634 (1963).10.1139/v63-384Search in Google Scholar

142. Sudár, S., Qaim, S. M.: Cross sections for the formation of 195m,gHg, 197m,gHg and 196m,gAu in α- and 3He-particle induced reactions on Pt: Effect of the level density parameters on the calculated isomeric cross-section ratio. Phys. Rev. C73, 034613 (2006).Search in Google Scholar

143. Wilkniss, P. E., Beach, L. A., Marlow, K. W.: Production of carrier-free 197m,gHg with a cyclotron. Radiochim. Acta 17, 110 (1972).10.1524/ract.1972.17.2.110Search in Google Scholar

144. Paans, A. M. J., Vaalburg, W., Reiffers, S., de Graaf, E. J., Beerling-van der Molen, H. D., Wiegman, T., Rijskamp, A., Woldring, M. G.: The production of radionuclides for medical applications with the 280cm cyclotron in Groningen. Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Cyclotrons and their Applications, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, IEEE, p. 2271 (1979).Search in Google Scholar

145. Walther, M., Preusche, S., Bartel, S., Wunderlich, G., Freudenberg, R., Steinbach, J., Pietzsch, H.-J.: Theranostic mercury: 197mHg with high specific activity for imaging and therapy. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 97, 177 (2015).10.1016/j.apradiso.2015.01.001Search in Google Scholar

146. Stang, L. G.: The Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer. Prog. Nucl. Med. 4, 34 (1978).Search in Google Scholar

147. Steyn, G. F., Mills, S. J., Nortier, F. M., Simpson, B. R. S., Meyer, B. R.: Production of 52Fe via proton induced reactions on manganese and nickel. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 41, 312 (1990).10.1016/0883-2889(90)90197-OSearch in Google Scholar

148. Loćh, C., Maziére, B., Comar, D., Knipper, R.: A new preparation of Ge−68. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 33, 267 (1982).10.1016/0020-708X(82)90025-4Search in Google Scholar

149. Qaim, S. M., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Hermanne, A., Nortier, M., Oblozinsky, P., Scholten, B., Shubin, Yu.N., Youxiang, Z.: Positron emitters, In: Charged Particle Cross-Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production: Diagnostic Radioisotopes and Monitor Reactions. IAEA-TECDOC-1211, Vienna, Austria, pp. 234–280 (2001).Search in Google Scholar

150. Adam-Rebeles, R., Hermanne, A., van den Winkel, P., De Vis, L., Waegeneer, R., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Takács, M. P.: 68Ge/68Ga production revisited: New excitation curves, target preparation and chemical separation-purification. Radiochim. Acta 101, 481 (2013).10.1524/ract.2013.2057Search in Google Scholar

151. Fitzsimmons, J. M., Mausner, L. F.: Determination of germanium isotope abundances and specific activity in accelerator produced Ge−68. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 305, 283 (2015).10.1007/s10967-015-4054-0Search in Google Scholar

152. Rösch, F., Filosofov, D. V.: Production, radiochemical processing and quality evaluation of Ge−68, In: IAEA Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Series No. 2: Production of long lived parent radionuclides for generators: 68Ge, 82Sr, 90Sr and 188W. STI/PUB/1436, IAEA, Vienna, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

153. Velikyan, I.: 68Ga-based radiopharmaceuticals: Production and application relationship. Molecules 20, 12913 (2015).10.3390/molecules200712913Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

154. Spahn, I., Steyn, G., Nortier, F. M., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of natGe(p,xn)71,72,73,74As reactions up to 100 MeV with a focus on the production of 72As for medical and 73As for environmental studies. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65, 1057 (2007).10.1016/j.apradiso.2007.04.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed

155. Jennewein, M., Schmidt, A., Novgorodov, A. F., Qaim, S. M., Rösch, F.: A no-carrier-added 72Se/72As radionuclide generator based on distillation. Radiochim. Acta 92, 245 (2004).10.1524/ract.92.4.245.35611Search in Google Scholar

156. Qaim, S. M., Steyn, G. F., Spahn, I., Spellerberg, S., van der Walt, T. N., Coenen, H. H.: Yield and purity of 82Sr produced via the natRb(p,xn)82Sr process. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65, 247 (2007).10.1016/j.apradiso.2006.08.001Search in Google Scholar

157. Kastleiner, S., Qaim, S. M., Nortier, F. M., Blessing, G., van der Walt, T. N., Coenen, H. H.: Excitation functions of 85Rb(p,xn)85m,g,83,82,81 Sr reactions up to 100 MeV: integral test of cross section data, comparison of production routes of 83Sr and thick target yield of 82Sr. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 56, 685 (2002).10.1016/S0969-8043(01)00267-6Search in Google Scholar

158. Haasbroek, F. J., Steyn, J., Neirinckx, R. D., Burdzik, G. F., Cogneau, M., Wanet, P.: Excitation functions and thick target yields for radioisotopes induced in natural Mg, Co, Ni and Ta by medium energy protons. CSIR Research Report, FIS 89, Pretoria, South Africa, 1976.Search in Google Scholar

159. Johnson, P. C., Lagunas-Solar, M. C., Avila, M. J.: The indirect production of no-carrier-added 57Co via the 59Co(p,3n)57Ni→57Co reaction. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 35, 371 (1984).10.1016/0020-708X(84)90044-9Search in Google Scholar

160. Ditrói, F., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Hermanne, A., Yamazaki, H., Baba, M., Mohammadi, A.: Activation cross sections of longer lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on cobalt up to 70 MeV. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 298, 853 (2013).10.1007/s10967-013-2578-8Search in Google Scholar

161. Tárkányi, F., Hermanne, A., Takács, S., Ditrói, F., Spahn, I., Ignatyuk, A. V.: Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on thulium in the 20–45MeV energy range. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 309 (2012).10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.08.020Search in Google Scholar

162. Neirinckx, R. D., Ku, T. H., Holman, B. L., Jones, A. G., Richards, P.: Production and purification of W−178. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30, 341 (1979).10.1016/0020-708X(79)90016-4Search in Google Scholar

163. Dmitriev, S. N., Zaitseva, N. G., Starodub, G.Ya., Maslov, O. D., Shishkin, S. V., Shishkina, T. V., Buklanov, G. V., Sabelnikov, A. V.: High-purity radionuclide production: Material construction target chemistry for 26Al, 97Ru, 178W, 235Np, 236,237Pu. Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 397, 125 (1997).10.1016/S0168-9002(97)00735-3Search in Google Scholar

164. Yano, Y., Anger, H. O.: Production and chemical processing of 52Fe for medical use. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 16, 153 (1965).10.1016/0020-708X(65)90112-2Search in Google Scholar

165. Thakur, M. L., Nunn, A. D., Waters, S. L.: 52Fe: improving its recovery from cyclotron targets. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 22, 481 (1971).10.1016/0020-708X(71)90169-4Search in Google Scholar

166. Akiha, F., Aburai, T., Nozaki, T., Murakami, Y.: Yield of 52Fe for the reactions of 3He and α on chromium. Radiochim. Acta 18, 108 (1972).10.1524/ract.1972.18.2.108Search in Google Scholar

167. Wanet, P. M., Cogneau, M. A., Apers, D. J.: Excitation functions of 25–50MeV alpha induced reactions on iron: Production of 57Ni. Radiochem. Radioanalyt. Letters 43, 1 (1980).Search in Google Scholar

168. Szelecsényi, F., Kovács, Z., Nagatsu, K., Fukumara, K., Suzuki, K., Mukai, K.: Investigations of direct production of 68Ga with low energy multiparticle accelerator. Radiochim. Acta 100, 5 (2012).10.1524/ract.2011.1896Search in Google Scholar

169. Ruth, T. J., Wolf, A. P.: Absolute cross sections for the production of 18F via the 18O(p,n)18F reaction. Radiochim. Acta 26, 21 (1979).10.1524/ract.1979.26.1.21Search in Google Scholar

170. Hess, E., Takács, S., Scholten, B., Tárkányi, F., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation function of the 18O(p,n)18F nuclear reaction from threshold up to 30 MeV. Radiochim. Acta 89, 352 (2001).10.1524/ract.2001.89.6.357Search in Google Scholar

171. Szelecsényi, F., Blessing, G., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on enriched 61Ni and 64Ni: possibility of production of no-carrier-added 61Cu and 64Cu at a small cyclotron. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 44, 575 (1993).10.1016/0969-8043(93)90172-7Search in Google Scholar

172. Szelecsényi, F., Boothe, T. E., Tavano, E., Plitnikas, M. E., Tárkányi, F.: Compilation of cross sections/thick target yields for 66Ga, 67Ga and 68Ga production using Zn targets up to 30 MeV proton energy. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 45, 473 (1994).10.1016/0969-8043(94)90114-7Search in Google Scholar

173. McCarthy, D. W., Bass, L. A., Cutler, P. D., Shefer, R. E., Klinkowstein, R. E., Herrero, P., Lewis, J. S., Cutler, C. S., Anderson, C. J., Welch, M. J.: High purity production and potential applications of copper-60 and copper-61. Nucl. Med. Biol. 26, 351 (1999).10.1016/S0969-8051(98)00113-9Search in Google Scholar

174. Paans, A. J. M., Welleweerd, J., Vaalburg, W., Reiffers, S., Woldring, M. G.: Excitation function for the production of bromine-75: a potential nuclide for the labelling of radiopharmaceuticals. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 31, 267 (1980).10.1016/0020-708X(80)90032-0Search in Google Scholar

175. Kovács, Z., Blessing, G., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Production of 75Br via the 76Se(p,2n)75Br reaction at a compact cyclotron. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 36, 635 (1985).10.1016/0020-708X(85)90004-3Search in Google Scholar

176. Tolmachev, V., Lövqvist, A., Einarsson, L., Schultz, J., Lundqvist, H.: Production of 76Br at a low-energy cyclotron. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 49, 1537 (1998).10.1016/S0969-8043(97)10129-4Search in Google Scholar

177. Kovács, Z. Tárkányi, F., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Production of 6.5h82mRb via the 82Kr(p,n)-process at a low-energy cyclotron – a potential substitute for 82Rb. Appl. Radiat. Isot 42, 831 (1991).10.1016/0883-2889(91)90220-USearch in Google Scholar

178. Scholten, B., Kovács, Z., Tárkányi, F., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of 124Te(p,xn)124,123I reactions from 6 to 31 MeV with special reference to the production of 124I at a small cyclotron. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 46, 255 (1995).10.1016/0969-8043(94)00145-PSearch in Google Scholar

179. Sheh, Y., Koziorowski, J., Balatoni, J., Lom, C., Dahl, J. R., Finn, R. D.: Low energy cyclotron production and chemical separation of no carrier added iodine-124 from usable, enriched tellurium-124o xide/aluminium oxide solid solution target. Radiochim. Acta 88, 169 (2000).10.1524/ract.2000.88.3-4.169Search in Google Scholar

180. Qaim, S. M., Hohn, A., Bastian, Th., El-Azoney, K. M., Blessing, G., Spellerberg, S., Scholten, B., Coenen, H. H.: Some optimisation studies relevant to the production of high-purity 124I and 120gI at a small-sized cyclotron. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 58, 69 (2003).10.1016/S0969-8043(02)00226-9Search in Google Scholar

181. Glaser, M., Mackay, D. B., Ranicar, A. S. O., Waters, S. L., Brady, F., Luthra, S. K.: Improved targetry and production of 124I for PET studies. Radiochim. Acta 92, 951 (2004).10.1524/ract.92.12.951.55103Search in Google Scholar

182. Sajjad, M., Bars, E., Nabi, H. A.: Optimisation of 124I production via 124Te(p,n)124I reaction. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 64, 965 (2006).10.1016/j.apradiso.2006.04.004Search in Google Scholar

183. Nye, J. A., Avila-Rodriguez, M. A., Nickles, R. J.: Production of [124I]-iodine on an 11 MeV cyclotron. Radiochim. Acta 94, 213 (2006).10.1524/ract.2006.94.4.213Search in Google Scholar

184. Aslam, M. N., Sudár, S., Hussain, M., Malik, A. A., Shah, H. A., Qaim, S. M.: Evaluation of excitation functions of proton and deuteron induced reactions on enriched tellurium isotopes with special relevance to the production of iodine-124. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68, 1760 (2010).10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.03.004Search in Google Scholar

185. Kovács, Z., Tárkányi, F., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Excitation functions for the formation of some radioisotopes of rubidium in proton induced nuclear reactions on natKr, 82Kr and 83Kr with special reference to the production of 81Rb(81mKr) generator radionuclide. Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 42, 329 (1991).10.1016/0883-2889(91)90134-MSearch in Google Scholar

186. Szelecsényi, F., Kovács, Z., Suzuki, K., Okada, K., van der Walt, T. N., Steyn, G. F., Mukherjee, S.: Production of 61Cu using proton induced nuclear reactions on zinc for PET studies. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 263, 539 (2005).10.1007/s10967-005-0089-ySearch in Google Scholar

187. Thieme, S., Walther, M., Preusche, S., Rajander, J., Pietzsch, H. J., Lill, J. O., Kaden, M., Solin, O., Steinbach, J.: High specific activity 61Cu via 64Zn(p, α)61Cu reaction at low proton energies. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 72, 169 (2013).10.1016/j.apradiso.2012.11.007Search in Google Scholar

188. Furukawa, M., Tanaka, S.: Excitation function for the reaction 16O(α,d)18F. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 16, 129 (1961).10.1143/JPSJ.16.129Search in Google Scholar

189. Clark, J. C., Silvester, D. J.: A cyclotron method for the production of 18F. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 17, 151 (1966).10.1016/0020-708X(66)90039-1Search in Google Scholar

190. Krasnov, N. N., Dimitriyev, P. P., Dimitriyeva, S. P., Konstantinov, I. O., Molin, G. A.: Experimental data on the yields of 11C, 13N, 18F isotopes used for the detection of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and neighbouring light element impurities by means of activation analysis with different charged particles (p, d, 3He, α). Proc. Conf. “The Use of Cyclotrons in Chemistry, Metallurgy and Biology” Oxford, September 1969 (ed. C. B. Amphlett), Butterworths, London, 1970, p. 341.Search in Google Scholar

191. Lindner, L., Suér, T. H. G. A., Brinkman, G. A., Veenboer, J. T.: A dynamic loop target for the in-cyclotron production of 18F by 16O(α,d)18F reaction on water. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 24, 124 (1973).10.1016/0020-708X(73)90146-4Search in Google Scholar

192. Bakker, C. N. M., Kaspersen, F. M.: Production of 18F by α-particle bombardment of SiO2. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30, 61 (1979).10.1016/0020-708X(79)90099-1Search in Google Scholar

193. Zatolokin, B. V., Konstantinov, I. O., Krasnov, N. N.: Thick target yields of 34mCl and 38Cl produced by various charged particles on phosphorus, sulphur and chlorine targets. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 27, 159 (1976).10.1016/0020-708X(76)90127-7Search in Google Scholar

194. Abrams, D. M., Knaus, E. E., Wiebe, L. I., Helus, F., Maier-Borst, W.: Production of 34mCl from a gaseous target. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 35, 1045 (1984).10.1016/0020-708X(84)90007-3Search in Google Scholar

195. Helus, F., Gasper, H., Rettig, G., Maier-Borst, W.: Cyclotron production of 34mCl for biomedical use. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 94, 149 (1985).10.1007/BF02167975Search in Google Scholar

196. Takei, M., Nagatsu, K., Fukumura, T. Suzuki, K.: Remote control production of an aqueous solution of no-carrier-added 34mCl via the 32S(α,pn) nuclear reaction. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65, 981 (2007).10.1016/j.apradiso.2007.04.015Search in Google Scholar PubMed

197. Nagatsu, K., Fukumura, T., Takei, M., Szelecsényi, F., Kovács, Z., Suzuki, K.: Measurement of thick target yields of the natS(α,x)34mCl nuclear reaction and estimation of its excitation function up to 70 MeV. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 709 (2008).10.1016/j.nimb.2008.01.019Search in Google Scholar

198. Engle, J., Barnhart, T. E., DeJesus, O. T., Nickles, R. J.: Production of 34mCl and 38Cl via the (d,α) reaction on 36Ar and natAr gas at 8.4 MeV. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 69, 75 (2011).10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.09.009Search in Google Scholar

199. Engle, J. W., Severin, G. W., Barnhart, T. E., Knutson, L. D., Nickles, R. J.: Cross sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar nuclear reactions below 8.4 MeV. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 355 (2012).10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.10.003Search in Google Scholar

200. Engle, J. W., Barnhart, T. E., Severin, G. W., Nickles, R. J.: The unrealized potential of 34mCl for radiopharmaceutical research with PET. Current Radiopharmaceuticals 4, 102 (2011).10.2174/1874471011104020102Search in Google Scholar

201. Homma, Y., Murakami, Y.: Production of 61Cu by α- and 3He bombardments on cobalt. Chem. Lett. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 397 (1976).10.1246/cl.1976.397Search in Google Scholar

202. Fukumura, T. Okada, K., Szelecsényi, F., Kovács, Z., Suzuki, K.: Practical production of 61Cu using natural Co target and its simple purification with a chelating resin for 61Cu-ATSM. Radiochim. Acta 92, 209 (2004).10.1524/ract.92.4.209.35593Search in Google Scholar

203. Das, S. S., Chattopadhyay, S., Barua, L., Das, M. K.: Production of 61Cu using natural cobalt target and its separation using ascorbic acid and common anion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 70, 365 (2012).10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.10.011Search in Google Scholar

204. Aslam, M. N., Qaim, S. M.: Nuclear model analysis of excitation functions of proton and deuteron induced reactions on 64Zn and 3He- and α-particle induced reactions on 59Co leading to the formation of copper-61: comparison of major production routes. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 94, 131 (2014).10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.08.001Search in Google Scholar

205. Szelecsényi, F., Suzuki, K., Kovács, Z., Takei, M., Okada, K.: Production possibility of 60,61,62Cu radioisotopes by alpha induced reactions on cobalt for PET studies. Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res B 187, 153 (2002).10.1016/S0168-583X(01)00923-5Search in Google Scholar

206. Aslam, M. N., Qaim, S. M.: Nuclear model analysis of excitation functions of proton, deuteron and α-particle induced reactions on nickel isotopes for production of the medically interesting copper-61. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 89, 65 (2014).10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.02.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

207. Jennewein,M., Qaim, S. M., Kulkarni, P. V., Mason, R. P., Hermanne, A., Rösch, F.: A no-carrier-added 72Se/72As radionuclide generator based on solid phase extraction. Radiochim. Acta 93, 579 (2005).10.1524/ract.2005.93.9-10.579Search in Google Scholar

208. Clark, J. C., Horlock, P. L., Watson, I. A.: Kr−81m generators. Radiochem. Radioanalyt. Lett. 25, 245 (1976).Search in Google Scholar

209. Alfassi, Z. B., Weinreich, R.: The production of positron emitters 75Br and 76Br: Excitation functions and yields for 3He and α-particle induced nuclear reactions on arsenic. Radiochim. Acta 30, 67 (1982).10.1524/ract.1982.30.2.67Search in Google Scholar

210. Hassan, K. F., Spellerberg, S., Scholten, B., Saleh, Z. A., Qaim, S. M.: Development of an ion-exchange method for separation of radioiodine from tellurium and antimony and its application to the production of 124I via the 121Sb(α,n)-process. J. Radioanalyt. Nucl. Chem. 302, 689 (2014).10.1007/s10967-014-3270-3Search in Google Scholar

211. Uddin, M. S., Qaim, S. M., Hermanne, A., Spahn, I., Spellerberg, S., Scholten, B., Hossain, S. M., Coenen, H. H.: Ion exchange separation and its application to production of 124I by alpha induced reactions on antimony. Radiochim. Acta 103, 587 (2015).10.1515/ract-2014-2359Search in Google Scholar

212. Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Szelecsényi, F., Ditrói, F., Hermanne, A., Sonck, M.: Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural tungsten up to 34 MeV. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 252, 160 (2006).10.1016/j.nimb.2006.09.010Search in Google Scholar

213. Lapi, S., Mills, W. J., Wilson, J., McQuarrie, S., Publicover, J., Schueller, M., Schleyer, D., Ressler, J. J., Ruth, T. J.: Production cross sections of 181−186Re isotopes from proton bombardment of natural tungsten. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65, 345 (2007).10.1016/j.apradiso.2006.08.015Search in Google Scholar PubMed

214. Khandaker, M. U., Uddin, M. S., Kim, K., Lee, M. W., Kim, K. S., Lee, Y. S., Kim, G. N., Cho, Y. S., Lee, Y. O.: Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natW up to 40MeV. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 1021 (2008).10.1016/j.nimb.2008.02.037Search in Google Scholar

215. Hussain, M., Sudár, S., Aslam, M. N., Malik, A. A., Ahmad, R., Qaim, S. M.: Evaluation of charged particle induced reaction cross section data for production of the important therapeutic radionuclide 186Re. Radiochim. Acta 98, 385 (2010).10.1524/ract.2010.1733Search in Google Scholar

216. Bonardi, M. L., Groppi, F. Manenti, S., Persico, E., Gini, L., Abbas, K., Holzwarth, U., Simonelli, F., Alfassi, Z. B.: Production study of high specific activity NCA Re − 186g by proton and deuteron cyclotron irradiation. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68, 1595 (2010).10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.03.014Search in Google Scholar PubMed

217. Fassbender, M. E., Ballard, B., Birnbaum, E. R., Engle, J. W., John, K. D., Maassen, J. R., Nortier, F. M., Lenz, J. W., Cutler, C. S., Ketring, A. R., Jurisson, S. S., Wilbur, D. S.: Proton irradiation parameters and chemical separation procedure for the bulk production of high-specific-activity 186gRe using WO3 targets. Radiochim. Acta 101, 339 (2013).10.1524/ract.2013.2031Search in Google Scholar

218. Therapeutic Applications of Radiopharmaceuticals, TEC-DOC- 1228, IAEA, Vienna, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

219. Manual for Reactor Production of Radioisotopes, TEC-DOC-1340, IAEA, Vienna, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

220. Qaim, S. M., Spahn, I., Kandil, S. A., Coenen, H. H.: Nuclear data for production of 88Y, 140Nd, 153Sm and 169Yb via novel routes. Radiochim. Acta 95, 313 (2007).10.1524/ract.2007.95.6.313Search in Google Scholar

221. Lebedev, N. A., Novgorodov, A. F., Misiak, R., Brockmann, J., Rösch, F.: Radiochemical separation of no-carrier-added 177Lu as produced via the 176Yb(n,γ)177Yb→177Lu process. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 53, 421 (2000).10.1016/S0969-8043(99)00284-5Search in Google Scholar

222. Kandil, S. A., Spahn, I., Scholten. B., Saleh, Z. A., Saad, S. M. M., Coenen, H. H., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of (α,xn) reactions on natRb and natSr from threshold up to 26 MeV: Possibility of production of 87Y, 88Y and 89Zr. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65, 561 (2007).10.1016/j.apradiso.2006.12.007Search in Google Scholar

223. Kandil, S. A., Scholten, B., Hassan, K. F., Hanafi, H. A., Qaim, S. M.: A comparative study on the separation of radioyttrium from Sr- and Rb-targets via ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques, with special reference to the production of no-carrier-added 86Y, 87Y and 88Y using a cyclotron. J. Radioanalyt. Nucl. Chem. 279, 823 (2009).10.1007/s10967-008-7407-0Search in Google Scholar

224. Tárkányi, F., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Excitation functions of 3He- and α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural krypton: Production of 82Sr at a compact cyclotron. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 39, 135 (1988).10.1016/0883-2889(88)90159-1Search in Google Scholar

225. Tárkányi, F., Qaim, S. M., Stöcklin, G.: Excitation functions of high-energy 3He- and α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural krypton with special reference to the production of 82Sr. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 41, 91 (1990).10.1016/0883-2889(90)90135-4Search in Google Scholar

226. Fenyvesi, A., Merchel, S., Takács, S., Szelecsényi, F., Tárkányi, F., Qaim, S. M.: Excitation functions of natNe(3He,x)22,24Na and natNe(alpha,x)22,24Na processes: Investigation of production of 22Na and 24Na at a medium sized cyclotron. Radiochim. Acta 79, 207 (1997).10.1524/ract.1997.79.4.207Search in Google Scholar

227. Hermanne, A., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Shubin, Yu.N., Kovalev, S. F.: Experimental determination of activation cross section of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natPt. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 251, 333 (2006).10.1016/j.nimb.2006.06.021Search in Google Scholar

228. Király, B., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Hermanne, A., Kovalev, S. F., Ignatyuk, A. V.: Excitation functions of alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural ytterbium. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 266, 3919 (2008).10.1016/j.nimb.2008.07.002Search in Google Scholar

229. Tárkányi, F., Hermanne, A., Király, B., Takács, S., Ditrói, F., Sonck, M., Kovalev, S. F., Ignatyuk, A. V.: Investigation of excitation functions of alpha-induced reactions on natXe: Production of the therapeutic radioisotope 131Cs. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 267, 742 (2009).10.1016/j.nimb.2009.01.006Search in Google Scholar

230. Hermanne, A., Daraban, L., Adam-Rebeles, R., Ignatyuk, A., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S.: Alpha induced reactions on natCd up to 38.5 MeV: Experimental and theoretical studies of the excitation functions. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 268, 1376 (2010).10.1016/j.nimb.2010.01.022Search in Google Scholar

231. Takács, S., Hermanne, A., Tárkányi, F., Ignatyuk, A.: Crosssections for alpha-particle produced radionuclides on natural silver. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 268, 2 (2010).10.1016/j.nimb.2009.09.035Search in Google Scholar

232. Tárkányi, F., Hermanne, A., Király, B., Takács, S., Ignatyuk, A. V.: Study of excitation functions of alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions on holmium for 167Tm production. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68, 404 (2010).10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.11.043Search in Google Scholar

233. Ditrói, F., Hermanne, A., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Ignatyuk, A. V.: Investigation of the alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 285, 125 (2012).10.1016/j.nimb.2012.05.030Search in Google Scholar

234. Tárkányi, F., Takács, S., Ditrói, F., Hermanne, A., Ignatyuk, A. V., Uddin, M. S.: Activation cross sections of alpha-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: Production of 178W/178mTa generator. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 91, 114 (2014).10.1016/j.apradiso.2014.05.016Search in Google Scholar

235. Hermanne, A., Adam-Rebeles, R., Tárkányi, F., Takács, S.: Alpha particle induced reactions on natCr up to 39 MeV: Experimental cross-sections, comparison with theoretical calculations and thick target yields for medically relevant 52gFe production. Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 356, 28 (2015).10.1016/j.nimb.2015.04.025Search in Google Scholar

236. Pupillo, G., Esposito, J., Gambaccini, M., Haddad, F., Michel, N.: Experimental cross section evaluation for innovative 99Mo production via the (α,n) reaction on 96Zr target. J. Radioanalyt. Nucl. Chem. 302, 911 (2014).10.1007/s10967-014-3321-9Search in Google Scholar

237. Gilly, L. J., Henriet, P., Alves, P., Capron, P. C.: Absolute crosssections and excitation functions for α particles induced reactions on bromine between 10 and 24 MeV. Nucl. Phys. 55, 375 (1964).10.1016/0029-5582(64)90160-9Search in Google Scholar

238. Homma, Y., Kurata, K.: Excitation functions for the production of 81Rb-81mKr via the 79Br(α,2n)81Rb and the 81Br(3He,3n)81Rb reactions. Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 30, 345 (1979).10.1016/0020-708X(79)90017-6Search in Google Scholar

239. Levkovskii, V. N.: Middle mass nuclides (A = 40–100) activation cross sections by medium energy (E = 10–50 MeV) protons and α-particles (experiment and systematics). Inter-Vesi, Moscow (1991), 215 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2015-12-15
Accepted: 2016-4-21
Published Online: 2016-6-8
Published in Print: 2016-9-1

©2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston