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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 22, 2019

Process intensification in chemical engineering: general trends and Russian contribution

Rufat S. Abiev ORCID logo

Abstract

Minimization of the costs with simultaneous increase in the raw materials and energy use efficiency is a challenge for the modern world. One of the most effective tools to solve this task is the use of process intensification (PI), first proposed by Ramshaw C. The incentive for process intensification, Proceedings, 1st Intl. Conf. Proc. Intensif. for Chem. Ind., 18, BHR Group, London, 1995, p. 1. and then extended by Stankiewicz AI, Moulijn JA. Process intensification: transforming chemical engineering. Chem Eng Prog 2000: 22–34. In the presented review, some principles of PI in chemical engineering and their application for wide variety of processes is discussed. The role of the Russian scientist with a research background is carried out in other countries.

Nomenclature

A

cross-sectional area, m2;

Ab

bubble cross-sectional area, m2;

Ac

capillary cross-sectional area, m2;

db

bubble diameter in plug flow, m;

dc

capillary diameter, m;

Dt

turbulent diffusion coefficient, m2/s;

D

diameter of mini- and microchannels, m;

Dcrit

critical diameter of mini- and microchannels, m;

g

gravity acceleration, m/s2;

H

liquid height in apparatus, m;

L

length, m;

N

power, consumed by stirrer, W;

p

pressure, Pa;

Δpb

frictional pressure drop in the zone of the bubble, Pa;

ΔpΔF

pressure losses caused by the formation of a new surface during the motion of bubbles, Pa;

ΔpTot

total pressure losses in the capillary, Pa;

Δptrans

pressure losses in the capillary that are caused by the rearrangement of a velocity profile in liquid slugs, Pa;

qV

volume sources (Eq. (6)), kg/s m3;

qi

instantaneous convective flow rate (volume flux) i-th phase, m3/s;

qb

gas flow rate due to the flow of a bubble, m3/s;

qf

liquid flow rate in the film, m3/s;

qs

liquid flow rate in the liquid slug, m3/s;

R

the radius of the apparatus; radius of capillary, m;

Rb

bubble radius in slug flow, m;

r

current radius, m;

Si

cross-section area of i-th phase, m2;

S

cross-section area of microchannel, m2;

u

local velocity of a phase, m/s;

U

average velocity of a medium, m/s;

Ub

velocity of a bubble relative to the stationary capillary, m/s;

Us

average liquid velocity in the liquid slug (equal to the velocity of two-phase flow Utp), m/s;

V

the volume of liquid in apparatus, volume of a multiphase mixture in microchannel, m3;

Vi

volume of i-th phase, m3;

W

relative drift velocity;

wsed

velocity of sedimentation of solid particles in liquid, m/s;

αi

surface fraction of i-th phase, –;

β

dynamic gas holdup, –;

δ

thickness of the liquid film around a bubble, m;

δopt

optimal gap between the rotor and the stator, m;

δr

thickness of the laminar layer at the wall of the rotor, m;

δs

thickness of the laminar layer at the wall of the stator, m;

εA

relative area of the bubble, –;

ε0

average energy dissipation rate in apparatus, ε0=N/ρV, m2/s3;

εi

volume fraction of i-th phase, –;

η

ratio of the velocities of the bubble and the two-phase flow, η=Ub/Us, –;

μ

viscosity, Pa s;

ν

kinematic viscosity, m2/s;

ρ

density of suspension, kg/m3;

ρi

density of i-th phase, kg/m3;

Δρ

density difference (between liquid and gas phases), kg/m3;

σ

interfacial tension, N/m;

τ

shear stress, Pa ;

Bo

Bond number, Bo=ΔρgD2σ;

Pe

Peclet number, Pe=wsed H/Dt;

Ca

capillary number, Ca=μ1Ubσ;

Re

Reynolds number, Re=ρ1Usdcμ1;

We

Weber number, We=ρ1Us2dcσ.

Subscripts
b

bubble, or drop, or particle;

c

capillary;

down

downward flow;

f

film;

i

phase number: 1, continuous phase; 2, dispersed phase;

s

liquid slug.

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Received: 2018-06-16
Accepted: 2019-01-07
Published Online: 2019-03-22
Published in Print: 2021-01-27

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston