Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published online by De Gruyter August 4, 2020

Kinetics of leaching: a review

Fariborz Faraji, Amirhossein Alizadeh, Fereshteh Rashchi and Navid Mostoufi

Abstract

Kinetics, as a fundamental requirement of nearly all industrial activities and engineering researches, plays a great role in leaching processes. Although there are many pieces of research on its application, there is not a clear pathway for investigating the kinetics of leaching and researchers usually follow different strategies in their studies. The conventional investigation techniques, which usually do not consider the mixed mechanisms and possibility of any change in the mechanism, normally include many calculations, plots, and inadequate capabilities to detect changes in the controlling mechanism of leaching. In this review, the main mathematical models of leaching and all possible scenarios are presented and discussed. The effect of various leaching parameters (including leaching agent, temperature, particle size, agitation, and solid to liquid ratio) on the rate of dissolution is summarized. Besides, two main approaches of rate determination step (single controlling mechanism and combined resistances method) are described and compared by reporting related equations and suitable examples. A technique to detect any changes in the leaching controlling mechanism is introduced and the alternatives to confirm the results are described. Additional models and equations were suggested for the cases that there is no agreement between data and the conventional models. Also, situations which are ignored in simple models (e.g., reversibility of the leaching reactions, adsorption and desorption of leached species, influence of charge and surface potential, existence of multiple reactants in the solid, galvanic effect, wide particle size distribution, etc.) to develop more legalistic models are discussed. Considering various possible mechanisms in the kinetics of leaching, equations are derived for industrial leaching reactors.


Corresponding author: Fereshteh Rashchi, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran, Iran, E-mail:

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.

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Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (https://doi.org/10.1515/revce-2019-0073).

Received: 2019-10-26
Accepted: 2020-04-29
Published Online: 2020-08-04

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston