Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 26, 2019

Chemical reduction of methylene blue in the presence of nanocatalysts: a critical review

Robina Begum, Jawayria Najeeb, Ayesha Sattar, Khalida Naseem, Ahmad Irfan, Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi and Zahoor H. Farooqi


Methylene blue (MB) (3,7-bis (dimethylamino)-phenothiazin-5-ium chloride) is a harmful pollutant and has been long been known for its detrimental effects on human health. Over the recent years, many strategies including reduction, oxidation, biological and photochemical degradation have been reported for converting this harmful dye into commercially useful products. Among the aforementioned strategies, the nanocatalytic reduction of MB into its reduced counterpart, i.e. leucomethylene blue, is considered more preferable because it has been reported to have numerous applications in various industrial fields in the academic literature. The reduction of MB is the kinetically unfavorable reaction. Henceforth, various nanocatalytic systems utilizing different kinds of stabilization mediums have reportedly been used for speeding up this particular reaction. This article attempts to not only describe the fundamental properties of the reduction reaction of MB but also present the classification of the recently reported nanocatalytic assemblies on the basis of the utilized supporting medium. Various techniques used for the characterization of nanocatalytic systems reported for the reduction of MB have been summarized in this review. The thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanistic studies of this nanocatalytic reaction have also been narrated here. This critical review has been written comprehensively to abridge the recent research progress in the assemblage of nanocatalytic systems used for the reduction of MB and to propose some new ideas for further development in this area.


Dr. Zahoor H. Farooqi is grateful to Higher Education Commission Pakistan for providing funding under National Research Program for Universities (NRPU) [No.20-3995/NRPU/R&D/HEC/14/1212] and University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan under research grant for the fiscal year 2017–2018 (grant no. D/999/EST-I). Ahmad Irfan and Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding through research groups program under grant number R.G.P.2/15/40.

  1. Conflict of interest statement: None declared.


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Received: 2018-07-20
Accepted: 2018-11-07
Published Online: 2019-01-26
Published in Print: 2020-08-26

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