Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 4, 2020

Kinetics of leaching: a review

Fariborz Faraji , Amirhossein Alizadeh , Fereshteh Rashchi EMAIL logo and Navid Mostoufi


Kinetics, as a fundamental requirement of nearly all industrial activities and engineering researches, plays a great role in leaching processes. Although there are many pieces of research on its application, there is not a clear pathway for investigating the kinetics of leaching and researchers usually follow different strategies in their studies. The conventional investigation techniques, which usually do not consider the mixed mechanisms and possibility of any change in the mechanism, normally include many calculations, plots, and inadequate capabilities to detect changes in the controlling mechanism of leaching. In this review, the main mathematical models of leaching and all possible scenarios are presented and discussed. The effect of various leaching parameters (including leaching agent, temperature, particle size, agitation, and solid to liquid ratio) on the rate of dissolution is summarized. Besides, two main approaches of rate determination step (single controlling mechanism and combined resistances method) are described and compared by reporting related equations and suitable examples. A technique to detect any changes in the leaching controlling mechanism is introduced and the alternatives to confirm the results are described. Additional models and equations were suggested for the cases that there is no agreement between data and the conventional models. Also, situations which are ignored in simple models (e.g., reversibility of the leaching reactions, adsorption and desorption of leached species, influence of charge and surface potential, existence of multiple reactants in the solid, galvanic effect, wide particle size distribution, etc.) to develop more legalistic models are discussed. Considering various possible mechanisms in the kinetics of leaching, equations are derived for industrial leaching reactors.

Corresponding author: Fereshteh Rashchi, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran, Iran, E-mail:

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


Aarabi-Karasgani, M., Rashchi, F., Mostoufi, N., and Vahidi, E. (2010). Leaching of vanadium from LD converter slag using sulfuric acid. Hydrometallurgy 102: 14–21, in Google Scholar

Abali, Y., Bayca, S.U., and Mistincik, E. (2006). Kinetics of oxalic acid leaching of tincal. Chem. Eng. J. 123: 25–30, in Google Scholar

Abdel-Aal, E.A. (2000). Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of low-grade zinc silicate ore. Hydrometallurgy 55: 247–254, in Google Scholar

Agatzini-Leonardou, S. and Zafiratos, I.G. (2004). Beneficiation of a Greek serpentinic nickeliferous ore Part II. Sulphuric acid heap and agitation leaching. Hydrometallurgy 74: 267–275, in Google Scholar

Ahmadi, A., Ranjbar, M., Schaffie, M., and Petersen, J. (2012). Kinetic modeling of bioleaching of copper sulfide concentrates in conventional and electrochemically controlled systems. Hydrometallurgy 127: 16–23, in Google Scholar

Ahuja, S. (2009). Handbook of water purity and quality, 1st ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.Search in Google Scholar

Ajiboye, E.A., Panda, P.K., Adebayo, A.O., Ajayi, O.O., Tripathy, B.C., Ghosh, M.K., and Basu, S. (2019). Leaching kinetics of Cu, Ni and Zn from waste silica rich integrated circuits using mild nitric acid. Hydrometallurgy 188: 161–168, in Google Scholar

Astuti, W., Hirajima, T., Sasaki, K., and Okibe, N. (2016). Comparison of atmospheric citric acid leaching kinetics of nickel from different Indonesian saprolitic ores. Hydrometallurgy 161: 138–151, in Google Scholar

Avvaru, B., Roy, S.B., Chowdhury, S., Hareendran, K.N., and Pandit, A.B. (2006). Enhancement of the leaching rate of uranium in the presence of ultrasound. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 45: 7639–7648, in Google Scholar

Behera, S.S. and Parhi, P.K. (2016). Leaching kinetics study of neodymium from the scrap magnet using acetic acid. Separ. Purif. Technol. 160: 59–66, in Google Scholar

Bennett, C.R., McBride, D., Cross, M., and Gebhardt, J.E. (2012). A comprehensive model for copper sulphide heap leaching: part 1 basic formulation and validation through column test simulation. Hydrometallurgy 127: 150–161, in Google Scholar

Bidari, E. and Aghazadeh, V. (2015). Investigation of copper ammonia leaching from smelter slags: characterization, leaching and kinetics. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46: 2305–2314, in Google Scholar

Biegler, T. and Swift, D.A. (1979). Anodic electrochemistry of chalcopyrite. J. Appl. Electrochem. 9: 545–554, in Google Scholar

Bouffard, S.C. (2003). Understanding the heap biooxidation of sulfidic refractory gold ores, Doctoral dissertation. Columbia, University of British Columbia.Search in Google Scholar

Bouffard, S.C. and Dixon, D.G. (2007). Evaluation of kinetic and diffusion phenomena in cyanide leaching of crushed and run-of-mine gold ores. Hydrometallurgy 86: 63–71, in Google Scholar

Bouffard, S.C., Rivera-Vasquez, B.F., and Dixon, D.G. (2006). Leaching kinetics and stoichiometry of pyrite oxidation from a pyrite–marcasite concentrate in acid ferric sulfate media. Hydrometallurgy 84: 225–238, in Google Scholar

Boukerche, I., Habbache, N., Alane, N., Djerad, S., and Tifouti, L. (2010). Dissolution of cobalt from CoO/Al2O3 catalyst with mineral acids. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49: 6514–6520, in Google Scholar

Brantley, S., Kubicki, J., and White, A. (2007). Kinetics of water-rock interaction. Springer, New York, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Brewer, R.E. (2004). Copper concentrate pressure leaching—plant scale-up from continuous laboratory testing. MME 21: 202–208, in Google Scholar

Butt, J.B. (2000). Reaction kinetics and reactor design chemical industries, 2nd ed. New York: CRC Press.10.1201/9781482293234Search in Google Scholar

Calban, T., Kaynarca, B., Kuşlu, S., and Colak, S. (2014). Leaching kinetics of chevreul’s salt in hydrochloric acid solutions. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20: 1141–1147, in Google Scholar

Chen, M., Huang, J., Ogunseitan, O.A., Zhu, N., and Wang, Y. (2015). Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids. Waste Manag. 41: 142–147, in Google Scholar PubMed

Chirita, P., Popa, I., Duinea, M.I., and Schlegel, M.L. (2014). Electrochemical investigation of the mechanism of aqueous oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. Procedia Earth Planet Sci. 10: 154–158, in Google Scholar

Coker, A.K. (2001). Modeling of chemical kinetics and reactor design. Gulf Professional Publishing, Texas, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Cordoba, E.M., Munoz, J.A., Blazquez, M.L., Gonzalez, F., and Ballester, A. (2008). Leaching of chalcopyrite with ferric ion. Part II: effect of redox potential. Hydrometallurgy 93: 88–96, in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. and Bryson, A.W. (1992). The modelling of particulate leaching reactors—the population balance approach. Hydrometallurgy 29: 275–295, in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. (1994). Micro-mixing in continuous particulate reactors. Chem. Eng. Sci. 49: 3887–3896, in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. (1995). Progress in the mathematical modelling of leaching reactors. Hydrometallurgy 39: 321–335, in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. (2000). Modeling, simulation, and optimization of bacterial leaching reactors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 71: 255–265,<255::aid-bit1015>;2-9.10.1002/1097-0290(2000)71:4<255::AID-BIT1015>3.0.CO;2-9Search in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. (2013). The dissolution and leaching of minerals: mechanisms, myths and misunderstandings. Hydrometallurgy 139: 132–148, in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. (2014). The mechanism of dissolution of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions: part I—a new theory of non-oxidation dissolution. Hydrometallurgy 149: 252–264, in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. (2015). The mechanism of dissolution of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions: part IV equilibrium and near-equilibrium behaviour. Hydrometallurgy 153: 46–57, in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. (2016a). The mechanism of dissolution of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions: part V surface charge and zeta potential. Hydrometallurgy 161: 174–184, in Google Scholar

Crundwell, F.K. (2016b). The mechanism of dissolution of minerals in acidic and alkaline solutions: part VI a molecular viewpoint. Hydrometallurgy 161: 34–44, in Google Scholar

de Andrade Lima, L.R.P. and Hodouin, D. (2005a). Optimization of reactor volumes for gold cyanidation. Miner. Eng. 18: 671–679, in Google Scholar

de Andrade Lima, L.R.P. and Hodouin, D. (2005b). Residence time distribution of an industrial mechanically agitated cyanidation tank. Miner. Eng. 18: 613–621, in Google Scholar

Czech, E. and Troczynski, T. (2010). Hydrogen generation through massive corrosion of deformed aluminum in water. Int. J. Hydrogen Energ. 35: 1029–1037, in Google Scholar

Ding, Z., Yin, Z., Wu, X., Hu, H., and Chen, Q. (2011). Leaching kinetics of willemite in ammonia ammonium chloride solution. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 42: 633–641, in Google Scholar

Dixon, D. and Hendrix, J. (1993a). A general model for leaching of one or more solid reactants from porous ore particles. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 24: 157–169, in Google Scholar

Dixon, D. and Hendrix, L. (1993b). Theoretical basis for variable order assumption in the kinetics of leaching of discrete grains. AIChE J. 39: 904–907, in Google Scholar

Dixon, D.G. (1992). Predicting the kinetics of heap leaching with unsteady-state models, Doctoral dissertation. Reno, University of Nevada.Search in Google Scholar

Dixon, D.G. (1996). The multiple convolution integral: a new method for modeling multistage continuous leaching reactors. Chem. Eng. Sci. 51: 4759–4767, in Google Scholar

Elik, A. (2007). Ultrasonic assisted leaching of trace metals from sediments as a function of pH. Talanta 71: 790–794, in Google Scholar PubMed

El-Mahdy, G.A. and Mahmoud, S.S. (1998). Effect of different acid anions on kinetics of the formation and dissolution behavior of anodic zirconium oxide. Corrosion 54: 354–361, in Google Scholar

Espiari, S., Rashchi, F., and Sadrnezhaad, S.K. (2006). Hydrometallurgical treatment of tailings with high zinc content. Hydrometallurgy 82: 54–62, in Google Scholar

Faraji, F., Golmohammadzadeh, R., Rashchi, F., and Alimardani, N. (2018). Fungal bioleaching of WPCBs using Aspergillus niger: observation, optimization and kinetics. J. Environ. Manag. 217: 775–787, in Google Scholar

Ferdowsi, A. and Yoozbashizadeh, H. (2017). Process optimization and kinetics for leaching of cerium, lanthanum and neodymium elements from iron ore wastes apatite by nitric acid. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 27: 420–428, in Google Scholar

Ferrier, R.J., Cai, L., Lin, Q., Gorman, G.J., and Neethling, S.J. (2016). Models for apparent reaction kinetics in heap leaching: a new semi-empirical approach and its comparison to shrinking core and other particle-scale models. Hydrometallurgy 166: 22–33, in Google Scholar

Fogler, H.S. (2016). Elements of chemical reaction engineering, 5th ed. Indiana, USA: Prentice-Hall.Search in Google Scholar

Froment, G.F. and Bischoff, K.B. (1990). Chemical reactor analysis and design, 2nd ed. New York, USA: Wiley.Search in Google Scholar

Frossling, N. (1938). Uber die Verdunstung Fallernder Tropfen. Gerl. Beitrage Geophys. 52: 170–216.Search in Google Scholar

Frugier, P., Martin, C., Ribet, I., Advocat, T., and Gin, S. (2005). The effect of composition on the leaching of three nuclear waste glasses: R7T7, AVM and VRZ. J. Nucl. Mater. 346: 194–207, in Google Scholar

Gaskell, D.R. (2018). Introduction to the thermodynamics of materials, 5th ed. New York, USA: Taylor & Francis.Search in Google Scholar

Gbor, P.K. and Jia, C.Q. (2004). Critical evaluation of coupling particle size distribution with the shrinking core model. Chem. Eng. Sci. 59: 1979–1987, in Google Scholar

Georgiou, D. and Papangelakis, V.G. (1998). Sulphuric acid pressure leaching of a limonitic laterite: chemistry and kinetics. Hydrometallurgy 49: 23–46, in Google Scholar

Ghahremaninezhad, A., Dixon, D.G., and Asselin, E. (2012). Kinetics of the ferric–ferrous couple on anodically passivated chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) electrodes. Hydrometallurgy 125: 42–49, in Google Scholar

Gharabaghi, M., Noaparast, M., and Irannajad, M. (2009). Selective leaching kinetics of low-grade calcareous phosphate ore in acetic acid. Hydrometallurgy 95: 341–345, in Google Scholar

Gharabaghi, M., Irannajad, M., and Azadmehr, A.R. (2013). Leaching kinetics of nickel extraction from hazardous waste by sulphuric acid and optimization dissolution conditions. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 91: 325–331, in Google Scholar

Ghasemi, S.M.S. and Azizi, A. (2018). Alkaline leaching of lead and zinc by sodium hydroxide: kinetics modeling. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 7: 118–125, in Google Scholar

Gilligan, R. and Nikoloski, A.N. (2017). Alkaline leaching of brannerite. Part 1: kinetics, reaction mechanisms and mineralogical transformations. Hydrometallurgy 169: 399–410, in Google Scholar

Golmohammadzadeh, R., Rashchi, F., and Vahidi, E. (2017). Recovery of lithium and cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries using organic acids: process optimization and kinetic aspects. Waste Manag. 64: 244–254, in Google Scholar

Golmohammadzadeh, R., Faraji, F., and Rashchi, F. (2018). Recovery of lithium and cobalt from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using organic acids as leaching reagents: a review. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 136: 418–435, in Google Scholar

Golpaygani, M.H. and Abdollahzadeh, A.A. (2017). Optimization of operating parameters and kinetics for chloride leaching of lead from melting furnace slag. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 27: 2704–2714, in Google Scholar

Guliyev, R., Kuşlu, S., Çalban, T., and Çolak, S. (2012). Leaching kinetics of colemanite in potassium hydrogen sulphate solutions. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18: 38–44, in Google Scholar

Habashi, F. (1999). Kinetics of metallurgical processes. Metallurgie Extractive Quebec, Québec City, Canada.Search in Google Scholar

Habbache, N., Alane, N., Djerad, S., and Tifouti, L. (2009). Leaching of copper oxide with different acid solutions. Chem. Eng. J. 152: 503–508, in Google Scholar

Hackl, R.P., Dreisinger, D.B., Peters, E., and King, J.A. (1995). Passivation of chalcopyrite during oxidative leaching in sulfate media. Hydrometallurgy 39: 25–48, in Google Scholar

Harriott, P. (2003). Chemical reactor design. CRC Press, New York, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Hashemzadeh, M., Dixon, D.G., and Liu, W. (2019a). Modelling the kinetics of chalcocite leaching in acidified ferric chloride media under fully controlled pH and potential. Hydrometallurgy 186: 275–283, in Google Scholar

Hashemzadeh, M., Dixon, D.G., and Liu, W. (2019b). Modelling the kinetics of chalcocite leaching in acidified cupric chloride media under fully controlled pH and potential. Hydrometallurgy 189: 105114, in Google Scholar

Heidi, M., Sigmund, F., Daniel, V., Tapio, S., Dmitry, Y.M., and Marko, L. (2004). Reduction of ferric to ferrous with sphalerite concentrate kinetic modeling. Hydrometallurgy 73: 269–282, in Google Scholar

Hill, C.G. (1977). An introduction to chemical engineering kinetics and reactor design, 1st ed. New York, USA: Wiley.Search in Google Scholar

Holmes, P.R. and Crundwell, F.K. (2000). The kinetics of the oxidation of pyrite by ferric iron and dissolved oxygen: an electrochemical study. Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta 64: 263–274, in Google Scholar

Holze, R. (2007). Electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, 1st ed. Berlin Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Science and Business Media.Search in Google Scholar

House, J.E. (2007). Principles of chemical kinetics, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

Jiang, T., Yang, Y., Huang, Z., and Zhang, B. (2002). Kinetics of silver leaching from manganese-silver associated ores in sulfuric acid solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 33: 813–816, in Google Scholar

Ju, Z.J., Wang, C.Y., and Yin, F. (2015). Dissolution kinetics of vanadium from black shale by activated sulfuric acid leaching in atmosphere pressure. Int. J. Miner. Process. 138: 1–5, in Google Scholar

Jung, M. and Mishra, B. (2016). Recovery of aluminum from the aluminum smelter baghouse dust. In: Kirchain, R. E., Blanpain, B., Meskers, C. (Eds.), REWAS 2016 towards materials resource sustainability. Texas, U.S.A: Springer, pp. 255–260.10.1002/9781119275039.ch39Search in Google Scholar

Karagöz, Ö., Çopur, M., and Kocakerim, M.M. (2018). Kinetic analysis of retention of SO2 using waste ulexite ore in an aqueous medium. J. Hazard. Mater. 353: 214–226, in Google Scholar

Karimi, S., Rashchi, F., and Moghaddam, J. (2017). Parameters optimization and kinetics of direct atmospheric leaching of Angouran sphalerite. Int. J. Miner. Process. 162: 58–68, in Google Scholar

Kim, C.J., Yoon, H.S., Chung, K.W., Lee, J.Y., Kim, S.D., Shin, S.M., Lee, S.J., Joe, A.R., Lee, S.I., Yoo, S.J., et al. (2014). Leaching kinetics of lanthanum in sulfuric acid from rare earth element (REE) slag. Hydrometallurgy 146: 133–137, in Google Scholar

Kocan, F. and Hicsonmez, U. (2019). Leaching kinetics of celestite in nitric acid solutions. Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 26: 11–20, in Google Scholar

Künkül, A., Kocakerim, M.M., Yapici, S., and Demirbaǧ, A. (1994). Leaching kinetics of malachite in ammonia solutions. Int. J. Miner. Process. 41: 167–182, in Google Scholar

Kumari, A., Sinha, M.K., Pramanik, S., and Sahu, S.K. (2018). Recovery of rare earths from spent NdFeB magnets of wind turbine: leaching and kinetic aspects. Waste Manag. 75: 486–498, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lampinen, M., Seisko, S., Forsstrom, O., Laari, A., Aromaa, J., Lundstrom, M., and Koiranen, T. (2017). Mechanism and kinetics of gold leaching by cupric chloride. Hydrometallurgy 169: 103–111, in Google Scholar

Lasheen, T.A., El Hazek, M.N., and Helal, A.S. (2009). Kinetics of reductive leaching of manganese oxide ore with molasses in nitric acid solution. Hydrometallurgy 98: 314–317, in Google Scholar

Lazaro, A., Benac-Vegas, L., Brouwers, H.J.H., Geus, J.W., and Bastida, J. (2015). The kinetics of the dissolution of olivine under the extreme conditions of nano silica production. J. Appl. Geochem. 52: 1–15, in Google Scholar

Lekakh, S.N., Rawlins, C.H., Robertson, D.G.C., Richards, V.L., and Peaslee, K.D. (2008). Kinetics of aqueous leaching and carbonization of steelmaking slag. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 39: 125–134, in Google Scholar

Leoni, T.M., Smith, A.J., and Wainwright, M.S. (2010). Leaching kinetics of Fe2Al5 and skeletal iron formation. Top. Catal. 53: 1166–1171, in Google Scholar

Levenspiel, O. (1999). Chemical reaction engineering, 3rd ed. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.Search in Google Scholar

Li, C., Xie, F., Ma, Y., Cai, T., Li, H., Huang, Z., and Yuan, G. (2010). Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching. J. Hazard. Mater. 178: 823–833, in Google Scholar PubMed

Li, M.T., Wei, C., Zhou, X.J., Qiu, S., Deng, Z.G., and Li, X.B. (2012). Kinetics of vanadium leaching from black shale in non-oxidative conditions. Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. 121: 40–47, in Google Scholar

Li, Y., Kawashima, N., Li, J., Chandra, A.P., and Gerson, A.R. (2013). A review of the structure, and fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the leaching of chalcopyrite. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 197: 1–32, in Google Scholar PubMed

Li, Q., Liu, Z., and Liu, Q. (2014). Kinetics of vanadium leaching from a spent industrial V2O5/TiO2 catalyst by sulfuric acid. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53: 2956–2962, in Google Scholar

Li, M., Zheng, S., Liu, B., Du, H., Dreisinger, D.B., Tafaghodi, L., and Zhang, Y. (2017). The leaching kinetics of cadmium from hazardous Cu-Cd zinc plant residues. Waste Manag. 65: 128–138, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lin, Q., Barker, D.J., Dobson, K.J., Lee, P.D., and Neethling, S.J. (2016). Modelling particle scale leach kinetics based on X-ray computed micro-tomography images. Hydrometallurgy 162: 25–36, in Google Scholar

Lin, M., Liu, Y.Y., Lei, S.M., Ye, Z., Pei, Z.Y., and Li, B. (2018). High-efficiency extraction of Al from coal-series kaolinite and its kinetics by calcination and pressure acid leaching. Appl. Clay Sci. 161: 215–224, in Google Scholar

Liu, Z., Yin, Z., Hu, H., and Chen, Q. (2012). Leaching kinetics of low-grade copper ore with high-alkality gangues in ammonia-ammonium sulphate solution. J. Cent. S. Univ. 19: 77–84, in Google Scholar

Luo, M.J., Liu, C.L., Xue, J., Li, P., and Yu, J.G. (2017). Leaching kinetics and mechanism of alunite from alunite tailings in highly concentrated KOH solution. Hydrometallurgy 174: 10–20, in Google Scholar

Luyben, W.L. (2007). Chemical reactor design and control. Wiley, New Jersey.10.1002/9780470134917Search in Google Scholar

Ma, J., Zhang, Y., Qin, Y., Wu, Z., Wang, T., and Wang, C. (2017). The leaching kinetics of K-feldspar in sulfuric acid with the aid of ultrasound. Ultrason. Sonochem. 35: 304–312, in Google Scholar PubMed

Madakkaruppan, V., Pius, A., Sreenivas, T., Giri, N., and Sarbajna, C. (2016). Influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of uraninite from a low grade ore in dilute sulfuric acid. J. Hazard. Mater. 313: 9–17, in Google Scholar PubMed

Makanyire, T., Jha, A., and Sutcliffe, S. (2016). Kinetics of hydrochloric acid leaching of niobium from TiO2 residues. Int. J. Miner. Process. 157: 1–6, in Google Scholar

Marafi, M. and Stanislaus, A. (2016). Waste catalyst utilization: extraction of valuable metals from spent hydroprocessing catalysts by ultrasonic-assisted leaching with acids. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50: 9495–9501, in Google Scholar

Mason, T.J., Collings, A., and Sumel, A. (2004). Sonic and ultrasonic removal of chemical contaminants from soil in the laboratory and on a large scale. Ultrason. Sonochem. 11: 205–210, in Google Scholar PubMed

Matlosz, M. and Division, E.S.E. (2000). Fundamental aspects of electrochemical deposition and dissolution. Proceedings of the international symposium in electrochemical society. New Jersy, USA: Electrochemical Society.Search in Google Scholar

May, N., Ralph, D.E., and Hansford, G.S. (1997). Dynamic redox potential measurement for determining the ferric leach kinetics of pyrite. Miner. Eng. 10: 1279–1290, in Google Scholar

McBride, D., Gebhardt, J., Croft, N., and Cross, M. (2018). Heap leaching: modelling and forecasting using CFD technology. Minerals 8: 9, in Google Scholar

McDuffie, N.G. (2013). Bioreactor design fundamentals. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.Search in Google Scholar

Menendez, J.A., Arenillas, A., Fidalgo, B., Fernandez, Y., Zubizarreta, L., Calvo, E.G., and Bermudez, J.M. (2010). Microwave heating processes involving carbon materials. Fuel Process. Technol. 91: 1–8, in Google Scholar

Menezes, P.L., Nosonovsky, M., Ingole, S.P., Kailas, S.V., and Lovell, M.R. (2013). Tribology for scientists and engineers: from basics to advanced concepts. Springer, New York, USA.10.1007/978-1-4614-1945-7Search in Google Scholar

Meng, Q., Zhang, Y., Dong, P., and Liang, F. (2018). A novel process for leaching of metals from LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material of spent lithium ion batteries: process optimization and kinetics aspects. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 61: 133–141, in Google Scholar

Meshram, P., Pandey, B.D., and Mankhand, T.R. (2015). Hydrometallurgical processing of spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the presence of a reducing agent with emphasis on kinetics of leaching. Chem. Eng. J. 281: 418–427, in Google Scholar

Meshram, P., Pandey, B.D., and Mankhand, T.R. (2016). Process optimization and kinetics for leaching of rare earth metals from the spent Ni–metal hydride batteries. Waste Manag. 51: 196–203, in Google Scholar

Meyers, R.A. (1987). Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. Academic Press, San Diego.Search in Google Scholar

Mirazimi, S.M.J., Rashchi, F., Vahidi, E., and Mostoufi, N. (2016). Optimization and dissolution kinetics of vanadium recovery from LD converter slag in alkaline media. Russ. J. Non-Ferrous Metals 57: 395–404, in Google Scholar

Missen, R.W., Mims, C.A., and Saville, B.A. (1999). Introduction to chemical reaction engineering and kinetics. Wiley, New York, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Mostafavi, M., Mirazimi, S.M.J., Rashchi, F., Faraji, F., and Mostoufi, N. (2018). Bioleaching and kinetic investigation of WPCBs by A. ferrooxidans, A. thiooxidans and their mixtures. J. Chem. Petrol. Eng. 52: 81–91.Search in Google Scholar

Mu, W., Lu, X., Cui, F., Luo, S., and Zhai, Y. (2018). Transformation and leaching kinetics of silicon from low-grade nickel laterite ore by pre-roasting and alkaline leaching process. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 28: 169–176, in Google Scholar

Naderi, H., Abdollahy, M., Mostoufi, N., Koleini, M.J., Shojaosadati, S.A., and Manafi, Z. (2011). Kinetics of chemical leaching of chalcopyrite from low grade copper ore: behavior of different size fractions. Int. J Miner. Metall. Mater. 18: 638–645, in Google Scholar

Nauman, B. (2001). Handbook of chemical reactor design, optimization, and scaleup. McGraw-Hill Handbooks. McGraw-Hill Education, New York.Search in Google Scholar

Nauman, E.B. (2008). Chemical reactor design, optimization, and scaleup. Wiley InterScience Online books, Wiley, New York, USA.10.1002/9780470282076Search in Google Scholar

Navarro, R., Guzman, J., Saucedo, I., Revilla, J., and Guibal, E. (2007). Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes. Waste Manag. 27: 425–438, in Google Scholar

Nazemi, M.K., Rashchi, F., and Mostoufi, N. (2011). A new approach for identifying the rate controlling step applied to the leaching of nickel from spent catalyst. Int. J. Miner. Process. 100: 21–26, in Google Scholar

Nicol, M.J. (1993). 4th international symposium on hydrometallurgy: the role of electrochemistry in hydrometallurgy. AIME, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Nikolic, I., Drincic, A., Djurovic, D., Karanovic, L., Radmilovic, V.V., and Radmilovic, V.R. (2016). Kinetics of electric arc furnace slag leaching in alkaline solutions. Construct. Build. Mater. 108: 1–9, in Google Scholar

Oelkers, E.H. and Gislason, S.R. (2001). The mechanism, rates and consequences of basaltic glass dissolution: I. an experimental study of the dissolution rates of basaltic glass as a function of aqueous Al, Si and oxalic acid concentration at 25 C and pH = 3 and 11. Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta 65: 3671–3681, in Google Scholar

Olvera, O.G., Rebolledo, M., and Asselin, E. (2016). Atmospheric ferric sulfate leaching of chalcopyrite: thermodynamics, kinetics and electrochemistry. Hydrometallurgy 165: 148–158, in Google Scholar

Oxtoby, D.W., Gillis, H.P., and Butler, L.J. (2015). Principles of modern chemistry, Hybrid ed. Boston, USA: Nelson Education.Search in Google Scholar

Padilla, R., Opazo, C., and Ruiz, M.C. (2015). Kinetics of copper removal from sulfidized molybdenite concentrates by pressure leaching. Metall. Mater. Trans. B 46: 30–37, in Google Scholar

Perry, R.H., Green, D.W., and Maloney, J.O. (1997). Perry's chemical engineers' handbook, 7th ed. New York, USA: Mc Graw-Hills.Search in Google Scholar

Peters, N.E., Allan, R., Allan, R.J., and Tsirkunov, V.V. (1994). Hydrological, chemical and biological processes of transformation and transport of contaminants in aquatic environments. IAHS Publication, Wallingford UK.Search in Google Scholar

Petersen, J. and Dixon, D.G. (2002). Thermophilic heap leaching of a chalcopyrite concentrate. Miner. Eng. 15: 777–785, in Google Scholar

Petersen, J. and Dixon, D.G. (2007). Modelling zinc heap bioleaching. Hydrometallurgy 85: 127–143, in Google Scholar

Provis, J.L., Van Deventer, J.S.J., Rademan, J.A.M., and Lorenzen, L. (2003). A kinetic model for the acid-oxygen pressure leaching of Ni–Cu matte. Hydrometallurgy 70: 83–99, in Google Scholar

Ramos-Cano, J., Gonzalez Zamarripa, G., Carrillo Pedroza, F.R., Soria Aguilar, M.D.J., Hurtado Macías, A., and Cano Vielma, A. (2016). Kinetics and statistical analysis of nickel leaching from spent catalyst in nitric acid solution. Int. J. Miner. Process. 148: 41–47, in Google Scholar

Randhawa, N.S., Gharami, K., and Kumar, M. (2016). Leaching kinetics of spent nickel–cadmium battery in sulphuric acid. Hydrometallurgy 165: 191–198, in Google Scholar

Relwani, L., Krishna, P., and Reddy, S.M. (2008). Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on phosphate solubilization by a wild-type strain and UV-induced mutants of Aspergillus tubingensis. Curr. Microbiol. 57: 401–406, in Google Scholar

Sadeghi, N., Moghaddam, J., and Ojaghi Ilkhchi, M. (2017). Kinetics of zinc sulfide concentrate direct leaching in pilot plant scale and development of semi-empirical model. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 27: 2272–2281, in Google Scholar

Safari, V., Arzpeyma, G., Rashchi, F., and Mostoufi, N. (2009). A shrinking particle-shrinking core model for leaching of a zinc ore containing silica. Int. J. Miner. Process. 93: 79–83, in Google Scholar

Safarzadeh, M.S., Moradkhani, D., and Ojaghi-Ilkhchi, M. (2009). Kinetics of sulfuric acid leaching of cadmium from Cd–Ni zinc plant residues. J. Hazard. Mater. 163: 880–890, in Google Scholar PubMed

Sasikumar, C., Rao, D.S., Srikanth, S., Mukhopadhyay, N.K., and Mehrotra, S.P. (2007). Dissolution studies of mechanically activated Manavalakurichi ilmenite with HCl and H2SO4. Hydrometallurgy 88: 154–169, in Google Scholar

Seisko, S., Lampinen, M., Aromaa, J., Laari, A., Koiranen, T., and Lundström, M. (2018). Kinetics and mechanisms of gold dissolution by ferric chloride leaching. Miner. Eng. 115: 131–141, in Google Scholar

Skrobian, M., Havlik, T., and Ukasik, M. (2005). Effect of NaCl concentration and particle size on chalcopyrite leaching in cupric chloride solution. Hydrometallurgy 77: 109–114, in Google Scholar

Soustelle, M. (2011). An introduction to chemical kinetics. Wiley InterScience online books. Wiley, New York, USA.10.1002/9781118604243Search in Google Scholar

Souza, A.D., Pina, P.S., Leao, V.A., Silva, C.A., and de Siqueira, P. F. (2007a). The leaching kinetics of a zinc sulphide concentrate in acid ferric sulphate. Hydrometallurgy 89: 72–81, in Google Scholar

Souza, A.D., Pina, P.S., Lima, E.V.O., da Silva, C.A., and Leao, V.A. (2007b). Kinetics of sulphuric acid leaching of a zinc silicate calcine. Hydrometallurgy 89: 337–345, in Google Scholar

Sun, X.L., Chen, B.Z., Yang, X.Y., and Liu, Y.Y. (2009). Technological conditions and kinetics of leaching copper from complex copper oxide ore. J. Cent. S. Univ. Technol. 16: 936–941, in Google Scholar

Swamy, K.M. and Narayana, K.L. (2001). Intensification of leaching process by dual-frequency ultrasound. Ultrason. Sonochem. 8: 341–346, in Google Scholar

Szekely, J., Evans, J.W., and Sohn, H.Y. (1976). Gas-solid reactions. Academia Press, New York, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Tan, Q., Deng, C., and Li, J. (2017). Effects of mechanical activation on the kinetics of terbium leaching from waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid. J. Rare Earths 35: 398–405, in Google Scholar

Tanda, B.C., Eksteen, J.J., and Oraby, E.A. (2018). Kinetics of chalcocite leaching in oxygenated alkaline glycine solutions. Hydrometallurgy 178: 264–273, in Google Scholar

Tanda, B.C. (2017). Glycine as a lixiviant for the leaching of low grade copper-gold ores, Doctoral dissertation. Perth, Australia, Curtin University.Search in Google Scholar

Tavakoli, M.R. and Dreisinger, D.B. (2014). The kinetics of oxidative leaching of vanadium trioxide. Hydrometallurgy 147: 83–89, in Google Scholar

Tsogtkhangai, D., Mamyachenkov, S.V., Anisimova, O.S., and Naboichenko, S.S. (2011). Kinetics of leaching of copper concentrates by nitric acid. Russ. J. Non-Ferrous Metals 52: 469–472, in Google Scholar

van Staden, P.J., Huynh, T.D., Kiel, M.K., Clark, R.I., and Petersen, J. (2017). Comparative assessment of heap leach production data–2. Heap leaching kinetics of Kipoi HMS floats material, laboratory vs. commercial scale. Miner. Eng. 101: 58–70, in Google Scholar

Veloso, T.C., Peixoto, J.J.M., Pereira, M.S., and Leao, V.A. (2016). Kinetics of chalcopyrite leaching in either ferric sulphate or cupric sulphate media in the presence of NaCl. Int. J. Miner. Process. 148: 147–154, in Google Scholar

Vilca, A.B. (2013). Studies on the curing and leaching kinetics of mixed copper ores. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia, University of British Columbia.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, R., Tang, M., Yang, S., Zhagn, W., Tang, C., He, J., and Yang, J. (2008). Leaching kinetics of low grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system. J. Cent. S. Univ. Technol. 15: 679–683, in Google Scholar

Wang, B., Hao, Y.L., Chu, W.Q., Rong, S., and Sun, H.L. (2017). Kinetics of leaching of 20CaO.13Al2O3.3MgO. 3SiO2. Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. 126: 199–204, in Google Scholar

Wang, H.H., Li, G.Q., Zhao, D., Ma, J.H., and Yang, J. (2017). Dephosphorization of high phosphorus oolitic hematite by acid leaching and the leaching kinetics. Hydrometallurgy 171: 61–68, in Google Scholar

Wang, J., Huang, X., Wang, L., Wang, Q., Yan, Y., Zhao, N., Cui, D., and Feng, Z. (2017). Kinetics study on the leaching of rare earth and aluminum from FCC catalyst waste slag using hydrochloric acid. Hydrometallurgy 171: 312–319, in Google Scholar

Wang, B., Mu, L., Guo, S., and Bi, Y. (2019). Lead leaching mechanism and kinetics in electrolytic manganese anode slime. Hydrometallurgy 183: 98–105, in Google Scholar

Wen, T., Zhao, Y., Xiao, Q., Ma, Q., Kang, S., Li, H., and Song, S. (2017). Effect of microwave-assisted heating on chalcopyrite leaching of kinetics, interface temperature and surface energy. Results Phys. 7: 2594–2600, in Google Scholar

White, A.F. and Yee, A. (1985). Aqueous oxidation-reduction kinetics associated with coupled electron-cation transfer from iron-containing silicates at 25 °C. Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta 49: 1263–1275, in Google Scholar

Wu, Z., Dreisinger, D.B., Urch, H., and Fassbender, S. (2014). The kinetics of leaching galena concentrates with ferric methanesulfonate solution. Hydrometallurgy 142: 121–130, in Google Scholar

Xiao, J., Yuan, J., Tian, Z., Yang, K., Yao, Z., Yu, B., and Zhang, L. (2018). Comparison of ultrasound-assisted and traditional caustic leaching of spent cathode carbon (SCC) from aluminum electrolysis. Ultrason. Sonochem. 40: 21–29, in Google Scholar PubMed

Xie, C., Xu, L., Peng, T., Chen, K., and Zhao, J. (2013). Leaching process and kinetics of manganese in low-grade manganese ore. Chin. J. Geochem. 32: 222–226, in Google Scholar

Xu, Y., Jiang, T., Wen, J., Gao, H., Wang, J., and Xue, X. (2018). Leaching kinetics of mechanically activated boron concentrate in a NaOH solution. Hydrometallurgy 179: 60–72, in Google Scholar

Xue, J., Zhong, H., Wang, S., Li, C., Li, J., and Wu, F. (2016). Kinetics of reduction leaching of manganese dioxide ore with Phytolacca americana in sulfuric acid solution. J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 20: 437–442, in Google Scholar

Yang, X., Zhang, J., Fang, X., and Qiu, T. (2014). Kinetics of pressure leaching of niobium ore by sulfuric acid. Int. J. Refract. Metals Hard Mater. 45: 218–222, in Google Scholar

Yang, S., Li, H., Sun, Y., Chen, Y., Tang, C., and He, J. (2016). Leaching kinetics of zinc silicate in ammonium chloride solution. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 26: 1688–1695, in Google Scholar

Yang, H., Li, X., Tong, L., Jin, Z., Yin, L., and Chen, G. (2018). Leaching kinetics of selenium from copper anode slimes by nitric acid-sulfuric acid mixture. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 28: 186–192, in Google Scholar

Yoon, H.S., Kim, C.J., Chung, K.W., Lee, J.Y., Shin, S.M., Lee, S.J., Joe, A.R., Lee, S.I., and Yoo, S.J. (2014). Leaching kinetics of neodymium in sulfuric acid of rare earth elements (REE) slag concentrated by pyrometallurgy from magnetite ore. Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 31: 1766–1772, in Google Scholar

Yoon, H.S., Kim, C.J., Chung, K.W., Lee, J.Y., Shin, S.M., Kim, S.R., Jang, M.H., Kim, J.H., Lee, S.I., and Yoo, S.J. (2017). Ultrasonic-assisted leaching kinetics in aqueous FeCl3-HCl solution for the recovery of copper by hydrometallurgy from poorly soluble chalcopyrite. Kor. J. Chem. Eng. 34: 1748–1755, in Google Scholar

Youcai, Z. and Chenglong, Z. (2017). Kinetics of alkaline leaching of solid wastes bearing zinc and lead. Pollution control and resource reuse for alkaline hydrometallurgy of amphoteric metal hazardous wastes. Switzerland: Springer.10.1007/978-3-319-55158-6_3Search in Google Scholar

Youlton, B.J. and Kinnaird, J.A. (2013). Gangue – reagent interactions during acid leaching of uranium. Miner. Eng. 52: 62–73, in Google Scholar

Yue, G. and Asselin, E. (2014). Kinetics of ferric ion reduction on chalcopyrite and its influence on leaching up to 150 C. Electrochim. Acta 146: 307–321, in Google Scholar

Zhang, J., Wu, A., Wang, Y., and Chen, X. (2008). Experimental research in leaching of copper-bearing tailings enhanced by ultrasonic treatment. J. China Univ. Min. Technol. 18: 98–102, in Google Scholar

Zhang, R.L., Zhang, X.F., Tang, S.Z., and Huang, A.D. (2015). Ultrasound-assisted HCl–NaCl leaching of lead-rich and antimony-rich oxidizing slag. Ultrason. Sonochem. 27: 187–191, in Google Scholar

Zhang, L., Mo, J., Li, X., Pan, L., and Wei, G. (2016). Leaching reaction and kinetics of zinc from indium-bearing zinc ferrite under microwave heating. Russ. J. Nonferrous Metals 57: 301–307, in Google Scholar

Zhang, Y.F., Ma, J., Qin, Y.H., Zhou, J.F., Yang, L., Wu, Z.K., Wang, T.L., Wang, W.G., and Wang, C.W. (2016). Ultrasound-assisted leaching of potassium from phosphorus-potassium associated ore. Hydrometallurgy 166: 237–242, in Google Scholar

Zhang, Y. (2008). Geochemical kinetics. Princeton University Press, Boston, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, Z.W., Ding, W.T., Liu, X.H., and Liang, Y. (2013). Effect of ultrasound on kinetics of scheelite leaching in sodium hydroxide. Can. Metall. Q. 52: 138–145, in Google Scholar

Zhao, D., Yang, S., Chen, Y., Tang, C., He, J., and Li, H. (2017). Leaching kinetics of hemimorphite in ammonium chloride solution. Metals 7: 1688–1695, in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y. and Chen, K. (2014). Leaching kinetics of selenium from selenium–tellurium-rich materials in sodium sulfite solutions. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 24: 536–543, in Google Scholar

Zhou, H., Zheng, S., Zhang, Y., and Yi, D. (2005). A kinetic study of the leaching of a low-grade niobium–tantalum ore by concentrated KOH solution. Hydrometallurgy 80: 170–178, in Google Scholar

Zhou, S., Chen, B., Wang, M., and Wang, X. (2016). Kinetics of extracting vanadium from stonecoal by alkali leaching, Alam, S., Kim, H., Neelameggham, N., Ouchi, T., Oosterhof, H. (Eds.), Rare metal technology: Springer, pp. 159–165.Search in Google Scholar

Zhou, X., Chen, Y., Yin, J., Xia, W., Yuan, X., and Xiang, X. (2018). Leaching kinetics of cobalt from the scraps of spent aerospace magnetic materials. Waste Manag. 76: 663–670, in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhu, P., Zhang, X.J., Li, K.F., Qian, G.R., and Zhou, M. (2012). Kinetics of leaching refractory gold ores by ultrasonic-assisted electro-chlorination. Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater. 19: 473–477, in Google Scholar

Zhu, X., Li, W., and Guan, X. (2015). Kinetics of titanium leaching with citric acid in sulfuric acid from red mud. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China 25: 3139–3145, in Google Scholar

Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (

Received: 2019-10-26
Accepted: 2020-04-29
Published Online: 2020-08-04
Published in Print: 2022-02-23

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 30.1.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow