Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 13, 2021

Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) fabricated composite microgels and their applications in different fields

  • Khalida Naseem ORCID logo EMAIL logo


This article encircles the research progress of Fe3O4 NPs loaded composite microgel particles. Preparation methodologies, properties and applications of Fe3O4 NPs loaded composite microgel particles are elaborated here. The effect of different factors on the stability and tunable properties of Fe3O4 NPs loaded composite microgel particles was also investigated in detail. These composite particles have exceptional magnetic properties that make them demanding composite nano-formulation in different fields. Applications of these composite microgel particles in different fields as micro-reactor, drug delivery vehicles, and in adsorption and catalysis have also been elaborated in detail. These composite microgel particles can easily be recovered from the reaction mixture by applying an external magnet due to the presence of fabricated Fe3O4 NPs.

Corresponding author: Khalida Naseem, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan, E-mail:

  1. Author contributions: The author has accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The author declares to have no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


Abegunde, S.M., Idowu, K.S., and Sulaimon, A.O. (2020). Plant-mediated iron nanoparticles and their applications as adsorbents for water treatment – a review. J. Chem. Rev. 45: 103–113, in Google Scholar

Ahmad, H., Nurunnabi, M., Rahman, M.M., Kumar, K., Tauer, K., Minami, H., and Gafur, M.A. (2014). Magnetically doped multi stimuli-responsive hydrogel microspheres with IPN structure and application in dye removal. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 459: 39–47, in Google Scholar

Ali, A., Hira Zafar, M.Z., ul Haq, I., Phull, A.R., Ali, J.S., and Hussain, A. (2016). Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles. Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 9: 49–67, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Amini-Fazl, M.S., Mohammadi, R., and Kheiri, K. (2019). 5-Fluorouracil loaded chitosan/polyacrylic acid/Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite hydrogel as a potential anticancer drug delivery system. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 132: 506–513, in Google Scholar PubMed

Amstad, E., Zurcher, S., Mashaghi, A., Wong, J.Y., Textor, M., and Reimhult, E. (2009). Surface functionalization of single superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted magnetic resonance imaging. Small 5: 1334–1342, in Google Scholar PubMed

Atta, A.M., Moustafa, Y.M., Al-Lohedan, H.A., Ezzat, A.O., and Hashem, A.I. (2020). Methylene blue catalytic degradation using silver and magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with a poly (ionic liquid) based on quaternized dialkylethanolamine with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate-co-vinylpyrrolidone. ACS Omega 5: 2829–2842, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Bao, Y., Sherwood, J., and Sun, Z. (2018). Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as T1 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. J. Mater. Chem. C 6: 1280–1290, in Google Scholar

Begum, R., Naseem, K., Ahmed, E., Sharif, A., and Farooqi, Z.H. (2016a). Simultaneous catalytic reduction of nitroarenes using silver nanoparticles fabricated in poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid-acrylamide) microgels. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 511: 17–26, in Google Scholar

Begum, R., Naseem, K., and Farooqi, Z.H. (2016b). A review of responsive hybrid microgels fabricated with silver nanoparticles: synthesis, classification, characterization and applications. J. Sol. Gel Sci. Technol. 77: 497–515, in Google Scholar

Begum, R., Farooqi, Z.H., Ahmed, E., Naseem, K., Ashraf, S., Sharif, A., and Rehan, R. (2017). Catalytic reduction of 4‐nitrophenol using silver nanoparticles‐engineered poly (N‐isopropylacrylamide‐co‐acrylamide) hybrid microgels. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 31: 3563–3571, in Google Scholar

Bhattacharya, S., Eckert, F., Boyko, V., and Pich, A. (2007). Temperature‐, pH‐, and magnetic‐field‐sensitive hybrid microgels. Small 3: 650–657, in Google Scholar PubMed

Brugger, B. and Richtering, W. (2007). Magnetic, thermosensitive microgels as stimuli‐responsive emulsifiers allowing for remote control of separability and stability of oil in water‐emulsions. Adv. Mater. 19: 2973–2978, in Google Scholar

Chen, J., Ma, X., Gnanasekar, P., Qin, D., Luo, Q., Sun, Z., Zhu, J., and Yan, N. (2020). Synthesis of recoverable thermosensitive Fe3O4 hybrid microgels with controllable catalytic activity. New J. Chem. 44: 19440–19444, in Google Scholar

Chen, T., Cao, Z., Guo, X., Nie, J., Xu, J., Fan, Z., and Du, B. (2011). Preparation and characterization of thermosensitive organic–inorganic hybrid microgels with functional Fe3O4 nanoparticles as crosslinker. Polymer 52: 172–179, in Google Scholar

Chertok, B., Moffat, B.A., David, A.E., Yu, F., Bergemann, C., Ross, B.D., and Yang, V.C. (2008). Iron oxide nanoparticles as a drug delivery vehicle for MRI monitored magnetic targeting of brain tumors. Biomaterials 29: 487–496, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Chiang, W.-H., Ho, V.T., Chen, H.-H., Huang, W.-C., Huang, Y.-F., Lin, S.-C., Chern, C.-S., and Chiu, H.-C. (2013). Superparamagnetic hollow hybrid nanogels as a potential guidable vehicle system of stimuli-mediated MR imaging and multiple cancer therapeutics. Langmuir 29: 6434–6443, in Google Scholar PubMed

Fan, M., Yan, J., Tan, H., Miao, Y., and Hu, X. (2014). Magnetic biopolymer nanogels via biological assembly for vectoring delivery of biopharmaceuticals. J. Mater. Chem. B 2: 8399–8405, in Google Scholar PubMed

Fang, J., Wang, C., Cao, M., Cheng, M., Shi, J., and Jin, Y. (2013). Preparation and properties of multi-functional Fe3O4@ PNIPAM-AAM@ Au composites. Mater. Lett. 96: 89–92, in Google Scholar

Farooqi, Z.H., Naseem, K., Ijaz, A., and Begum, R. (2016). Engineering of silver nanoparticle fabricated poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgels for rapid catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene. J. Polym. Eng. 36: 87–96, in Google Scholar

Gao, F., Qi, Q., Liang, X., Wen, L., Shang, Y., Mi, Y., Ziener, U., and Cao, Z. (2020a). Fabrication of Fe3O4/O‐carboxylmethyl chitosan magnetic particle assembles in inverse miniemulsions for loading and release of bovine serum albumin. Chem. Select 5: 8344–8351, in Google Scholar

Gao, F., Wu, X., Wu, D., Yu, J., Yao, J., Qi, Q., Cao, Z., Cui, Q., and Mi, Y. (2020b). Preparation of degradable magnetic temperature-and redox-responsive polymeric/Fe3O4 nanocomposite nanogels in inverse miniemulsions for loading and release of 5-fluorouracil. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 587: 124363–124374, in Google Scholar

Gao, F., Qi, Q., Wu, X., Yu, J., Yao, J., Cao, Z., Mi, Y., and Cui, Q. (2021). Multifunctional poly (quaternary ammonium)/Fe3O4 composite nanogels for integration of antibacterial and degradable magnetic redox-responsive properties. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 615: 126235–126245, in Google Scholar

Garcia-Pinel, B., Ortega-Rodríguez, A., Porras-Alcalá, C., Cabeza, L., Contreras-Cáceres, R., Ortiz, R., Díaz, A., Moscoso, A., Sarabia, F., and Prados, J. (2020). Magnetically active pNIPAM nanosystems as temperature-sensitive biocompatible structures for controlled drug delivery. Artif. Cells, Nanomed. Biotechnol. 48: 1022–1035, in Google Scholar PubMed

Ghorbani, M., Hamishehkar, H., Arsalani, N., and Entezami, A.A. (2015). Preparation of thermo and pH-responsive polymer@ Au/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles as a carrier for delivery of anticancer agent. J. Nano Res. 17: 305–308, in Google Scholar

Ghorbani, M., Hamishehkar, H., Arsalani, N., and Entezami, A.A. (2016). A novel dual-responsive core-crosslinked magnetic-gold nanogel for triggered drug release. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 68: 436–444, in Google Scholar PubMed

Hachemaoui, M., Mokhtar, A., Mekki, A., Zaoui, F., Abdelkrim, S., Hacini, S., and Boukoussa, B. (2020). Composites beads based on Fe3O4@ MCM-41 and calcium alginate for enhanced catalytic reduction of organic dyes. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 164: 468–479, in Google Scholar PubMed

He, L., Zheng, R., Min, J., Lu, F., Wu, C., Zhi, Y., Shan, S., and Su, H. (2021). Preparation of magnetic microgels based on dextran for stimuli-responsive release of doxorubicin. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 517: 167394, in Google Scholar

Hernández, P., Lucero-Acuña, A., Moreno-Cortez, I.E., Esquivel, R., and Álvarez-Ramos, E. (2020). Thermo-Magnetic properties of Fe3O4@ poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) core–shell nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effects on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 20: 2063–2071, in Google Scholar PubMed

Hu, Y., Liu, W., and Wu, F. (2017). Novel multi-responsive polymer magnetic microgels with folate or methyltetrahydrofolate ligand as anticancer drug carriers. RSC Adv. 7: 10333–10344, in Google Scholar

Indulekha, S., Arunkumar, P., Bahadur, D., and Srivastava, R. (2017). Dual responsive magnetic composite nanogels for thermo-chemotherapy. Colloids Surf., B 155: 304–313, in Google Scholar PubMed

Izadiyan, Z., Shameli, K., Miyake, M., Hara, H., Mohamad, S.E.B., Kalantari, K., Taib, S.H.M., and Rasouli, E. (2020). Cytotoxicity assay of plant-mediated synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles using Juglans regia green husk extract. Arab. J. Chem. 13: 2011–2023, in Google Scholar

Kaushik, A., Khan, R., Solanki, P.R., Pandey, P., Alam, J., Ahmad, S., and Malhotra, B. (2008). Iron oxide nanoparticles–chitosan composite based glucose biosensor. Biosens. Bioelectron. 24: 676–683, in Google Scholar PubMed

Kawasaki, R., Sasaki, Y., Katagiri, K., Mukai, S.a., Sawada, S.i., and Akiyoshi, K. (2016). Magnetically guided protein transduction by hybrid nanogel chaperones with iron oxide nanoparticles. Angew. Chem. 128: 11549–11553, in Google Scholar

Khan, A. (2008). Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles embedded in microgels. Mater. Lett. 62: 898–902, in Google Scholar

Laurenti, M., Guardia, P., Contreras-Cáceres, R., Pérez-Juste, J., Fernandez-Barbero, A., Lopez-Cabarcos, E., and Rubio-Retama, J. (2011). Synthesis of thermosensitive microgels with a tunable magnetic core. Langmuir 27: 10484–10491, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lee, C.F., Chou, Y.H., and Chiu, W.Y. (2007). Synthesis and morphology of Fe3O4/polystyrene/poly (isopropylacrylamide‐co‐methyl acrylate acid) magnetic composite latex–2, 2′‐azobis (2‐methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride as initiator. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 45: 3912–3921, in Google Scholar

Li, J., Zhou, Y., Li, M., Xia, N., Huang, Q., Do, H., Liu, Y.-N., and Zhou, F. (2011). Carboxymethylated dextran-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for regenerable bioseparation. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11: 10187–10192, in Google Scholar PubMed

Li, P., Zhu, A.M., Liu, Q.L., and Zhang, Q.G. (2008). Fe3O4/poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/chitosan composite microspheres with multiresponsive properties. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47: 7700–7706, in Google Scholar

Li, X.-M., Xu, G., Liu, Y., and He, T. (2011). Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles: synthesis and application in water treatment. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. - Asia 1: 14–24.Search in Google Scholar

Liu, B., Zhang, W., Yang, F., Feng, H., and Yang, X. (2011). Facile method for synthesis of Fe3O4@ polymer microspheres and their application as magnetic support for loading metal nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. C 115: 15875–15884, in Google Scholar

Liu, G., Wang, D., Zhou, F., and Liu, W. (2015). Electrostatic self‐assembly of Au nanoparticles onto thermosensitive magnetic core‐shell microgels for thermally tunable and magnetically recyclable catalysis. Small 11: 2807–2816, in Google Scholar PubMed

Luo, B., Song, X.-J., Zhang, F., Xia, A., Yang, W.-L., Hu, J.-H., and Wang, C.-C. (2010). Multi-functional thermosensitive composite microspheres with high magnetic susceptibility based on magnetite colloidal nanoparticle clusters. Langmuir 26: 1674–1679, in Google Scholar PubMed

Maleki, A. (2012). Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles: an efficient and magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst for the one-pot multicomponent synthesis of diazepines. Tetrahedron 68: 7827–7833, in Google Scholar

Maleki, A. (2013). One-pot multicomponent synthesis of diazepine derivatives using terminal alkynes in the presence of silica-supported superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Tetrahedron Lett. 54: 2055–2059, in Google Scholar

Maleki, A. (2014). One-pot three-component synthesis of pyrido [2′, 1′: 2, 3] imidazo [4, 5-c] isoquinolines using Fe3O4@ SiO2–OSO3 H as an efficient heterogeneous nanocatalyst. RSC Adv. 4: 64169–64173, in Google Scholar

Maleki, A. (2018a). Green oxidation protocol: selective conversions of alcohols and alkenes to aldehydes, ketones and epoxides by using a new multiwall carbon nanotube-based hybrid nanocatalyst via ultrasound irradiation. Ultrason. Sonochem. 40: 460–464, in Google Scholar PubMed

Maleki, A. (2018b). An efficient magnetic heterogeneous nanocatalyst for the synthesis of pyrazinoporphyrazine macrocycles. Polycycl. Aromat. Comp. 38: 402–411, in Google Scholar

Maleki, A., Movahed, H., and Ravaghi, P. (2017). Magnetic cellulose/Ag as a novel eco-friendly nanobiocomposite to catalyze synthesis of chromene-linked nicotinonitriles. Carbohydr. Polym. 156: 259–267, in Google Scholar PubMed

Maleki, A., Azizi, M., and Emdadi, Z. (2018a). A novel poly (ethyleneoxide)-based magnetic nanocomposite catalyst for highly efficient multicomponent synthesis of pyran derivatives. Green Chem. Lett. Rev. 11: 573–582, in Google Scholar

Maleki, A., Firouzi-Haji, R., and Hajizadeh, Z. (2018b). Magnetic guanidinylated chitosan nanobiocomposite: a green catalyst for the synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridines. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 116: 320–326, in Google Scholar PubMed

Maleki, A., Hajizadeh, Z., and Firouzi-Haji, R. (2018c). Eco-friendly functionalization of magnetic halloysite nanotube with SO3H for synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 259: 46–53, in Google Scholar

Maleki, A., Hajizadeh, Z., Sharifi, V., and Emdadi, Z. (2019a). A green, porous and eco-friendly magnetic geopolymer adsorbent for heavy metals removal from aqueous solutions. J. Clean. Prod. 215: 1233–1245, in Google Scholar

Maleki, A., Panahzadeh, M., and Eivazzadeh-keihan, R. (2019b). Agar: a natural and environmentally-friendly support composed of copper oxide nanoparticles for the green synthesis of 1, 2, 3–triazoles. Green Chem. Lett. Rev. 12: 395–406, in Google Scholar

Maleki, A., Hassanzadeh-Afruzi, F., Varzi, Z., and Esmaeili, M.S. (2020). Magnetic dextrin nanobiomaterial: an organic-inorganic hybrid catalyst for the synthesis of biologically active polyhydroquinoline derivatives by asymmetric Hantzsch reaction. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 109: 110502–110515, in Google Scholar PubMed

Mazumder, V., Chi, M., More, K.L., and Sun, S. (2010). Core/shell Pd/FePt nanoparticles as an active and durable catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132: 7848–7849, in Google Scholar PubMed

Ménager, C., Sandre, O., Mangili, J., and Cabuil, V. (2004). Preparation and swelling of hydrophilic magnetic microgels. Polymer 45: 2475–2481, in Google Scholar

Mizuta, R., Sasaki, Y., Kawasaki, R., Katagiri, K., Sawada, S.-i., Mukai, S.-a., and Akiyoshi, K. (2019). Magnetically navigated intracellular delivery of extracellular vesicles using amphiphilic nanogels. Bioconjugate Chem. 30: 2150–2155, in Google Scholar PubMed

Nabid, M.R., Bide, Y., and Niknezhad, M. (2014). Fe3O4–SiO2–P4VP pH‐sensitive microgel for immobilization of nickel nanoparticles: an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for nitrile reduction in water. ChemCatChem 6: 538–546, in Google Scholar

Naseem, K., Begum, R., Wu, W., Irfan, A., and Farooqi, Z.H. (2018a). Advancement in multi-functional poly (styrene)-poly (n-isopropylacrylamide) based core–shell microgels and their applications. Polym. Rev. 58: 288–325, in Google Scholar

Naseem, K., Farooqi, Z.H., Begum, R., Wu, W., Irfan, A., and Al‐Sehemi, A.G. (2018b). Silver nanoparticles engineered polystyrene‐poly (n‐isopropylmethacrylamide‐acrylic acid) core shell hybrid polymer microgels for catalytic reduction of Congo red. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 219: 1800211–1800224, in Google Scholar

Naseem, K., Begum, R., Wu, W., Irfan, A., Al-Sehemi, A.G., and Farooqi, Z.H. (2019a). Catalytic reduction of toxic dyes in the presence of silver nanoparticles impregnated core-shell composite microgels. J. Clean. Prod. 211: 855–864, in Google Scholar

Naseem, K., Begum, R., Wu, W., Usman, M., Irfan, A., Al-Sehemi, A.G., and Farooqi, Z.H. (2019b). Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions using polystyrene-poly (N-isopropylmethacrylamide-acrylic acid) core/shell gel particles: adsorption isotherms and kinetic study. J. Mol. Liq. 277: 522–531, in Google Scholar

Naseem, K., Farooqi, Z.H., Begum, R., Wu, W., Irfan, A., and Ajmal, M. (2020). Systematic study for catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene derivatives using core@ shell composite micro particles as catalyst. Colloid. Surface. Physicochem. Eng. Aspect. 594: 124646–124655, in Google Scholar

Pich, A., Bhattacharya, S., Lu, Y., Boyko, V., and Adler, H.-J.P. (2004). Temperature-sensitive hybrid microgels with magnetic properties. Langmuir 20: 10706–10711, in Google Scholar PubMed

Rahimi, J., Taheri-Ledari, R., Niksefat, M., and Maleki, A. (2020). Enhanced reduction of nitrobenzene derivatives: effective strategy executed by Fe3O4/PVA-10% Ag as a versatile hybrid nanocatalyst. Catal. Commun. 134: 105850–105856.10.1016/j.catcom.2019.105850Search in Google Scholar

Rubio-Retama, J., Zafeiropoulos, N.E., Serafinelli, C., Rojas-Reyna, R., Voit, B., Lopez Cabarcos, E., and Stamm, M. (2007). Synthesis and characterization of thermosensitive PNIPAM microgels covered with superparamagnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Langmuir 23: 10280–10285, in Google Scholar PubMed

Suh, S.K., Yuet, K., Hwang, D.K., Bong, K.W., Doyle, P.S., and Hatton, T.A. (2012). Synthesis of nonspherical superparamagnetic particles: in situ coprecipitation of magnetic nanoparticles in microgels prepared by stop-flow lithography. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134: 7337–7343, in Google Scholar PubMed

Vangijzegem, T., Stanicki, D., and Laurent, S. (2019). Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for drug delivery: applications and characteristics. Expet Opin. Drug Deliv. 16: 69–78, in Google Scholar PubMed

Wang, Y., Dong, A., Yuan, Z., and Chen, D. (2012). Fabrication and characterization of temperature-, pH-and magnetic-field-sensitive organic/inorganic hybrid poly (ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 415: 68–76, in Google Scholar

Wen, X., Qiao, X., Han, X., Niu, L., Huo, L., and Bai, G. (2016). Multifunctional magnetic branched polyethylenimine nanogels with in-situ generated Fe3O4 and their applications as dye adsorbent and catalyst support. J. Mater. Sci. 51: 3170–3181, in Google Scholar

Wong, J.E., Gaharwar, A.K., Müller-Schulte, D., Bahadur, D., and Richtering, W. (2008). Dual-stimuli responsive PNiPAM microgel achieved via layer-by-layer assembly: magnetic and thermoresponsive. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 324: 47–54, in Google Scholar PubMed

Woo, K., Hong, J., Choi, S., Lee, H.-W., Ahn, J.-P., Kim, C.S., and Lee, S.W. (2004). Easy synthesis and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. Chem. Mater. 16: 2814–2818, in Google Scholar

Wu, Y., Yang, H., Lin, Y., Zheng, Z., and Ding, X. (2016). Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) modified Fe3O4@ Au nanoparticles with magnetic and temperature responsive properties. Mater. Lett. 169: 218–222, in Google Scholar

Xu, H., Cui, L., Tong, N., and Gu, H. (2006). Development of high magnetization Fe3O4/polystyrene/silica nanospheres via combined miniemulsion/emulsion polymerization. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128: 15582–15583, in Google Scholar PubMed

Xuan, S., Wang, Y.-X.J., Leung, K.C.-F., and Shu, K. (2008). Synthesis of Fe3O4@ polyaniline core/shell microspheres with well-defined blackberry-like morphology. J. Phys. Chem. C 112: 18804–18809, in Google Scholar

Yang, J., Wang, D., Liu, W., Zhang, X., Bian, F., and Yu, W. (2013). Palladium supported on a magnetic microgel: an efficient and recyclable catalyst for Suzuki and Heck reactions in water. Green Chem. 15: 3429–3437, in Google Scholar

Yao, J., Gao, F., Liang, X., Li, Y., Mi, Y., Qi, Q., Yao, J., and Cao, Z. (2019). Efficient preparation of carboxyl-functionalized magnetic polymer/Fe3O4 nanocomposite particles in one-pot miniemulsion systems. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 570: 449–461, in Google Scholar

Zhang, F. and Wang, C.-C. (2009). Preparation of P (NIPAM-co-AA) microcontainers surface-anchored with magnetic nanoparticles. Langmuir 25: 8255–8262, in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhang, J., Xu, S., and Kumacheva, E. (2004). Polymer microgels: reactors for semiconductor, metal, and magnetic nanoparticles. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126: 7908–7914, in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhang, J., Ma, N., Tang, F., Cui, Q., He, F., and Li, L. (2012). pH-and glucose-responsive core–shell hybrid nanoparticles with controllable metal-enhanced fluorescence effects. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4: 1747–1751, in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhu, H., Tao, J., Wang, W., Zhou, Y., Li, P., Li, Z., Yan, K., Wu, S., Yeung, K.W., and Xu, Z. (2013). Magnetic, fluorescent, and thermo-responsive Fe3O4/rare earth incorporated poly (St-NIPAM) core–shell colloidal nanoparticles in multimodal optical/magnetic resonance imaging probes. Biomaterials 34: 2296–2306, in Google Scholar PubMed

Zhu, N., Ji, H., Yu, P., Niu, J., Farooq, M., Akram, M.W., Udego, I., Li, H., and Niu, X. (2018). Surface modification of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Nanomaterials 8: 810–837, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Received: 2021-03-14
Accepted: 2021-06-05
Published Online: 2021-08-13
Published in Print: 2023-02-23

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 29.3.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow