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Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 27, 2019

Effect of surfactants on mass transfer coefficients in bubble column contactors: an interpretative critical review study

Sahand Nekoeian, Masoud Aghajani, Seyed Mehdi Alavi and Fatemeh Sotoudeh

Abstract

Since surfactants have been recognized as the most frequently faced contaminants of bubble column-related processes over time, their impact on the mass transfer operation of these columns has become a demanding research interest for two recent decades. Despite the similarities expressing the overall negative and positive influence of these chemicals on mass transfer coefficients and specific interfacial area, respectively, the discrepancies and, sometimes, paradoxical results are still under debate in the literature. To make a more comprehensive recognition of the mentioned subject, the current paper has tried to pave the path by reviewing all the major methods utilized in related research works. Thereafter, an interpretative argumentative comparison of the main findings of relevant studies has also been proposed, enlightening some of the research gaps which can be the potential candidates for future studies.

Nomenclature

A0

mobile surface in stagnant cap model

Acap

stagnant cap area

A

bubble surface area

A*

surfactant cap area

Atrans

surfactant cap area at the transition point

Ae

effective interfacial area

a

specific interfacial area

a0

specific interfacial area at negligible absorption rate

asurf

interfacial area per mole of adsorbed surfactant molecules

Csurf

surfactant concentration in the liquid phase

Ce

gas solubility

C

liquid bulk oxygen concentration

C*

equilibrium oxygen concentration in the liquid

C0

initial oxygen concentration in the liquid

C2

equilibrium oxygen concentration in the overall specific oxygen absorption rate measurement

Ck

equilibrium oxygen concentration in the oxygen absorption rate measurement

Cs

surfactant concentration in the liquid phase

Csp

solid particle concentration

CD

bubble drag coefficient

CDmobile

mobile bubble drag coefficient

CDrigid

rigid bubble drag coefficient

CDCC

Co-current downflow contacting column

CMC

critical micelle concentration

D

gas diffusivity

D

direct numerical simulation

d

bubble diameter

dsp

solid particle diameter

dbi

bubble diameter of the ith size class

dbs

bubble Sauter mean diameter

dB

bubble arithmetic average diameter

d1

the maximum bubble diameter for a spherical shape

d0

the minimum bubble diameter to have an ellipsoidal shape

e

elliptical bubble height to length ratio

F

flux of oxygen transferred by the bubble in PLIF technique

fB

bubble formation frequency

g

gravitational acceleration

H

ungassed liquid height of a column

Hc

bubble column height

HL

liquid height in the column

HLB

hydrophilic lipophilic balance

h

height of a bubble in the shape of oblate spheroid

htrans

height of the bubble clean segment at the transition point

I0

fluorescence intensity in the absence of oxygen in PLIF technique

I

fluorescence intensity in PLIF technique

J

oxygen flux density in PLIF technique

k

surfactant property constant

k1

kinetic coefficient of the pseudo-first-order reaction

k0

contributions of the not catalyzed reactions

kc

contributions of the catalyzed reactions

K

adsorption constant

KSV

Stern-Volmer constant in PLIF technique

kL1

bubble mass transfer coefficient at clean interface

kL0

bubble mass transfer coefficient at fully contaminated interface

kL

intrinsic liquid-side mass transfer coefficient

kLa

volumetric liquid-side mass transfer coefficient

kLmobile

intrinsic mass transfer coefficient of bubble with clean interface

kLrigid

intrinsic mass transfer coefficient of bubble with fully contaminated interface

kLzoneB

bubble mass transfer coefficient in zone B

kLzoneC

bubble mass transfer coefficient in zone C

k¯L

average liquid-side intrinsic mass transfer coefficient

ksurf

surfactant mass transfer coefficient

ksurf0

surfactant diffusivity constant

l

length of a bubble in the shape of oblate spheroid

L

characteristic length

LIF

laser-induced fluorescence

M

absorption rate

mT

total mass of Na2SO3

mS

mass of Na2SO3 reacting with the oxygen dissolved during the stationary regime

mR

mass of Na2SO3 remaining in the column

mO2

quantity of transferred oxygen

MO2

molecular mass of O2

MNa2SO3

molecular mass of Na2SO3

N

diffusing gas molar flux

NB

number of terminal rising bubbles

ni

bubble number of the ith size class

ntot

total number of bubbles

[O2]

dissolved oxygen concentration in the liquid phase in PLIF technique

[O2]

oxygen solubility in the bulk liquid in PLIF technique

Pec

bulk Peclet number

pb

barometric pressure

pH2O

partial pressure of water

pO2

partial pressure of oxygen

Qg

gas flow rate

Q1

volumetric gas flow rate on the inlet of the dispersion

Q2

volumetric gas flow rate on the outlet of the dispersion

Se

surface coverage ratio at equilibrium

Sc

Schmidt number

tRi

bubble residence time of the ith size class

tR

bubble residence time

tmobile

mobile bubble age

T1

time constant of the probe

T2

characteristic time for mass transfer

Tframes

time interval between two frames

T

temperature

Ta

adsorption temperature

UB

rising bubble velocity

Ug

superficial gas velocity

V

ungassed liquid volume of a column

VTotal

total reactor volume

VB

average detached bubble volume

X

normalized probe reading of dissolved oxygen concentration

y

ordinate of the bubble center of gravity

Greek symbols
α

process scaling factor

ΔC

dissolved gas concentration difference

νs

bubble slip velocity

ν

kinematic viscosity

ΔH

height increase after gas dispersion

ΔV

volume expansion after gas dispersion

ΔD

bubble spatial displacement between two frames

ρL

density of liquid

ρg

density of gas

σ

surface tension

θcap

stagnant cap angle

τ

bubble interfacial shear stress

ϕ

overall specific oxygen absorption rate in the dispersion

Γ

surface surfactant concentration when it is saturated

Γe

surface surfactant concentration at equilibrium

σL,0

surface tension at near zero surfactant concentration

σL

surface tension of surfactant solution

μL

liquid viscosity

βs

elasticity number

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Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (https://doi.org/10.1515/revce-2018-0089).

Received: 2018-12-05
Accepted: 2019-08-13
Published Online: 2019-09-27
Published in Print: 2021-07-27

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