Zum Hauptinhalt springen
Lizenziert Nicht lizenziert Erfordert eine Authentifizierung Veröffentlicht von De Gruyter 31. August 2020

Greener and sustainable production of bioethylene from bioethanol: current status, opportunities and perspectives

Farrukh Jamil, Muhammad Aslam ORCID logo, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Awais Bokhari, Sikander Rafiq, Zakir Khan ORCID logo, Abrar Inayat, Ashfaq Ahmed ORCID logo, Shakhawat Hossain, Muhammad Shahzad Khurram und Muhammad S. Abu Bakar ORCID logo

Abstract

The economic value of bioethylene produced from bioethanol dehydration is remarkable due to its extensive usage in the petrochemical industry. Bioethylene is produced through several routes, such as steam cracking of hydrocarbons from fossil fuel and dehydration of bioethanol, which can be produced through fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose and starch. The rise in oil prices, environmental issues due to toxic emissions caused by the combustion of fossil fuel and depletion of fossil fuel resources have led a demand for an alternative pathway to produce green ethylene. One of the abundant alternative renewable sources for bioethanol production is biomass. Bioethanol produced from biomass is alleged to be a competitive alternative to bioethylene production as it is environmentally friendly and economical. In recent years, many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering pathways to enhance the bioethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature to drive the technology toward economic feasibility and practicality. This paper critically reviews bioethylene production from bioethanol in the presence of different catalysts, reaction conditions and reactor technologies to achieve a higher yield and selectivity of ethylene. Techno-economic and environmental assessments are performed to further development and commercialization. Finally, key issues and perspectives that require utmost attention to facilitate global penetration of technology are highlighted.


Corresponding authors: Muhammad Aslam, Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Lahore Campus, Defense Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore, Pakistan, E-mail:
Corresponding author: Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, E-mail:

Nomenclature
BTU

British Thermal Unit

CaO

calcium oxide

C2H5OH

ethanol

C2H4

ethylene

C2H5OC2H5

diethyl ether

Co3O4

cobalt tetraoxide

DTPA

dodecatungestophosphoric acid

EIA

Energy Information Administration

GJ

Gigajoule

LPG

liquefied petroleum gas

MT

metric tonne

OECD

Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development

Mn2O3

Manganese(III) oxide

Na2O

Sodium oxide

NiSAPO-34

Nickle silicoaluminophosphate zeolite-34

SAPO-34

Silicoaluminophosphate zeolite-34

TiO2

Titanium dioxide

ZnO

Zinc oxide

ZSM-5

Zeolite Socony Mobil–5

γ-Al2O3

Gamma alumina

γ-AlO(OH)

Boehmite

α-Al(OH)3

Bayerite

γ-Al(OH)3

Gibbsite

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.

References

Ahmad, R., Ahmad, Z., Khan, A.U., Mastoi, N.R., Aslam, M., and Kim, J. (2016). Photocatalytic systems as an advanced environmental remediation: recent developments, limitations and new avenues for applications. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 4: 4143–4164, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.09.009.Suche in Google Scholar

Ahmad, R., Aslam, M., Park, E., Chang, S., Kwon, D., and Kim, J. (2018). Submerged low-cost pyrophyllite ceramic membrane filtration combined with GAC as fluidized particles for industrial wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 206: 784–792, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.045.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Al-Muhtaseb, A., Jamil, F., Myint, M.T.Z., Baawain, M., Al-Abri, M., Dung, T.N.B., Kumar, G., and Ahmad, M.N.M. (2017). Cleaner fuel production from waste Phoenix dactylifera L. kernel oil in the presence of a bimetallic catalyst: optimization and kinetics study. Energy Convers. Manag. 146: 195–204, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.05.035.Suche in Google Scholar

Al-Shammari, A.A., Ali, S.A., Al-Yassir, N., Aitani, A.M., Ogunronbi, K.E., Al-Majnouni, K.A., and Al-Khattaf, S.S. (2014). Catalytic cracking of heavy naphtha-range hydrocarbons over different zeolites structures. Fuel Process Technol. 122: 12–22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.01.021.Suche in Google Scholar

Alfonsín, V., Maceiras, R., and Gutiérrez, C. (2019). Bioethanol production from industrial algae waste. Waste Manag. 87: 791–797, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.03.019.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Anna, W., Beata, G., Dorota, R., Katarzyna, P., Waldemar, M., Henryk, W., Aleksandra, P., Anetta, W., Anna, O., Justyna, S., et al. (2018). Vapourised hydrogen peroxide (VHP) and ethylene oxide (EtO) methods for disinfecting historical cotton textiles from the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 133: 42–51, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2018.05.016.Suche in Google Scholar

Anonymous (2011a). International energy outlook.Suche in Google Scholar

Anonymous (2011b). World energy outlook.Suche in Google Scholar

Anonymous (2012). OECD SIDS initial assesment profile -ethylene.Suche in Google Scholar

Aslam, M., McCarty, P.L., Bae, J., and Kim, J. (2014). The effect of fluidized media characteristics on membrane fouling and energy consumption in anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors. Separ. Purif. Technol. 132: 10–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2014.04.049.Suche in Google Scholar

Aslam, M., Lee, P.-H., and Kim, J. (2015). Analysis of membrane fouling with porous membrane filters by microbial suspensions for autotrophic nitrogen transformations. Separ. Purif. Technol. 146: 284–293, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2015.03.042.Suche in Google Scholar

Aslam, M., Charfi, A., Lesage, G., Heran, M., and Kim, J. (2017a). Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: a review of mechanical cleaning by scouring agents to control membrane fouling. Chem. Eng. J. 307: 897–913, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.08.144.Suche in Google Scholar

Aslam, M., McCarty, P.L., Shin, C., Bae, J., and Kim, J. (2017b). Low energy single-staged anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for wastewater treatment. Bioresour. Technol. 240: 33–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.017.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Aslam, M., Ahmad, R., and Kim, J. (2018a). Recent developments in biofouling control in membrane bioreactors for domestic wastewater treatment. Separ. Purif. Technol. 206: 297–315, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2018.06.004.Suche in Google Scholar

Aslam, M., Ahmad, R., Yasin, M., Khan, A.L., Shahid, M.K., Hossain, S., Khan, Z., Jamil, F., Rafiq, S., and Bilad, M.R. (2018b). Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for biohydrogen production: recent developments, challenges and perspectives. Bioresour. Technol. 269: 452–464, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.08.050.Suche in Google Scholar

Aslam, M., Yang, P., Lee, P.-H., and Kim, J. (2018c). Novel staged anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor: energy reduction, fouling control and microbial characterization. J. Membr. Sci. 553: 200–208, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2018.02.038.Suche in Google Scholar

Aslam, M., Charfi, A., and Kim, J. (2019). Membrane scouring to control fouling under fluidization of non-adsorbing media for wastewater treatment. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Control Ser. 26: 1061–1071, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8527-2.Suche in Google Scholar

Aslam, M. and Kim, J. (2019). Investigating membrane fouling associated with GAC fluidization on membrane with effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor in domestic wastewater treatment. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Control Ser. 26: 1170–1180, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9815-6.Suche in Google Scholar

Atabani, A., Ala’a, H., Kumar, G., Saratale, G.D., Aslam, M., Khan, H.A., Said, Z., and Mahmoud, E. (2019a). Valorization of spent coffee grounds into biofuels and value-added products: pathway towards integrated bio-refinery. Fuel 254: 115640, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115640.Suche in Google Scholar

Atabani, A., Shobana, S., Mohammed, M., Uğuz, G., Kumar, G., Arvindnarayan, S., Aslam, M., and Ala’a, H. (2019b). Integrated valorization of waste cooking oil and spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production: blending with higher alcohols, FT–IR, TGA, DSC and NMR characterizations. Fuel 244: 419–430, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.01.169.Suche in Google Scholar

Avilés Martínez, A., Saucedo-Luna, J., Segovia-Hernandez, J.G., Hernandez, S., Gomez-Castro, F.I., and Castro-Montoya, A.J. (2011). Dehydration of bioethanol by hybrid process liquid–liquid extraction/extractive distillation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51: 5847–5855, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie200932g.Suche in Google Scholar

Barbarossa, V., Viscardi, R., Maestri, G., Maggi, R., Mirabile Gattia, D., and Paris, E. (2019). Sulfonated catalysts for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME). Mater. Res. Bull. 113: 64–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2019.01.018.Suche in Google Scholar

Bastianoni, S. and Marchettini, N. (1996). Ethanol production from biomass: analysis of process efficiency and sustainability. Biomass Bioenergy 11: 411–418, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0961-9534(96)00037-2.Suche in Google Scholar

Becerra-Ruiz, J.D., Gonzalez-Huerta, R.G., Gracida, J., Amaro-Reyes, A., and Macias-Bobadilla, G. (2019). Using green-hydrogen and bioethanol fuels in internal combustion engines to reduce emissions. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.02.211.Suche in Google Scholar

Becerra, J., Quiroga, E., Tello, E., Figueredo, M., and Cobo, M. (2018). Kinetic modeling of polymer-grade ethylene production by diluted ethanol dehydration over H-ZSM-5 for industrial design. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 6: 6165–6174, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2018.09.035.Suche in Google Scholar

Bi, J., Guo, X., Liu, M., and Wang, X. (2010). High effective dehydration of bio-ethanol into ethylene over nanoscale HZSM-5 zeolite catalysts. Catal. Today 149: 143–147, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2009.04.016.Suche in Google Scholar

Bian, W.S.H.Z. (2012). The ethylene process technology. China: China Petrochemical Press.Suche in Google Scholar

Bokade, V.V. and Yadav, G.D. (2011). Heteropolyacid supported on montmorillonite catalyst for dehydration of dilute bio-ethanol. Appl. Clay Sci. 53: 263–271, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2011.03.006.Suche in Google Scholar

Boopathy, R., Rene, E.R., López, M.E., Annachhatre, A.P., and Lens, P.N.L. (2017). Special issue on environmental biotechnologies for sustainable development. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 119: 1–3, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2017.03.007.Suche in Google Scholar

Brey, W.S. and Krieger, K.A. (1949). The surface area and catalytic activity of aluminum oxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71: 3637–3641, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01179a016.Suche in Google Scholar

Broeren, M. (2013). Production of bio-ethylene technology brief. IEA-ETSAP IRENA, https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2013-2933.Suche in Google Scholar

Cai, B.-Y., Ge, J.-P., Ling, H.-Z., Cheng, K.-K., and Ping, W.-X. (2012). Statistical optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corncob for xylose recovery and ethanol production. Biomass Bioenergy 36: 250–257, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.10.023.Suche in Google Scholar

Cambero, C. and Sowlati, T. (2014). Assessment and optimization of forest biomass supply chains from economic, social and environmental perspectives – a review of literature. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 36: 62–73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.04.041.Suche in Google Scholar

Carrillo-Nieves, D., Rostro Alanís, M.J., de la Cruz Quiroz, R., Ruiz, H.A., Iqbal, H.M.N., and Parra-Saldívar, R. (2019). Current status and future trends of bioethanol production from agro-industrial wastes in Mexico. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 102: 63–74, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.11.031.Suche in Google Scholar

Cesteros, Y., Salagre, P., Medina, F., and Sueiras, J.E. (1998). Several factors affecting faster rates of gibbsite formation. Chem. Mater. 11: 123–129. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm980527z.Suche in Google Scholar

Charfi, A., Aslam, M., Lesage, G., Heran, M., and Kim, J. (2017a). Macroscopic approach to develop fouling model under GAC fluidization in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 49: 219–229, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2017.01.030.Suche in Google Scholar

Charfi, A., Thongmak, N., Benyahia, B., Aslam, M., Harmand, J., Amar, N.B., Lesage, G., Sridang, P., Kim, J., and Heran, M. (2017b). A modelling approach to study the fouling of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Bioresour. Technol. 245: 207–215, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.08.003.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Charfi, A., Aslam, M., and Kim, J. (2018a). Modelling approach to better control biofouling in fluidized bed membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 191: 136–144, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.09.135.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Charfi, A., Park, E., Aslam, M., and Kim, J. (2018b). Particle-sparged anaerobic membrane bioreactor with fluidized polyethylene terephthalate beads for domestic wastewater treatment: modelling approach and fouling control. Bioresour. Technol. 258: 263–269, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.02.093.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Chawla, M., Rafiq, S., Jamil, F., Usman, M.R., Khurram, S., Ghauri, M., Muhammad, N., Ala’a, H., and Aslam, M. (2018). Hydrocarbons fuel upgradation in the presence of modified bi-functional catalyst. J. Clean. Prod. 198: 683–692, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.286.Suche in Google Scholar

Chen, G., Li, S., Jiao, F., and Yuan, Q. (2007a). Catalytic dehydration of bioethanol to ethylene over TiO2/γ-Al2O3 catalysts in microchannel reactors. Catal. Today 125: 111–119, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2007.01.071.Suche in Google Scholar

Chen, M., Xia, L., and Xue, P. (2007b). Enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob and ethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 59: 85–89, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2006.07.011.Suche in Google Scholar

Chen, Y., Wu, Y., Tao, L., Dai, B., Yang, M., Chen, Z., and Zhu, X. (2010). Dehydration reaction of bio-ethanol to ethylene over modified SAPO catalysts. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 16: 717–722, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2010.07.013.Suche in Google Scholar

Cheng, KC (2011). Synthesis of gas production from glycerol steam reforming over alumina supported bimetallic Co–Ni catalyst. The University of New South Wales Sydney, Australia.Suche in Google Scholar

Chiang, H. and Bhan, A. (2010). Catalytic consequences of hydroxyl group location on the rate and mechanism of parallel dehydration reactions of ethanol over acidic zeolites. J. Catal. 271: 251–261, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2010.01.021.Suche in Google Scholar

Chiang, H. (2012). Probe reactions of alcohols and alkanes for understanding catalytic properties of micrporous materials and almuina oxide solid acid catalysts: University of Minnesots, Minneapolis.Suche in Google Scholar

Chmielarz, L., Kowalczyk, A., Skoczek, M., Rutkowska, M., Gil, B., Natkański, P., Radko, M., Motak, M., Dębek, R., and Ryczkowski, J. (2018). Porous clay heterostructures intercalated with multicomponent pillars as catalysts for dehydration of alcohols. Appl. Clay Sci. 160: 116–125, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2017.12.015.Suche in Google Scholar

Compagnoni, M., Tripodi, A., and Rossetti, I. (2017). Parametric study and kinetic testing for ethanol steam reforming. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 203: 899–909, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.11.002.Suche in Google Scholar

Costa, E., Uguina, A., Aguado, J., and Hernandez, P.J. (1985). Ethanol to gasoline process: effect of variables, mechanism, and kinetics. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 24: 239–244, https://doi.org/10.1021/i200029a003.Suche in Google Scholar

Das, S.P., Gupta, A., Das, D., and Goyal, A. (2016). Enhanced bioethanol production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by statistical optimization of fermentation process parameters using Taguchi orthogonal array design. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 109: 174–184, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.01.008.Suche in Google Scholar

Dasgupta, S. and Török, B. (2008). Application of clay catalysts in organic synthesis. a review. Org. Prep. Proced. Int. 40: 1–65, https://doi.org/10.1080/00304940809356640.Suche in Google Scholar

de Oliveira, T.K.R., Rosset, M., and Perez-Lopez, O.W. (2018). Ethanol dehydration to diethyl ether over Cu–Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts. Catal. Commun. 104: 32–36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2017.10.013.Suche in Google Scholar

Derman, E., Abdulla, R., Marbawi, H., and Sabullah, M.K. (2018). Oil palm empty fruit bunches as a promising feedstock for bioethanol production in Malaysia. Renew. Energy 129: 285–298, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.06.003.Suche in Google Scholar

DeWilde, J.F., Chiang, H., Hickman, D.A., Ho, C.R., and Bhan, A. (2013). Kinetics and mechanism of ethanol dehydration on γ-Al2O3: the critical role of dimer inhibition. ACS Catal. 3: 798–807, https://doi.org/10.1021/cs400051k.Suche in Google Scholar

Díaz Alvarado, F. and Gracia, F. (2010). Steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production: thermodynamic analysis including different carbon deposits representation. Chem. Eng. J. 165: 649–657, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.09.051.Suche in Google Scholar

Dincer, I. and Zamfirescu, C. (2014). Chapter 3: fossil fuels and alternatives. In: Dincer, I. and Zamfirescu, C. (Eds.), Advanced power generation systems. Elsevier, Boston, pp. 95–141.10.1016/B978-0-12-383860-5.00003-1Suche in Google Scholar

Divate, R., Menon, V., and Rao, M. (2013). Approach towards biocatalytic valorisation of barley β-glucan for bioethanol production using 1,3-1,4 β-glucanase and thermotolerant yeast. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 82: 81–86, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.03.002.Suche in Google Scholar

Doheim, M.M. and El-Shobaky, H.G. (2002). Catalytic conversion of ethanol and iso-propanol over ZnO-treated Co3O4/Al2O3 solids. Colloid. Surface. Physicochem. Eng. Aspect. 204: 169–174, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-7757(01)01128-1.Suche in Google Scholar

Doheim, M.M., Hanafy, S.A., and El-Shobaky, G.A. (2002). Catalytic conversion of ethanol and isopropanol over the Mn2O3/Al2O3 system doped with Na2O. Mater. Lett. 55: 304–311, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-577x(02)00383-x.Suche in Google Scholar

Dömök, M., Tóth, M., Raskó, J., and Erdőhelyi, A. (2007). Adsorption and reactions of ethanol and ethanol–water mixture on alumina-supported Pt catalysts. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 69: 262–272, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2006.06.001.Suche in Google Scholar

e Silva, J.O.V., Almeida, M.F., da Conceição Alvim-Ferraz, M., and Dias, J.M. (2018). Integrated production of biodiesel and bioethanol from sweet potato. Renew. Energy 124: 114–120.10.1016/j.renene.2017.07.052Suche in Google Scholar

Elias, K.F.M., Lucrédio, A.F., and Assaf, E.M. (2013). Effect of CaO addition on acid properties of Ni–Ca/Al2O3 catalysts applied to ethanol steam reforming. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 38: 4407–4417, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.01.162.Suche in Google Scholar

Eliseus, A., Bilad, M., Nordin, N., Khan, A.L., Putra, Z., Wirzal, M., Aslam, M., Aqsha, A., and Jaafar, J. (2018). Two-way switch: maximizing productivity of tilted panel in membrane bioreactor. J. Environ. Manag. 228: 529–537, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.09.029.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Ellabban, O., Abu-Rub, H., and Blaabjerg, F. (2014). Renewable energy resources: current status, future prospects and their enabling technology. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 39: 748–764, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.113.Suche in Google Scholar

Engelder, C.J. (1916). Studies in contact catalysis. J. Phys. Chem. 21: 676–704. https://doi.org/10.1021/j150179a004.Suche in Google Scholar

Erakhrumen, A.A. (2014). Growing pertinence of bioenergy in formal/informal global energy schemes: necessity for optimising awareness strategies and increased investments in renewable energy technologies. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 31: 305–311, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.11.034.Suche in Google Scholar

Esty, D.C. and Winston, A.S. (2008). Green to gold: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New Jersey.Suche in Google Scholar

Fan, D., Dai, D.-J., and Wu, H.-S. (2012). Ethylene formation by catalytic dehydration of ethanol with industrial considerations. Materials 6: 101–115, https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6010101.Suche in Google Scholar

Fazal, T., ur Rehman, M.S., Mushtaq, A., Hafeez, A., Javed, F., Aslam, M., Fatima, M., Faisal, A., Iqbal, J., and Rehman, F. (2019). Simultaneous production of bioelectricity and biogas from chicken droppings and dairy industry wastewater employing bioelectrochemical system. Fuel 256: 115902, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115902.Suche in Google Scholar

Fornell, R., Berntsson, T., and Åsblad, A. (2012). Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant – part B: techno-economic analysis. Appl. Therm. Eng. 42: 179–190, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2012.02.043.Suche in Google Scholar

Foster, G. (2019). Low-carbon futures for bioethylene in the United States. Energies 12: 1958, https://doi.org/10.3390/en12101958.Suche in Google Scholar

Galvita, V.V., Semin, G.L., Belyaev, V.D., Semikolenov, V.A., Tsiakaras, P., and Sobyanin, V.A. (2001). Synthesis gas production by steam reforming of ethanol. Appl. Catal. Gen. 220: 123–127, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0926-860x(01)00708-6.Suche in Google Scholar

Garbarino, G., Riani, P., Villa García, M., Finocchio, E., Sanchez Escribano, V., and Busca, G. (2020). A study of ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde over copper/zinc aluminate catalysts. Catal. Today 354: 167–175, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2019.01.002.Suche in Google Scholar

Ghauri, M., Bokhari, A., Aslam, M., and Tufail, M. (2011). Biogas reactor design for dry process and generation of electricity on sustainable basis. December 6: 414–417.Suche in Google Scholar

Gil, A., Korilli, S.A., Trujillano, R., and Vicente, M.A. (2010). Pillared clays and related catalysts. Springer-Verlag, New York.10.1007/978-1-4419-6670-4Suche in Google Scholar

Gil, A., Korili, S.A., Trujillano, R., and Vicente, M.A. (2011). A review on characterization of pillared clays by specific techniques. Appl. Clay Sci. 53: 97–105,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2010.09.018.Suche in Google Scholar

Golay, S., Kiwi-Minsker, L., Doepper, R., and Renken, A. (1999). Influence of the catalyst acid/base properties on the catalytic ethanol dehydration under steady state and dynamic conditions. In situ surface and gas-phase analysis. Chem. Eng. Sci. 54: 3593–3598, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0009-2509(98)00521-1.Suche in Google Scholar

Haro, P., Ollero, P., Villanueva Perales, A.L., and Reyes Valle, C. (2012). Technoeconomic assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol production via DME (dimethyl ether) hydrocarbonylation. Energy 44: 891–901, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.05.004.Suche in Google Scholar

Haro, P., Ollero, P., and Trippe, F. (2013a). Technoeconomic assessment of potential processes for bio-ethylene production. Fuel Process. Technol. 114: 35–48, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2013.03.024.Suche in Google Scholar

Haro, P., Trippe, F., Stahl, R., and Henrich, E. (2013b). Bio-syngas to gasoline and olefins via DME – a comprehensive techno-economic assessment. Appl. Energy 108: 54–65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.03.015.Suche in Google Scholar

Hellier, P., Jamil, F., Zaglis-Tyraskis, E., Al-Muhtaseb, A., Al Haj, L., and Ladommatos, N. (2019). Combustion and emissions characteristics of date pit methyl ester in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Fuel 243: 162–171, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.01.022.Suche in Google Scholar

Henne, A.L. and Matuszak, A.H. (1944). The dehydration of secondary and tertiary alcohols. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66: 1649–1652, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01238a012.Suche in Google Scholar

Hoda, S., Morteza, S., and Cavus, F. (2013). Synthesis of some baria-modified gamma alumina for methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether. Res. J. Chem. Sci. 3: 57–62.Suche in Google Scholar

Hosseini, S.E. and Wahid, M.A. (2014). Utilization of palm solid residue as a source of renewable and sustainable energy in Malaysia. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 40: 621–632, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.214.Suche in Google Scholar

Hosseininejad, A.S.S. (2010). Catalytic and kinetic study of methanol dehydration to diemethylether. University of Alberta, Canada.Suche in Google Scholar

Huang, C., Jeuck, B., Du, J., Yong, Q., Chang, H.M., Jameel, H., and Phillips, R. (2016). Novel process for the coproduction of xylo-oligosaccharides, fermentable sugars, and lignosulfonates from hardwood. Bioresour. Technol. 219: 600–607, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.08.051.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Huang, C., He, J., Narron, R., Wang, Y., and Yong, Q. (2017). Characterization of kraft lignin fractions obtained by sequential ultrafiltration and their potential application as a biobased component in blends with polyethylene. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 5: 11770–11779, https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b03415.Suche in Google Scholar

Huang, C., Ma, J., Liang, C., Li, X., and Yong, Q. (2018). Influence of sulfur dioxide-ethanol-water pretreatment on the physicochemical properties and enzymatic digestibility of bamboo residues. Bioresour. Technol. 263: 17–24, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.04.104.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Huang, C., Lin, W., Lai, C., Li, X., Jin, Y., and Yong, Q. (2019a). Coupling the post-extraction process to remove residual lignin and alter the recalcitrant structures for improving the enzymatic digestibility of acid-pretreated bamboo residues. Bioresour. Technol. 285: 121355, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121355.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Huang, C., Wang, X., Liang, C., Jiang, X., Yang, G., Xu, J., and Yong, Q. (2019b). A sustainable process for procuring biologically active fractions of high-purity xylooligosaccharides and water-soluble lignin from Moso bamboo prehydrolyzate. Biotechnol. Biofuels 12: 189, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-019-1527-3.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Huber, G.W., Iborra, S., and Corma, A. (2006). Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering. Chem. Rev. 106: 4044–4098, https://doi.org/10.1021/cr068360d.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Jacquet, N., Vanderghem, C., Blecker, C., Malumba, P., Delvigne, F., and Paquot, M. (2012). Improvement of the cellulose hydrolysis yields and hydrolysate concentration by management of enzymes and substrate input. Cerevisia 37: 82–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cervis.2012.10.002.Suche in Google Scholar

Jae, J., Tompsett, G.A., Foster, A.J., Hammond, K.D., Auerbach, S.M., Lobo, R.F., and Huber, G.W. (2011). Investigation into the shape selectivity of zeolite catalysts for biomass conversion. J. Catal. 279: 257–268, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2011.01.019.Suche in Google Scholar

Jambo, S.A., Abdulla, R., Mohd Azhar, S.H., Marbawi, H., Gansau, J.A., and Ravindra, P. (2016). A review on third generation bioethanol feedstock. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 65: 756–769, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.07.064.Suche in Google Scholar

Jambo, S.A., Abdulla, R., Marbawi, H., and Gansau, J.A. (2019). Response surface optimization of bioethanol production from third generation feedstock – eucheuma cottonii. Renew. Energy 132: 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.07.133.Suche in Google Scholar

Jamil, F., Al-Muhtaseb, A, Al-Haj, L., Al-Hinai, M.A., Hellier, P., and Rashid, U. (2016). Optimization of oil extraction from waste “Date pits” for biodiesel production. Energy Convers. Manag. 117: 264–272, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.03.025.Suche in Google Scholar

Jamil, F., Saxena, S.K., Al-Muhtaseb, A., Baawain, M., Al-Abri, M., Viswanadham, N., Kumar, G., and Abu-ai, A.M.Jr (2017). Valorization of waste “date seeds” bio-glycerol for synthesizing oxidative green fuel additive. J. Clean. Prod. 165: 1090–1096, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.07.216.Suche in Google Scholar

Jamil, F., Al-Haj, L., Al-Muhtaseb Ala’a, H., Al-Hinai Mohab, A., Baawain, M., Rashid, U., and Ahmad Mohammad, N.M. (2018a). Current scenario of catalysts for biodiesel production: a critical review. Rev. Chem. Eng. 34: 267–297, https://doi.org/10.1515/revce-2016-0026.Suche in Google Scholar

Jamil, F., Al-Muhtaseb, A., Myint, M.T.Z., Al-Hinai, M., Al-Haj, L., Baawain, M., Al-Abri, M., Kumar, G., and Atabani, A.E. (2018b). Biodiesel production by valorizing waste Phoenix dactylifera L. Kernel oil in the presence of synthesized heterogeneous metallic oxide catalyst (Mn@MgO-ZrO2). Energy Convers. Manag. 155: 128–137, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.10.064.Suche in Google Scholar

Janik, M.J., Macht, J., Iglesia, E., and Neurock, M. (2009). Correlating acid properties and catalytic function: a first-principles analysis of alcohol dehydration pathways on polyoxometalates. J. Phys. Chem. C 113: 1872–1885, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp8078748.Suche in Google Scholar

Javed, F., Aslam, M., Rashid, N., Shamair, Z., Khan, A.L., Yasin, M., Fazal, T., Hafeez, A., Rehman, F., and Rehman, M.S.U. (2019). Microalgae-based biofuels, resource recovery and wastewater treatment: a pathway towards sustainable biorefinery. Fuel 255: 115826, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115826.Suche in Google Scholar

Jiang, D., Hao, M., Fu, J., Liu, K., and Yan, X. (2019). Potential bioethanol production from sweet sorghum on marginal land in China. J. Clean. Prod. 220: 225–234, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.294.Suche in Google Scholar

Kaenchan, P., Puttanapong, N., Bowonthumrongchai, T., Limskul, K., and Gheewala, S.H. (2019). Macroeconomic modeling for assessing sustainability of bioethanol production in Thailand. Energy Pol. 127: 361–373, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.12.026.Suche in Google Scholar

Kagyrmanova, A.P., Chumachenko, V.A., Korotkikh, V.N., Kashkin, V.N., and Noskov, A.S. (2011). Catalytic dehydration of bioethanol to ethylene: pilot-scale studies and process simulation. Chem. Eng. J. 176–177: 188–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.06.049.Suche in Google Scholar

Karvonen, M. and Klemola, K. (2019). Identifying bioethanol technology generations from the patent data. World Patent Inf. 57: 25–34, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpi.2019.03.004.Suche in Google Scholar

Kazi, F.K., Fortman, J.A., Anex, R.P., Hsu, D.D., Aden, A., Dutta, A., and Kothandaraman, G. (2010). Techno-economic comparison of process technologies for biochemical ethanol production from corn stover. Fuel 89: S20–S28, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.01.001.Suche in Google Scholar

Khalid, A., Aslam, M., Qyyum, M.A., Faisal, A., Khan, A.L., Ahmed, F., Lee, M., Kim, J., Jang, N., Chang, I.S., Bazmi, A.A., and Yasin, M. (2019). Membrane separation processes for dehydration of bioethanol from fermentation broths: recent developments, challenges, and prospects. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 105: 427–443, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.02.002.Suche in Google Scholar

Khan, Z., Yusup, S., Aslam, M., Inayat, A., Shahbaz, M., Naqvi, S.R., Farooq, R., and Watson, I. (2019). NO and SO2 emissions in palm kernel shell catalytic steam gasification with in-situ CO2 adsorption for hydrogen production in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasification system. J. Clean. Prod. 236: 117636, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117636.Suche in Google Scholar

Khuong, L.D., Kondo, R., De Leon, R., Kim Anh, T., Shimizu, K., and Kamei, I. (2014). Bioethanol production from alkaline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse by consolidated bioprocessing using Phlebia sp. MG-60. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 88: 62–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2013.12.008.Suche in Google Scholar

Knözinger, H., Bühl, H., and Kochloefl, K. (1972). The dehydration of alcohols on alumina: XIV. Reactivity and mechanism. J. Catal. 24: 57–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9517(72)90007-3.Suche in Google Scholar

Kochar, N.K., Merims, R., and Padia, A.S. (1981). Ethylene from ethanol. Chem. Eng. Prog. 77: 66–70.Suche in Google Scholar

Krokidis, X., Raybaud, P., Gobichon, A.-E., Rebours, B., Euzen, P., and Toulhoat, H. (2001). Theoretical study of the dehydration process of boehmite to γ-alumina. J. Phys. Chem. B 105: 5121–5130, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0038310.Suche in Google Scholar

Kupiec, K., Rakoczy, J., Komorowicz, T., and Larwa, B. (2014). Heat and mass transfer in adsorption–desorption cyclic process for ethanol dehydration. Chem. Eng. J. 241: 485–494, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.10.043.Suche in Google Scholar

Kuznecova, I., Babica, V., Melecis, V., Baranenko, D., Ozarskis, M., and Gusca, J. (2018). Initial indicator analysis of bioethylen production pathways. Energy Procedia 147: 544–548, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.069.Suche in Google Scholar

Le Van Mao, R., Levesque, P., McLaughlin, G., and Dao, L.H. (1987). Ethylene from ethanol over zeolite catalysts. Appl. Catal. 34: 163–179, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0166-9834(00)82453-7.Suche in Google Scholar

Le Van Mao, R., Nguyen, T.M., and McLaughlin, G.P. (1989). The bioethanol-to-ethylene (B.E.T.E.) process. Appl. Catal. 48: 265–277, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0166-9834(00)82798-0.Suche in Google Scholar

Lee, S. and Shah, Y.T. (2013a). Biofuels and Bioenergy: Processes and Technologies. CRC Press: Taylor & Francis Group, United States.10.1201/b12510Suche in Google Scholar

Lee, S. and Shah, Y.T. (2013b). Biofuels and bioenergy: processes and technologies. CRC Press, United States.10.1201/b12510Suche in Google Scholar

Lertsriwong, S., Comwien, J., Chulalaksananukul, W., and Glinwong, C. (2017). Isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria from coconut wastewater factory for ethanol, butanol and 2,3 butanediol production. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 119: 461–466, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.11.020.Suche in Google Scholar

Lin, H.-E. and Ko, A.-N. (2000). Alcohol dehydrations over ZSM-5 Type zeolites, montmorillonite clays and pillared montmorillonites. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 47: 509–518, https://doi.org/10.1002/jccs.200000068.Suche in Google Scholar

Lin, W., Chen, D., Yong, Q., Huang, C., and Huang, S. (2019). Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated bamboo residues using amphiphilic surfactant derived from dehydroabietic acid. Bioresour. Technol. 293: 122055, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122055.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Lloyd, L. (2011). Petrochemical catalysts. In: Handbook of industrial catalysts. Fundamental and applied catalysis. Springer, US, pp. 261–310.10.1007/978-0-387-49962-8_7Suche in Google Scholar

Maaz, M., Yasin, M., Aslam, M., Kumar, G., Atabani, A., Idrees, M., Anjum, F., Jamil, F., Ahmad, R., and Khan, A.L. (2019). Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: novel configurations, fouling control and energy considerations. Bioresour. Technol. 283: 358–372, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.03.061.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Mahmoud, E. and Lobo, R.F. (2014). Recent advances in zeolite science based on advance characterization techniques. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 189: 97–106, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2013.10.024.Suche in Google Scholar

Martínez-Patiño, J.C., Ruiz, E., Cara, C., Romero, I., and Castro, E. (2018). Advanced bioethanol production from olive tree biomass using different bioconversion schemes. Biochem. Eng. J. 137: 172–181, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2018.06.002.Suche in Google Scholar

Martins, L., Cardoso, D., Hammer, P., Garetto, T., Pulcinelli, S.H., and Santilli, C.V. (2011). Efficiency of ethanol conversion induced by controlled modification of pore structure and acidic properties of alumina catalysts. Appl. Catal. Gen. 398: 59–65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2011.03.014.Suche in Google Scholar

Matachowski, L., Drelinkiewicz, A., Lalik, E., Ruggiero-Mikołajczyk, M., Mucha, D., and Kryściak-Czerwenka, J. (2014). Efficient dehydration of ethanol on the self-organized surface layer of H3PW12O40 formed in the acidic potassium tungstophosphates. Appl. Catal. Gen. 469: 290–299, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2013.10.009.Suche in Google Scholar

Millati, R., Cahyono, R.B., Ariyanto, T., Azzahrani, I.N., Putri, R.U., and Taherzadeh, M.J. (2019). Chapter 1: agricultural, industrial, municipal, and forest wastes: an overview. In: Taherzadeh, M.J., Bolton, K., Wong, J., and Pandey, A. (Eds.), Sustainable resource recovery and zero waste approaches. Elsevier, Netherlands, pp. 1–22.Suche in Google Scholar

Min, D.-Y., Xu, R.-S., Hou, Z., Lv, J.-Q., Huang, C.-X., Jin, Y.-C., and Yong, Q. (2015). Minimizing inhibitors during pretreatment while maximizing sugar production in enzymatic hydrolysis through a two-stage hydrothermal pretreatment. Cellulose 22: 1253–1261, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0552-z.Suche in Google Scholar

Mohapatra, S., Mishra, C., Behera, S.S., and Thatoi, H. (2017). Application of pretreatment, fermentation and molecular techniques for enhancing bioethanol production from grass biomass – a review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 78: 1007–1032, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.026.Suche in Google Scholar

Mohsenzadeh, A., Zamani, A., and Taherzadeh, M.J. (2017). Bioethylene production from ethanol: a review and techno-economical evaluation. Chem. BioEng. Reviews 4: 75–91, https://doi.org/10.1002/cben.201600025.Suche in Google Scholar

Moronta, A., Oberto, T., Carruyo, G., Solano, R., Sánchez, J., González, E., and Huerta, L. (2008). Isomerization of 1-butene catalyzed by ion-exchanged, pillared and ion-exchanged/pillared clays. Appl. Catal. Gen. 334: 173–178, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2007.09.043.Suche in Google Scholar

Morschbacker, A. (2009). Bio-ethanol based ethylene. Polym. Rev. 49: 79–84, https://doi.org/10.1080/15583720902834791.Suche in Google Scholar

Motokura, K., Tada, M., and Iwasawa, Y. (2009). Layered materials with coexisting acidic and basic sites for catalytic one-pot reaction sequences. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131: 7944–7945, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja9012003.Suche in Google Scholar

Nagendrappa, G. (2002). Organic synthesis using clay catalysts. Resonance 7: 64–77, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02868200.Suche in Google Scholar

Nagendrappa, G. (2011). Organic synthesis using clay and clay-supported catalysts. Appl. Clay Sci. 53: 106–138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2010.09.016.Suche in Google Scholar

Nguyen, Q.A., Yang, J., and Bae, H.-J. (2017). Bioethanol production from individual and mixed agricultural biomass residues. Ind. Crop. Prod. 95: 718–725, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.11.040.Suche in Google Scholar

Nigam, P.S. and Singh, A. (2011). Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 37: 52–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2010.01.003.Suche in Google Scholar

Njoku, S.I., Iversen, J.A., Uellendahl, H., and Ahring, B.K. (2013). Production of ethanol from hemicellulose fraction of cocksfoot grass using pichia stipitis. Sustain. Chem. Process. 1: 13, https://doi.org/10.1186/2043-7129-1-13.Suche in Google Scholar

O’Connor, P. (2007). Chapter 15: catalytic cracking: the future of an evolving process. In: Ocelli, M.L. (Ed.), Studies in surface science and catalysis. Elsevier, Netherlands, pp. 227–251.10.1016/S0167-2991(07)80198-4Suche in Google Scholar

Okagami, A. and Matsnoka, S. (1970). Process for manufacturing olefins by catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons, United States Patents, Japan.Suche in Google Scholar

Ono, Y. and Baba, T. (1997). Selective reactions over solid base catalysts. Catal. Today 38: 321–337, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0920-5861(97)81502-5.Suche in Google Scholar

Paone, E., Tabanelli, T., and Mauriello, F. (2020). The rise of lignin biorefinery. Current Opinion Green Sustain. Chem. 24: 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsc.2019.11.004.Suche in Google Scholar

Pearson, D.E., Tanner, R.D., Picciotto, I.D., Sawyer, J.S., and Cleveland, J.H. (1981). Phosphoric acid systems. 2. Catalytic conversion of fermentation ethanol to ethylene. Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 20: 734–740, https://doi.org/10.1021/i300004a028.Suche in Google Scholar

Phung, T.K., Lagazzo, A., Rivero Crespo, M.Á., Sánchez Escribano, V., and Busca, G. (2014). A study of commercial transition aluminas and of their catalytic activity in the dehydration of ethanol. J. Catal. 311: 102–113, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2013.11.010.Suche in Google Scholar

Psaras, J.D. and Zahniser, J.A. (1982). Dehydration of ethanol. Google Patents.Suche in Google Scholar

Rahimi, N. and Karimzadeh, R. (2011). Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons over modified ZSM-5 zeolites to produce light olefins: a review. Appl. Catal. Gen. 398: 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2011.03.009.Suche in Google Scholar

Rahmanian, A. and Ghaziaskar, H.S. (2013). Continuous dehydration of ethanol to diethyl ether over aluminum phosphate–hydroxyapatite catalyst under sub and supercritical condition. J. Supercrit. Fluids 78: 34–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2013.03.021.Suche in Google Scholar

Rajakumar, B., Reddy, K.P.J., and Arunan, E. (2003). Thermal decomposition of 2-fluoroethanol: single pulse shock tube and ab initio studies. J. Phys. Chem. 107: 9782–9793, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp027323x.Suche in Google Scholar

Redding, A.P., Wang, Z., Keshwani, D.R., and Cheng, J.J. (2011). High temperature dilute acid pretreatment of coastal Bermuda grass for enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresour. Technol. 102: 1415–1424, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.053.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Rocha-Meneses, L., Raud, M., Orupõld, K., and Kikas, T. (2019). Potential of bioethanol production waste for methane recovery. Energy 173: 133–139, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.02.073.Suche in Google Scholar

Rossetti, I., Compagnoni, M., Finocchio, E., Ramis, G., Di Michele, A., Millot, Y., and Dzwigaj, S. (2017). Ethylene production via catalytic dehydration of diluted bioethanol: a step towards an integrated biorefinery. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 210: 407–420, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.04.007.Suche in Google Scholar

Rossetti, I., Tripodi, A., Bahadori, E., and Ramis, G. (2018). Exploiting diluted bioethanol solutions for the production of ethylene: preliminary process design and heat integration. Chem. Eng. Transact. 65: 73–78 https://doi.org/10.3303/CET1865013.Suche in Google Scholar

Rossetti, I., Tripodi, A., and Ramis, G. (2020). Hydrogen, ethylene and power production from bioethanol: ready for the renewable market?. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 45: 10292–10303, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.07.201.Suche in Google Scholar

Saha, K., R, U.M., Sikder, J., Chakraborty, S., da Silva, S.S., and dos Santos, J.C. (2017). Membranes as a tool to support biorefineries: applications in enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and dehydration for bioethanol production. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 74: 873–890, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.015.Suche in Google Scholar

Saqib, S., Rafiq, S., Chawla, M., Saeed, M., Muhammad, N., Khurram, S., Majeed, K., Khan, A.L., Ghauri, M., and Jamil, F. (2019). Facile CO2 separation in composite membranes. Chem. Eng. Technol. 42: 30–44, https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201700653.Suche in Google Scholar

Sharma, S.K. and Mudhoo, A. (2010). Green chemistry for environmental sustainability. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.10.1201/EBK1439824733Suche in Google Scholar

Sheehan John, J. (1994). Bioconversion for production of renewable transportation fuels in the United States. Enzymatic conversion of biomass for fuels production. ACS Symposium Series: American Chemical Society, pp. 1–52.10.1021/bk-1994-0566.ch001Suche in Google Scholar

Shi, B.C. and Davis, B.H. (1995). Alcohol dehydration: mechanism of ether formation using an alumina catalyst. J. Catal. 157: 359–367, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcat.1995.1301.Suche in Google Scholar

Singh, B., Patial, J., Sharma, P., Agarwal, S.G., Qazi, G.N., and Maity, S. (2007). Influence of acidity of montmorillonite and modified montmorillonite clay minerals for the conversion of longifolene to isolongifolene. J. Mol. Catal. Chem. 266: 215–220, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2006.10.050.Suche in Google Scholar

Smith, M.B. (2006). March’s advanced organic chemistry: reactions, mechanisms, and structure, 6th ed. Wiley & Sons.10.1002/0470084960Suche in Google Scholar

Srirangan, K., Akawi, L., Moo-Young, M., and Chou, C.P. (2012). Towards sustainable production of clean energy carriers from biomass resources. Appl. Energy 100: 172–186, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.05.012.Suche in Google Scholar

Sun, J. and Wang, Y. (2014). Recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to chemicals. ACS Catal. 4: 1078–1090, https://doi.org/10.1021/cs4011343.Suche in Google Scholar

Suzuki, E., Idemura, S., and Ono, Y. (1988). Catalytic conversion of 2-propanol and ethanol over synthetic hectorite and its analogues. Appl. Clay Sci. 3: 123–134, https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-1317(88)90012-9.Suche in Google Scholar

Tahir, Z., Aslam, M., Gilani, M.A., Bilad, M.R., Anjum, M.W., Zhu, L.-P., and Khan, A.L. (2019). SO3H functionalized UiO-66 nanocrystals in Polysulfone based mixed matrix membranes: synthesis and application for efficient CO2 capture. Separ. Purif. Technol. 224: 524–533, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2019.05.060.Suche in Google Scholar

Takezawa, N., Hanamaki, C., and Kobayashi, H. (1975). The mechanism of dehydrogenation of ethanol on magnesium oxide. J. Catal. 38: 101–109, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9517(75)90067-6.Suche in Google Scholar

Tanabe, K., Miscono, M., Ono, Y., and Hatori, H. (1989). New solid acids and bases: their catalytic properties: Elsevier Science.Suche in Google Scholar

Tanaka, K., Koyama, M., Pham, P.T., Rollon, A.P., Habaki, H., Egashira, R., and Nakasaki, K. (2019). Production of high-concentration bioethanol from cassava stem by repeated hydrolysis and intermittent yeast inoculation. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 138: 1–7, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2018.12.007.Suche in Google Scholar

Tarach, K.A., Tekla, J., Filek, U., Szymocha, A., Tarach, I., and Góra-Marek, K. (2017). Alkaline-acid treated zeolite L as catalyst in ethanol dehydration process. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 241: 132–144, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2016.12.035.Suche in Google Scholar

Tenabe, K., Misono, M., Hattori, H., and Ono, Y. (1990). New solid acids and bases: their catalytic properties. Kodansha LTD and Elsevier Science Publishers, Tokyo, Amsterdam.Suche in Google Scholar

Teramura, H., Sasaki, K., Oshima, T., Aikawa, S., Matsuda, F., Okamoto, M., Shirai, T., Kawaguchi, H., Ogino, C., Yamasaki, M., et al. (2015). Changes in lignin and polysaccharide components in 13 cultivars of rice straw following dilute acid pretreatment as studied by solution-state 2D 1H-13C NMR. PLoS One 10: e0128417, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128417.Suche in Google Scholar

Trimm, D.L. and Stanislaus, A. (1986). The control of pore size in alumina catalyst supports: a review. Appl. Catal. 21: 215–238, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0166-9834(00)81356-1.Suche in Google Scholar

Tripodi, A., Belotti, M., and Rossetti, I. (2019). Bioethylene production: from reaction kinetics to plant design. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 7: 13333–13350, https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b02579.Suche in Google Scholar

Trueba, M. and Trasatti, S.P. (2005). γ-Alumina as a support for catalysts: a review of fundamental aspects. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2005: 3393–3403, https://doi.org/10.1002/ejic.200500348.Suche in Google Scholar

Tzeng, J.-H., Weng, C.-H., Huang, J.-W., Lin, Y.-H., Lai, C.-W., and Lin, Y.-T. (2015). Spent tea leaves: a new non-conventional and low-cost biosorbent for ethylene removal. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 104: 67–73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.05.012.Suche in Google Scholar

Ur Rehman, R., Rafiq, S., Muhammad, N., Khan, A.L., Ur Rehman, A., TingTing, L., Saeed, M., Jamil, F., Ghauri, M., and Gu, X. (2017). Development of ethanolamine-based ionic liquid membranes for efficient CO2/CH4 separation. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134: 45395, https://doi.org/10.1002/app.45395.Suche in Google Scholar

U.S. Department of Energy (2011). U.S. Billion-Ton update: biomass supply for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry. R.D. Perlack, and B.J. Stokes (Leads), ORNL/TM-2011/224. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN. p 227.Suche in Google Scholar

Varisli, D., Dogu, T., and Dogu, G. (2007). Ethylene and diethyl-ether production by dehydration reaction of ethanol over different heteropolyacid catalysts. Chem. Eng. Sci. 62: 5349–5352, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2007.01.017.Suche in Google Scholar

Varma, R.S. (2002). Clay and clay-supported reagents in organic synthesis. Tetrahedron 58: 1235–1255, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-4020(01)01216-9.Suche in Google Scholar

Villanueva Perales, A.L., Reyes Valle, C., Ollero, P., and Gómez-Barea, A. (2011). Technoeconomic assessment of ethanol production via thermochemical conversion of biomass by entrained flow gasification. Energy 36: 4097–4108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.04.037.Suche in Google Scholar

Vogels, R.J.M.J., Kloprogge, J.T., and Geus, J.W. (2005). Catalytic activity of synthetic saponite clays: effects of tetrahedral and octahedral composition. J. Catal. 231: 443–452, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2005.02.004.Suche in Google Scholar

Wang, J.A., Bokhimi, X., Morales, A., Novaro, O., López, T., and Gómez, R. (1998). Aluminum local environment and defects in the crystalline structure of sol−gel alumina catalyst. J. Phys. Chem. B 103: 299–303.10.1021/jp983130rSuche in Google Scholar

Winter, O. and Eng, M.-T. (1976). Make ethylene from ethanol. Hydrocarb. Process. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp983130r.Suche in Google Scholar

Xin, H., Li, X., Fang, Y., Yi, X., Hu, W., Chu, Y., Zhang, F., Zheng, A., Zhang, H., and Li, X. (2014). Catalytic dehydration of ethanol over post-treated ZSM-5 zeolites. J. Catal. 312: 204–215, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2014.02.003.Suche in Google Scholar

Xu, X., Almeida, C.D., and Antal, M.J.Jr (1990). Mechanism and kinetics of the acid-catalyzed dehydration of ethanol in supercritical water. J. Supercrit. Fluids 3: 228–232, https://doi.org/10.1016/0896-8446(90)90027-j.Suche in Google Scholar

Yang, P., Leng, L., Tan, G.-Y.A., Dong, C., Leu, S.-Y., Chen, W.-H., and Lee, P.-H. (2018). Upgrading lignocellulosic ethanol for caproate production via chain elongation fermentation. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 135: 103–109, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2018.09.011.Suche in Google Scholar

Yang, P., Tan, G.-Y.A., Aslam, M., Kim, J., and Lee, P.-H. (2019). Metatranscriptomic evidence for classical and RuBisCO-mediated CO2 reduction to methane facilitated by direct interspecies electron transfer in a methanogenic system. Sci. Rep. 9: 4116, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40830-0.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Yaripour, F., Baghaei, F., Schmidt, I., and Perregaard, J. (2005). Synthesis of dimethyl ether from methanol over aluminium phosphate and silica–titania catalysts. Catal. Commun. 6: 542–549, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catcom.2005.05.003.Suche in Google Scholar

Yasin, M., Jang, N., Lee, M., Kang, H., Aslam, M., Bazmi, A.A., and Chang, I.S. (2019). Bioreactors, gas delivery systems and supporting technologies for microbial synthesis gas conversion process. Bioresource Technology Reports 7: 100207, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biteb.2019.100207.Suche in Google Scholar

Young, L.B., Butter, S.A., and Kaeding, W.W. (1982). Shape selective reactions with zeolite catalysts: III. Selectivity in xylene isomerization, toluene-methanol alkylation, and toluene disproportionation over ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts. J. Catal. 76: 418–432, https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9517(82)90271-8.Suche in Google Scholar

Zaki, T. (2005). Catalytic dehydration of ethanol using transition metal oxide catalysts. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 284: 606–613, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.10.048.Suche in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhang, M. and Yu, Y. (2013). Dehydration of ethanol to ethylene. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52: 9505–9514, https://doi.org/10.1021/ie401157c.Suche in Google Scholar

Zhang, X., Wang, R., Yang, X., and Zhang, F. (2008). Comparison of four catalysts in the catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 116: 210–215, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2008.04.004.Suche in Google Scholar

Zhou, J., Li, W., Zhang, Z., Wu, X., Xing, W., and Zhuo, S. (2013). Effect of cation nature of zeolite on carbon replicas and their electrochemical capacitance. Electrochim. Acta 89: 763–770, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2012.11.068.Suche in Google Scholar

Zhou, Y., Chen, Z., Gong, H., Chen, L., Yu, H., and Wu, W. (2019). Characteristics of dehydration during rice husk pyrolysis and catalytic mechanism of dehydration reaction with NiO/γ-Al2O3 as catalyst. Fuel 245: 131–138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.02.059.Suche in Google Scholar

Zhu, L.D., Hiltunen, E., Antila, E., Zhong, J.J., Yuan, Z.H., and Wang, Z.M. (2014). Microalgal biofuels: flexible bioenergies for sustainable development. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 30: 1035–1046, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.11.003.Suche in Google Scholar

Zhu, Z., Simister, R., Bird, S., McQueen-Mason, S.J., Gomez, L.D., and Macquarrie, D. (2015). Microwave assisted acid and alkali pretreatment of Miscanthus biomass for biorefineries. AIMS Bioengineering 2: 449–468, https://doi.org/10.3934/bioeng.2015.4.449.Suche in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-05-16
Accepted: 2020-06-06
Published Online: 2020-08-31
Published in Print: 2022-02-23

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston