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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published online by De Gruyter March 25, 2022

Research trends in the development of anodes for electrochemical oxidation of wastewater

Devendra Rai ORCID logo and Shishir Sinha EMAIL logo


The review focuses on the recent development in anode materials and their synthesis approach, focusing on their compatibility for treating actual industrial wastewater, improving selectivity, electrocatalytic activity, stability at higher concentration, and thereby reducing the mineralization cost for organic pollutant degradation. The advancement in sol–gel technique, including the Pechini method, is discussed in the first section. A separate discussion related to the selection of the electrodeposition method and its deciding parameters is also included. Furthermore, the effect of using advanced heating approaches, including microwave and laser deposition synthesis, is also discussed. Next, a separate discussion is provided on using different types of anode materials and their effect on active •OH radical generation, activity, and electrode stability in direct and indirect oxidation and future aspects. The effect of using different synthesis approaches, additives, and doping is discussed separately for each anode. Graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and metal doping enhance the number of active sites, electrochemical activity, and mineralization current efficiency (MCE) of the anode. While, microwave or laser heating approaches were proved to be an effective, cheaper, and fast alternative to conventional heating. The electrodeposition and nonaqueous solvent synthesis were convenient and environment-friendly techniques for conductive metallic and polymeric film deposition.

Corresponding author: Shishir Sinha, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India, E-mail:

Funding source: Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Funding source: Ministry of Human Resources Department, Government of India

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: The authors acknowledge the help and financial support from the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee and Ministry of Human Resources Department, Government of India.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Received: 2021-07-28
Accepted: 2021-12-27
Published Online: 2022-03-25

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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