Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 14, 2020

Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels as bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering

Cody O. Crosby ORCID logo, Brett Stern ORCID logo, Nikhith Kalkunte ORCID logo, Shahar Pedahzur ORCID logo, Shreya Ramesh ORCID logo and Janet Zoldan ORCID logo


Tissue engineering, after decades of exciting progress and monumental breakthroughs, has yet to make a significant impact on patient health. It has become apparent that a dearth of biomaterial scaffolds which possess the material properties of human tissue while remaining bioactive and cytocompatible, has been partly responsible for this lack of clinical translation. Herein, we propose the development of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels as materials that can provide cells with an adhesive extracellular matrix-like 3D microenvironment while possessing the mechanical integrity to withstand physiological forces. These hydrogels can be synthesized from biologically derived or synthetic polymers, the former polymer offering preservation of adhesion, degradability, and microstructure and the latter polymer offering tunability and superior mechanical properties. We review critical advances in the enhancement of mechanical strength, substrate-scale stiffness, electrical conductivity, and degradation in IPN hydrogels intended as bioactive scaffolds in the past 5 years. We also highlight the exciting incorporation of IPN hydrogels into state-of-the-art tissue engineering technologies, such as organ-on-a-chip and bioprinting platforms. These materials will be critical in the engineering of functional tissue for transplant, disease modeling and drug screening.

Corresponding author: Janet Zoldan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 107 W Dean Keeton St, Austin, TX 78712, USA, E-mail:

Funding source: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

Award Identifier / Grant number: EB007507

Funding source: National Institutes of Health

Award Identifier / Grant number: 1R21EB027812EB007507

Funding source: American Heart Association

Award Identifier / Grant number: 15SDG25740035


The authors would like to acknowledge helpful discussions with Alex Hillsley and Dr. Adrianne Rosales of the Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Texas at Austin.

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) of the National Institutes of Health (EB007507 and 1R21EB027812, awarded to C.C. and J.Z., respectively) and the American Heart Association (AHA, 15SDG25740035, awarded to J.Z.).

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


Bae, S., Lee, H.J., Lee, J.S. and Webb, K. (2015). Cell-mediated dexamethasone release from semi-IPNs stimulates osteogenic differentiation of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells. Biomacromolecules 16: 2757–2765, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Baker, B.M. and Chen, C.S. (2012). Deconstructing the third dimension-how 3D culture microenvironments alter cellular cues. J. Cell Sci. 125: 3015–3024, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Bidault, L., Deneufchatel, M., Hindié, M., Vancaeyzeele, C., Fichet, O. and Larreta-Garde, V. (2015). Fibrin-based interpenetrating polymer network biomaterials with tunable biodegradability. Polymer 62: 19–27, in Google Scholar

Branco da Cunha, C., Klumpers, D.D., Li, W.A., Koshy, S.T., Weaver, J.C., Chaudhuri, O., Granja, P.L., and Mooney, D.J. (2014). Influence of the stiffness of three-dimensional alginate/collagen-I interpenetrating networks on fibroblast biology. Biomaterials 35: 8927–8936, in Google Scholar PubMed

Caliari, S.R., and Burdick, J.A. (2016). A practical guide to hydrogels for cell culture. Nat. Methods 13: 405–414, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Chaudhuri, O. (2017). Viscoelastic hydrogels for 3D cell culture. Biomater. Sci. 5: 1480–1490, in Google Scholar PubMed

Chee, B.S., de Lima, G.G., Devine, D.M., de Sa, M.J.C., Elter, J.K., , Magalhaes, W.L.E., Nugent, M.J.D.D., (2019). A tough and novel dual-response PAA/P(NiPAAM-co-PEGDMA) IPN hydrogels with ceramics by photopolymerization for consolidation of bone fragments following fracture. Biomed. Mater. 14: 54101, in Google Scholar

Chen, Q., Tian, X., Fan, J., Tong, H., Ao, Q., Wang, X. (2020). An interpenetrating alginate/gelatin network for three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures and organ bioprinting. Molecules 25: 756, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Chen, J., Yuan, J., Wu, Y., Wang, P., Zhao, P., Lv, G., and Chen, J-H. (2017). Fabrication of tough poly(ethylene glycol)/collagen double network hydrogels for tissue engineering. J. Biomater. Res. Part A 106: 192–200, in Google Scholar PubMed

Chirila, T.V., Suzuki, S., and Papolla, C. (2017). A comparative investigation of Bombyx mori silk fibroin hydrogels generated by chemical and enzymatic cross-linking. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 64: 771–781, in Google Scholar PubMed

Cramer, G.D. (January 2014). General characteristics of the spine. In: Cramer, G.D. and Darby, S.A. (Eds.). Clinical anatomy of the spine, spinal cord, and ANS. Mosby, Saint Louis, pp. 15–64.10.1016/B978-0-323-07954-9.00002-5Search in Google Scholar

Crosby, C.O., and Zoldan, J. (2019). Mimicking the physical cues of the ECM in angiogenic biomaterials. Regen. Biomater. 6: 61–73, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Daniele, M.A., Adams, A.A., Naciri, J., North, S.H., and Ligler, F.S. (2014). Interpenetrating networks based on gelatin methacrylamide and PEG formed using concurrent thiol click chemistries for hydrogel tissue engineering scaffolds. Biomaterials 35: 1845–1856, in Google Scholar PubMed

Dragan, E.S. (2014). Design and applications of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels. A review. Chem. Eng. J. 243: 572–590, in Google Scholar

Engler, A.J., Sen, S., Sweeney, H.L., and Discher, D.E. (2006). Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell 126: 677–689, in Google Scholar PubMed

Erwin, W.M., and Hood, K.E. (2014). The cellular and molecular biology of the intervertebral disc: a clinician’s primer. J. Can. Chiropr. Assoc. 58: 246–257.Search in Google Scholar

Fan, H., and Gong, J.P. (2020). Fabrication of bioinspired hydrogels: challenges and opportunities. Macromolecules 53: 2769–2782, in Google Scholar

Fan, Z., Zhang, Y., Fang, S., Xu, C., and Li, X. (2015). Bienzymatically crosslinked gelatin/hyaluronic acid interpenetrating network hydrogels: preparation and characterization. RSC Adv. 5: 1929–1936, in Google Scholar

Fares, M.M., Shirzaei Sani, E., Portillo Lara, R., Oliveira, R.B., Khademhosseini, A., and Annabi, N. (2018). Interpenetrating network gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and pectin-g-PCL hydrogels with tunable properties for tissue engineering. Biomater. Sci. 6: 2938–2950, in Google Scholar PubMed

Fragal, E.H., Cellet, T.S.P., Fragal, V.H., Companhoni, M.V.P., Ueda-Nakamura, T., Muniz, E.C., Silva, R., and Rubira, A.F. (2016). Hybrid materials for bone tissue engineering from biomimetic growth of hydroxiapatite on cellulose nanowhiskers. Carbohydr. Polym. 152: 734–746, in Google Scholar PubMed

Geris, L., and Papantoniou, I. (2019). The third era of tissue engineering: reversing the innovation drivers. Tissue Eng.-Part A 25: 821–826, in Google Scholar

Goczkowski, M., Gobin, M., Hindié, M., Agniel, R., and Larreta-Garde, V. (2019). Properties of interpenetrating polymer networks associating fibrin and silk fibroin networks obtained by a double enzymatic method. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 104: 109931, in Google Scholar PubMed

Gong, J.P. (2010). Why are double network hydrogels so tough?. Soft Matter 6: 2583–2590, in Google Scholar

Groll, J., Boland, T., Blunk, T., Burdick, J.A., Cho, D.W., Dalton, P.D. et al. (2016). Biofabrication: reappraising the definition of an evolving field. Biofabrication 8: 013001. in Google Scholar PubMed

Groll, J., Burdick, J.A., Cho, D.W., Derby, B., Gelinsky, M., Heilshorn, S.C. et al. (2019). A definition of bioinks and their distinction from biomaterial inks. Biofabrication 11: 013001.10.1088/1758-5090/aaec52Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Gsib, O., Deneufchatel, M., Goczkowski, M., Trouillas, M., Resche-Guigon, M., Bencherif, S., Fichet, O., Lataillade, J.J., Larreta-Garde, V., and Egles, C. (2018). FibriDerm: interpenetrated fibrin scaffolds for the construction of human skin equivalents for full thickness burns. Innov. Res. Biomed. Eng. 39: 103–108, in Google Scholar

Gsib, O., Egles, C., and Bencherif, S.A. (2017). Fibrin: an underrated biopolymer for skin tissue engineering. J. Mol. Biol. Biotechn. 2: 1–4.Search in Google Scholar

Gullbrand, S.E., Schaer, T.P., Agarwal, P., Bendigo, J.R., Dodge, G.R., Chen, W., Elliott, D.M., Mauck, R.L., Malhotra, N.R., and Smith, L.J. (2017). Translation of an injectable triple-interpenetrating-network hydrogel for intervertebral disc regeneration in a goat model. Acta Biomater. 60: 201–209, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Gupta, N., and Srivastava, A.K. (1994). Interpenetrating polymer networks: a review on synthesis and properties. Polym. Int. 35: 109–118, in Google Scholar

Gyles, D.A., Castro, L.D., Silva, J.O.C., and Ribeiro-Costa, R.M. (2017). A review of the designs and prominent biomedical advances of natural and synthetic hydrogel formulations. Eur. Polym. J. 88: 373–392, in Google Scholar

Haddrick, M., and Simpson, P.B. (2019). Organ-on-a-chip technology: turning its potential for clinical benefit into reality. Drug Discov. Today 24: 1217–1223, in Google Scholar PubMed

Hardy, J.G., Lee, J.Y., and Schmidt, C.E. (2013). Biomimetic conducting polymer-based tissue scaffolds. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 24: 847–854, in Google Scholar PubMed

Havaldar, R., Pilli, S.C., and Putti, B.B. (2014). Insights into the effects of tensile and compressive loadings on human femur bone. Adv. Biomed. Res. 3: 101, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Highley, C.B., Prestwich, G.D., and Burdick, J.A. (2016). Recent advances in hyaluronic acid hydrogels for biomedical applications. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 40: 35–40, in Google Scholar PubMed

Hoffman, T., Khademhosseini, A., and Langer, R. (2019). Chasing the paradigm: clinical translation of 25 years of tissue engineering. Tissue Eng–Part A 25: 679–687, in Google Scholar

Hu, D., Wu, D., Huang, L., Jiao, Y., Li, L., Lu, L., and Zhou, C. (2018). 3D bioprinting of cell-laden scaffolds for intervertebral disc regeneration. Mater. Lett. 223: 219–222, in Google Scholar

Huang, G., Li, F., Zhao, X., Ma, Y., Li, Y., Lin, M., Jin, G., Lu, T.J., Genin, G.M., and Xu, F. (2017). Functional and biomimetic materials for engineering of the three-dimensional cell microenvironment. Chem. Rev. 117: 12764–12850, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Jenkins, A., Kratochvil, P., Stepto, R., and Suter, U. (1996). Glossary of basic terms in polymer science. Pure Appl. Chem. 68: 2287–2311, in Google Scholar

Jeon, J.S., Bersini, S., Whisler, J.A., Chen, M.B., Dubini, G., Charest, J.L., Moretti, M., and Kamm, R.D. (2014). Generation of 3D functional microvascular networks with human mesenchymal stem cells in microfluidic systems. Integr. Biol. 6: 555–563, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Khademhosseini, A., and Langer, R. (2016). A decade of progress in tissue engineering. Nat. Protoc. 11: 1775–1781, in Google Scholar PubMed

Khan, J., Alexander, A., Ajazuddin, Saraf, S., and Saraf, S. (2020). Biomedical applications of interpenetrating polymer network gels. In: Jana, S. and Jana, S. (Eds.). Interpenetrating polymer network: biomedical applications. Springer Nature, Singapore, pp. 289–312.10.1007/978-981-15-0283-5_11Search in Google Scholar

Khavari, A., Nydén, M., Weitz, D.A., and Ehrlicher, A.J. (2016). Composite alginate gels for tunable cellular microenvironment mechanics. Sci. Rep. 6: 1–11, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Krishnamoorthy, S., Zhang, Z., and Xu, C. (2019). Biofabrication of three-dimensional cellular structures based on gelatin methacrylate–alginate interpenetrating network hydrogel. J. Biomater. Appl. 33: 1105–1117, in Google Scholar PubMed

Kutty, J.K., Cho, E., Soo Lee, J., Vyavahare, N.R., and Webb, K. (2007). The effect of hyaluronic acid incorporation on fibroblast spreading and proliferation within PEG-diacrylate based semi-interpenetrating networks. Biomaterials 28: 4928–4938, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lee, D.S., Kang, J.I.l., Hwang, B.H., and Park, K.M. (2019). Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels of gelatin and poly(ethylene glycol) as an engineered 3D tumor microenvironment. Macromol. Res. 27: 205–211, in Google Scholar

Liu, Y., and Chan-Park, M.B. (2009). Hydrogel based on interpenetrating polymer networks of dextran and gelatin for vascular tissue engineering. Biomaterials 30: 196–207, in Google Scholar PubMed

Liu, J., Zheng, H., Poh, P., Machens, H-G, and Schilling, A. (2015). Hydrogels for engineering of perfusable vascular networks. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16: 15997–16016, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Lou, J., Stowers, R., Nam, S., Xia, Y., and Chaudhuri, O. (2018). Stress relaxing hyaluronic acid-collagen hydrogels promote cell spreading, fiber remodeling, and focal adhesion formation in 3D cell culture. Biomaterials 154: 213–222, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lutolf, M.P., and Hubbell, J.A. (2005). Synthetic biomaterials as instructive extracellular microenvironments for morphogenesis in tissue engineering. Nat. Biotechnol. 23: 47–55, in Google Scholar PubMed

Mammoto, T. and Ingber, D.E. (2010). Mechanical control of tissue and organ development. Development 137: 1407–1420, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Matera, D.L., Wang, W.Y., Smith, M.R., Shikanov, A., and Baker, B.M. (2019). Fiber density modulates cell spreading in 3D interstitial matrix mimetics. ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 5: 2965–2975, in Google Scholar PubMed

Matricardi, P., Di Meo, C., Coviello, T., Hennink, W.E., and Alhaique, F. (2013). Interpenetrating polymer networks polysaccharide hydrogels for drug delivery and tissue engineering. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 65: 1172–1187, in Google Scholar PubMed

Miao, T., Miller, E.J., McKenzie, C., and Oldinski, R.A. (2015). Physically crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol and gelatin interpenetrating polymer network theta-gels for cartilage regeneration. J. Mater. Chem. B 3: 9242–9249, in Google Scholar PubMed

Millar, J.R. (1960). Interpenetrating polymer networks. Styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymers with two and three interpenetrating networks, and their sulphonates. J. Chem. Soc.: 1311–1317, in Google Scholar

Moffat, K.L., Goon, K., Moutos, F.T., Estes, B.T., Oswald, S.J., Zhao, X., and Fuilak, F. (2018). Composite cellularized structures created from an interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel reinforced by a 3D woven scaffold. Macromol. Biosci. 18: 1–8, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Myung, D., Waters, D., Wiseman, M., Duhamel, P-E, Noolandi, J., Ta, C.N., and Frank, C.W. (2008). Progress in the development of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels. Polym. Adv. Technol. 19: 647–657, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Narayanan, L.K., Huebner, P., Fisher, M.B., Spang, J.T., Starly, B., and Shirwaiker, R.A. (2016). 3D-bioprinting of polylactic acid (PLA) nanofiber-alginate hydrogel bioink containing human adipose-derived stem cells. ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2: 1732–1742, in Google Scholar PubMed

Naseri, N., Deepa, B., Mathew, A.P., Oksman, K., and Girandon, L. (2016). Nanocellulose-based interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels for cartilage applications. Biomacromolecules 17: 3714–3723, in Google Scholar PubMed

Neidlinger-Wilke, C., Galbusera, F., Pratsinis, H., Mavrogonatou, E., Mietsch, A., Kletsas, D., and Wilke, H-J. (2014). Mechanical loading of the intervertebral disc: from the macroscopic to the cellular level. Eur. Spine J. 23: 333–343, in Google Scholar PubMed

Nie, J., Gao, Q., Fu, J., and He, Y. (2020). Grafting of 3D bioprinting to in vitro drug screening: a review. Adv. Healthc. Mater. 1901773: 1–18 in Google Scholar PubMed

Park, S., Edwards, S., Hou, S., Boudreau, R., Yee, R., and Jeong, K.J. (2019). A multi-interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel with gelatin and silk fibroin. Biomater. Sci. 7: 1276–1280, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Parke-Houben, R., Fox, C.H., Zheng, L.L., Waters, D.J., Cochran, J.R., Ta, C.N., and Frank, C.W. (2015). Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel scaffolds for artificial cornea periphery. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 26: 107, in Google Scholar PubMed

Portnov, T., Shulimzon, T.R., and Zilberman, M. (2017). Injectable hydrogel-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Rev. Chem. Eng. 33: 91–107, in Google Scholar

Qiu, Y., Ahn, B., Sakurai, Y., Hansen, C.E., Tran, R., Mimche, P.N., Mannino, R.G., Ciciliano, J.C., Lamb, T.J., Joiner, C.H., et al. (2018). Microvasculature-on-a-chip for the long-term study of endothelial barrier dysfunction and microvascular obstruction in disease. Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2: 453–463, in Google Scholar

Rahimi, N., Molin, D.G., Cleij, T.J., Van Zandvoort, M.A., and Post, M.J. (2012). Electrosensitive polyacrylic acid/fibrin hydrogel facilitates cell seeding and alignment. Biomacromolecules 13: 1448–1457, in Google Scholar

Rahimi, N., Swennen, G., Verbruggen, S., Scibiorek, M., Molin, D.G., and Post, M.J. (2014). Short stimulation of electro-responsive PAA/fibrin hydrogel induces collagen production. Tissue Eng. – Part C Methods 20: 703–713, in Google Scholar

Santin, M., Huang, S.J., Iannace, S., Ambrosio, L., Nicolais, L., and Peluso, G. (1996). Synthesis and characterization of a new interpenetrated poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-gelatin composite polymer. Biomaterials 17: 1459–1467, in Google Scholar

Shahrousvand, M., Ghollasi, M., Zarchi, A.A.K., and Salimi, A. (2019). Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs on semi-interpenetrating polymer networks of polyurethane/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/cellulose nanowhisker scaffolds. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 138: 262–271, in Google Scholar PubMed

Skaalure, S.C., Dimson, S.O., Pennington, A.M., and Bryant, S.J. (2014). Semi-interpenetrating networks of hyaluronic acid in degradable PEG hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. Acta Biomater. 10: 3409–3420, in Google Scholar PubMed

Sperling, L.H. (1994). Interpenetrating polymer networks: an overview. In: Klempner, D., Sperling, L.H., Utracki, L.A. editors. Interpenetrating polymer networks, American Chemical Society;Washington, DC, p. 3–38.10.1021/ba-1994-0239.ch001Search in Google Scholar

Spicer, C.D. (2020). Hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering: the importance of polymer choice. Polym. Chem. 11: 184–219, in Google Scholar

Suo, H., Zhang, D., Yin, J., Qian, J., Wu, Z.L., and Fu, J. (2018). Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels composed of chitosan and photocrosslinkable gelatin with enhanced mechanical properties for tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C Mater. Biol. Appl. 92: 612–620, in Google Scholar PubMed

Suthar, B., Xiao, H.X., Klempner, D., and Frisch, K.C. (1996). A review of kinetic studies on the formation of interpenetrating polymer networks. Polym. Adv. Technol. 7: 221–233,<221::aid-pat529>;2-a.10.1002/(SICI)1099-1581(199604)7:4<221::AID-PAT529>3.0.CO;2-ASearch in Google Scholar

Tsaryk, R., Gloria, A., Russo, T., Anspach, L., De Santis, R., Ghanaati, S., Unger, R.E., Ambrosio, L., and Kirkpatrick, C.J. (2015). Collagen-low molecular weight hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network loaded with gelatin microspheres for cell and growth factor delivery for nucleus pulposus regeneration. Acta Biomater. 20: 10–21, in Google Scholar

Tu, C., Chao, B.S., and Wu, J.C. (2018). Strategies for improving the maturity of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Circ. Res. 123: 512–514, in Google Scholar

Vorwald, C.E., Gonzalez-Fernandez, T., Joshee, S., Sikorski, P., and Leach, J.K. (2020). Tunable fibrin-alginate interpenetrating network hydrogels to support cell spreading and network formation. Acta Biomater., in Google Scholar

Williams, D., Thayer, P., Martinez, H, Gatenholm, E., Khademhosseini, A. (2018). A perspective on the physical, mechanical and biological specifications of bioinks and the development of functional tissues in 3D bioprinting. Bioprinting 9: 19–36, in Google Scholar

Wozniak, M.A., and Chen, C.S. (2009). Mechanotransduction in development: a growing role for contractility. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 10: 34–43, in Google Scholar

Xiao, W., Li, J., Qu, X., Wang, L., Tan, Y., Li, K., Li, H., Yue, X., Li, B., and Liao, X. (2019). Cell-laden interpenetrating network hydrogels formed from methacrylated gelatin and silk fibroin via a combination of sonication and photocrosslinking approaches. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 99: 57–67, in Google Scholar

Xu, C., Guan, S., Wang, S., Gong, W., Liu, T., Ma, X., and Sun, C. (2018). Biodegradable and electroconductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels for neural tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 84: 32–43, in Google Scholar

Yan, C., and Pochan, D.J. (2010). Rheological properties of peptide-based hydrogels for biomedical and other applications. Chem. Soc. Rev. 39: 3528–3540, in Google Scholar

Zhang, X., Kim, G.J., Kang, M.G., Lee, J.K., Seo, J.W., Do, J.T., Hong, K., Cha, J.M., Shin, S.R., and Bae, H. (2018b). Marine biomaterial-based bioinks for generating 3D printed tissue constructs. Mar. Drugs 16: 484, in Google Scholar

Zhang, B., Korolj, A., Lai, B.F.L., and Radisic, M. (2018a). Advances in organ-on-a-chip engineering. Nat. Rev. Mater. 3: 257–278, in Google Scholar

Zhang, Y., Liu, J., Huang, L., Wang, Z., and Wang, L. (2015). Design and performance of a sericin-alginate interpenetrating network hydrogel for cell and drug delivery. Sci. Rep. 5: 12374, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Zheng, A., Cao, L., Liu, Y., Wu, J., Zeng, D., Hu, L., et al. (2018). Biocompatible silk/calcium silicate/sodium alginate composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Carbohydr Polym. 199: 244–255, in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhou, Y., Zhang, C., Liang, K., Li, J., Yang, H., Liu, X., Yin, X., Chen, D., and Xu, W. (2018). Photopolymerized water-soluble maleilated chitosan/methacrylated poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels as potential tissue engineering scaffolds. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 106: 227–233, in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2020-05-26
Accepted: 2020-07-17
Published Online: 2020-09-14
Published in Print: 2022-04-26

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Scroll Up Arrow