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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 12, 2021

Foaming and rheological properties of aqueous solutions: an interfacial study

  • Badri Vishal ORCID logo EMAIL logo


Although aqueous foam is composed of simple fluids, air and water, it shows a complex rheological behavior. It exhibits solid-like behavior at low shear and fluid-like behavior at high shear rate. Therefore, understanding such behavior is important for many industrial applications in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Additionally, air–water interface of bubble surface plays an important role in the stabilizing mechanism of foams. Therefore, the rheological properties associated with the aqueous foam highly depend on its interfacial properties. In this review, a systematic study of aqueous foam are presented primarily from rheology point of view. Firstly, foaming agents, surfactants and particles are described; then foam structure was explained, followed by change in structure under applied shear. Finally, foam rheology was linked to interfacial rheology for the interface containing particles whose surface properties were altered by surfactants.

Corresponding author: Badri Vishal, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK, E-mail:

  1. Author contributions: The author has accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Received: 2020-08-21
Accepted: 2021-07-06
Published Online: 2021-08-12
Published in Print: 2023-02-23

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