Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published online by De Gruyter November 11, 2022

Screen-printed electrochemical sensors for environmental monitoring of heavy metal ion detection

  • Upasana Choudhari , Shweta Jagtap EMAIL logo , Niranjan Ramgir EMAIL logo , Anil K. Debnath and Kunal P. Muthe


Heavy metal ions (HMIs) are known to cause severe damages to the human body and ecological environment. And considering the current alarming situation, it is crucial to develop a rapid, sensitive, robust, economical and convenient method for their detection. Screen printed electrochemical technology contributes greatly to this task, and has achieved global attention. It enabled the mass transmission rate and demonstrated ability to control the chemical nature of the measure media. Besides, the technique offers advantages like linear output, quick response, high selectivity, sensitivity and stability along with low power requirement and high signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, the performance of SPEs has been improved employing the most effective and promising method of the incorporation of different nanomaterials into SPEs. Especially, in electrochemical sensors, the incorporation of nanomaterials has gained extensive attention for HMIs detection as it exhibits outstanding features like broad electrochemical window, large surface area, high conductivity, selectivity and stability. The present review focuses on the recent progress in the field of screen-printed electrochemical sensors for HMIs detection using nanomaterials. Different fabrication methods of SPEs and their utilization for real sample analysis of HMIs using various nanomaterials have been extensively discussed. Additionally, advancement made in this field is also discussed taking help of the recent literature.

Corresponding authors: Shweta Jagtap, Department of Instrumentation Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007, India, E-mail: ; Niranjan Ramgir, Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India; and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, India, E-mail:

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: The authors would like to thank “Board of Research in Nuclear Science (BRNS)” for funding under core research grant (CRG) (59/20/02/2020-BRNS/59001).

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


Adkins, J., Boehle, K., and Henry, C. (2015). Electrochemical paper-based microfluidic devices. Electrophoresis 36: 1811–1824, in Google Scholar PubMed

Alam, A.U., Clyne, D., Jin, H., Hu, N.X., and Deen, M.J. (2020). Fully integrated, simple, and low-cost electrochemical sensor array for in situ water quality monitoring. ACS Sens. 5: 412–422, in Google Scholar PubMed

Aleeva, Y. and Pignataro, B. (2014). Recent advances in up-scalable wet methods and ink formulations for printed electronics. J. Mater. Chem. C 2: 6436–6645, in Google Scholar

Ali, T.A., Mohamed, G.G., and Othman, A.R. (2015). Design and construction of new potentiometric sensors for determination of copper (II) ion based on copper oxide nanoparticles. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 10: 8041–8057.Search in Google Scholar

Ali, T.A., Hassan, A.M., and Mohamed, G.G. (2016). Manufacture of lead-specific screen printed sensor based on lead Schiff base complex as carrier and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for detection of Pb (II) in contaminated water tests. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 11: 10732–10747, in Google Scholar

Almeida, E.S., Richter, E.M., and Munoz, R.A. (2016). Voltammetric lead determination in aviation fuel samples using a screen-printed gold electrode and batch-injection analysis. Electroanalysis 28: 633–639, in Google Scholar

ANDalyze. Heavy metal testing in water in (Vol. 2019). Available at: in Google Scholar

Aragay, G. and Merkoçi, A. (2012). Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals. Electrochim. Acta 84: 49–61, in Google Scholar

ASTM D (2018). Standard test method for measuring adhesion by tap test, 3359–959, Available at: in Google Scholar

Azami, T., Kasuya, D., Yuge, R., Yudasaka, M., Iijima, S., Yoshitake, T., and Kubo, Y. (2008). Large-scale production of single-wall carbon nanohorns with high purity. J. Phys. Chem. C 112: 1330–1334, in Google Scholar

Balasubramanian, K. and Burghard, M. (2005). Chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes. Small 1: 180–192, in Google Scholar PubMed

Banerjee, S., McCracken, S., Hossain, M.F., and Slaughter, G. (2020). Electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters. Biosensors 10: 101, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R., and White, H.S. (2022). Electrochemical methods: fundamentals and applications. John Wiley & Sons, Austin.Search in Google Scholar

Bernal, J.D. and Mason, J. (1960). Packing of spheres: co-ordination of randomly packed spheres. Nature 188: 910–911, in Google Scholar

Bernalte, E., Sánchez, C.M., and Gil, E.P. (2011). Determination of mercury in ambient water samples by anodic stripping voltammetry on screen-printed gold electrodes. Anal. Chim. Acta 689: 60–64, in Google Scholar PubMed

Bernalte, E., Sánchez, C.M., and Gil, E.P. (2012). Gold nanoparticles-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of mercury in ambient water samples. Sens. Actuator. B 161: 669–674, in Google Scholar

Bhore, S.S. (2013). Formulation and evaluation of resistive inks for applications in printed electronics, Master’s thesis, p. 94.Search in Google Scholar

Borchert, N., Hempel, A., Walsh, H., Kerry, J.P., and Papkovsky, D.B. (2012). High throughput quality and safety assessment of packaged green produce using two optical oxygen sensor based systems. Food Control 28: 87–93, in Google Scholar

Cabaniss, G.E., Diamantis, A.A., Murphy, W.R., Linton, R.W., and Meyer, T.J. (1985). Electrocatalysis of proton-coupled electron-transfer reactions at glassy carbon electrodes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107: 1845–1853, in Google Scholar

Cadevall, M., Ros, J., and Merkoci, A. (2015). Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor. Electrophoresis 36: 1872–1879, in Google Scholar PubMed

Chaiyo, S., Mehmeti, E., Žagar, K., Siangproh, W., Chailapakul, O., and Kalcher, K. (2016). Electrochemical sensors for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium and lead using a nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen printed carbon electrode. Anal. Chim. Acta 918: 26–34, in Google Scholar PubMed

Chen, C., Niu, X., Chai, Y., Zhao, H., and Lan, M. (2013a). Bismuth-based porous screen-printed carbon electrode with enhanced sensitivity for trace heavy metal detection by stripping voltammetry. Sens. Actuator. B 178: 339–342, in Google Scholar

Chen, C., Niu, X., Chai, Y., Zhao, H., Lan, M., Zhu, Y., and Wei, G. (2013b). Determination of lead (II) using screen-printed bismuth-antimony film electrode. Electroanalysis 25: 1446–1452, in Google Scholar

Chen, C.L., Wang, X.K., and Nagatsu, M. (2009). Europium adsorption on multiwall carbon nanotube/iron oxide magnetic composite in the presence of polyacrylic acid. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43: 2362–2367, in Google Scholar PubMed

Chen, G., Lin, Y., and Wang, J. (2006). Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Talanta 68: 497–503, in Google Scholar PubMed

Chimezie, A.B., Hajian, R., Yusof, N.A., Woi, P.M., and Shams, N. (2017). Fabrication of reduced graphene oxide-magnetic nanocomposite (rGOFe3O4) as an electrochemical sensor for trace determination of As(III) in water resources. J. Electroanal. Chem. 796: 33–42, in Google Scholar

Choudhry, N.A., Kampouris, D.K., Kadara, R.O., and Banks, C.E. (2010). Disposable highly ordered pyrolytic graphite-like electrodes: tailoring the electrochemical reactivity of screen printed electrodes. Electrochem. Commun. 12: 6–9, in Google Scholar

Compton, R.G. and Banks, C.E. (2018). Understanding voltammetry. World Scientific, Singapore.10.1142/q0155Search in Google Scholar

Cordova-Huaman, A.V., Jauja-Ccana, V.R., and La Rosa-Toro, A. (2021). Low-cost smartphone-controlled potentiostat based on Arduino for teaching electrochemistry fundamentals and applications. Heliyon 7: e06259, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Corgier, B.P., Marquette, C.A., and Blum, L.J. (2007). Direct electrochemical addressing of immunoglobulins: immuno-chip on screen-printed microarray. Biosens. Bioelectron. 22: 1522–1526, in Google Scholar PubMed

Dedik, J., Janovcová, M., Dejmková, H., Barek, J., and Pecková, K. (2011). Utilization of unmodified screen-printed carbon electrodes in electroanalysis of organic compounds (an overview). In: Kalcher, Metelka, R., Švancara, I., and Vytřas, K. (Eds.), Sensing in electroanalysis, Vol. 6. University of Pardubice, Pardubice.Search in Google Scholar

De Mello, A.J. and Beard, N. (2003). Focus. Dealing with ‘real’samples: sample pre-treatment in microfluidic systems. Lab Chip 3: 11N–20N, in Google Scholar PubMed

Demirbas, A. (2008). Heavy metal adsorption onto agro-based waste materials: a review. J. Hazard Mater. 157: 220–229, in Google Scholar PubMed

Derby, B. (2010). Inkjet printing of functional and structural materials: fluid property requirements. Feature stability, and resolution. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 40: 395–414, in Google Scholar

Deshmukh, M.A., Shirsat, M.D., Ramanaviciene, A., and Ramanavicius, A. (2018). Composites based on conducting polymers and carbon nanomaterials for heavy metal ion sensing (review). Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 48: 293, in Google Scholar PubMed

Dobbelaere, T., Vereecken, P.M., and Detavernier, C.A. (2017). USB-controlled potentiostat/galvanostat for thin-film battery characterization. HardwareX 2: 34–49, in Google Scholar

Dominguez-Renedo, O., Ruiz-Espelt, L., García-Astorgano, N., and Arcos-Martínez, M.J. (2008). Electrochemical determination of chromium(VI) using metallic nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes. Talanta 76: 854–858, in Google Scholar PubMed

Du, C.X., Han, L., Dong, S.L., Li, L.H., and Wei, Y. (2016). A novel procedure for fabricating flexible screen printed electrode with improved electrochemical performance. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 1: 132–139.10.1088/1757-899X/137/1/012060Search in Google Scholar

Economou, A. (2018). Screen-printed electrodes modified with “green” metals for electrochemical stripping analysis of toxic elements. Sensors 18: 1032, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Economou, A. and Kokkinos, C. (2015). Chapter 1: advances in stripping analysis of metals. In: Electrochemical strategies in detection science. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 1–18.10.1039/9781782622529-00001Search in Google Scholar

Ersan, G., Apul, O.G., Perreault, F., and Karanfil, T. (2010). Determination of trace heavy metals in herbs by sequential injection analysis anodic stripping voltammetry using screen-printed carbon nanotubes electrodes. Anal. Chim. Acta 668: 54–60, in Google Scholar PubMed

Ersan, G., Apul, O.G., Perreault, F., and Karanfil, T. (2017). Adsorption of organic contaminants by graphene nanosheets: a review. Water Res. 126: 385–398, in Google Scholar PubMed

Ezhil-Vilian, A.T., Shahzad, A., Chung, J., Choe, S.R., Kim, W.S., Huh, Y.S., Yu, T., and Han, Y.K. (2017). Square voltammetric sensing of mercury at very low working potential by using oligomer-functionalized Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles Microchim. Acta 184: 3547–3556.Search in Google Scholar

Fanjul-Bolado, P., Hernández-Santos, D., Lamas-Ardisana, P.J., Martín-Pernía, A., and Costa-García, A. (2008). Electrochemical characterization of screen-printed and conventional carbon paste electrodes. Electrochim. Acta 3: 3635, in Google Scholar

Feng, W., Hong-Wei, L., Xin, Y., and Di-Zhao, C. (2013). GS-Nafion-Au nanocomposite film Pb (II) Cd (II) modified SPCEs for simultaneous determination of trace and by DPSV. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 8: 7702–7712.Search in Google Scholar

Ferrari, A.G.M., Carrington, P., Rowley-Neale, S.J., and Banks, C.E. (2020). Banks I. Recent advances in portable heavy metal electrochemical sensing platforms. Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol. 6: 2676–2690.Search in Google Scholar

Fletcher, S. (2016). Screen-printed carbon electrodes. Adv. Electrochem. Sci. Eng. 16: 425–443.10.1002/9783527697489.ch12Search in Google Scholar

Foster, C.W., de Souza, A.P., Metters, J.P., Bertotti, M., and Banks, C.E. (2015). Disposable screen-printed sensors modified with bismuth precursor compounds for the rapid voltammetric screening of trace Pb(II) and Cd(II). Anal. Chim. Acta 728: 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

Frutos-Puerto, S., Miró, C., and Pinilla-Gil, E. (2019). Nafion-protected sputtered-bismuth screen-printed electrode for on-site voltammetric measurements of Cd (II) and Pb (II) in natural water samples. Sensors 19: 279, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Fu, L., Li, X., Yu, J., and Ye, J. (2013). Facile and simultaneous stripping determination of zinc, cadmium and lead on disposable multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrode. Electroanalysis 25: 567–572, in Google Scholar

Fu, L., Liu, Z., Ge, J., Guo, M., Zhang, H., Chen, F., Su, W., and Yu, A. (2019). (001 plan manipulation of α-Fe2O3 nanostructures for enhanced electrochemical Cr(VI) sensing. J. Electroanal. Chem. 841: 142–147, in Google Scholar

Fujiwara, A., Ishii, K., Suematsu, H., Kataura, H., Maniwa, Y., Suzuki, S., and Achiba, Y. (2011). Gas adsorption in the inside and outside of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Chem. Phys. Lett. 336: 205–211, in Google Scholar

Fujiwara, A., Ishii, K., Suematsu, H., Kataura, H., Maniwa, Y., Suzuki, S., and Achiba, Y. (2018). Printing single-walled carbon nanotube/nafion composites by direct writing techniques. Mater. Des. 155: 125–133, in Google Scholar

García-Miranda Ferrari, A., Foster, C.W., Kelly, P.J., Brownson, D.A., and Banks, C.E. (2018). Determination of the electrochemical area of screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms. Biosensors 8: 53, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

George, J.M., Antony, A., and Mathew, B. (2018). Metal oxide nanoparticles in electrochemical sensing and biosensing: a review. Microchim. Acta 185: 358, in Google Scholar PubMed

Gilbert, M. and Patrick, S. (2017). Chapter 13: poly(vinyl chloride). In: Gilbert, M. (Ed.), Brydson’s plastics materials, 8th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 329–388.10.1016/B978-0-323-35824-8.00013-XSearch in Google Scholar

Goyer, R.A. and Clarkson, T.W. (1996). Toxic effects of metals. In: Klaassen, C.D. (Ed.), Cassarett and Doull’s toxicology: the basic science of poisons, Vol. 5, pp. 691–736.Search in Google Scholar

Grennan, K., Killard, J.A., and Smyth, R.M. (2001). Physical characterizations of a screen-printed electrode for use in an amperometric biosensor system. Electroanal. Int. J. Devot. Fund. Pract. Asp. Electroanal. 13: 745–750,<745::aid-elan745>;2-b.10.1002/1521-4109(200105)13:8/9<745::AID-ELAN745>3.0.CO;2-BSearch in Google Scholar

Grgoire, H. (2015). Recent developments in electrochemistry at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions for ion sensing. Analyst 140: 3888–3896, in Google Scholar

Hassan, S.S., Solangi, A.R., Kazi, T.G., Kalhoro, M.S., Junejo, Y., Tagar, Z.A., and Kalwar, N.H. (2012). Nafion stabilized ibuprofen-gold nanostructures modified screen printed electrode as arsenic (III) sensor. J. Electroanal. Chem. 682: 77–82, in Google Scholar

Hori, Y., Takahashi, R., Yoshinami, Y., and Murata, A. (1997). Electrochemical reduction of CO at copper electrode. J. Phys. Chem. B 101: 7075–7081, in Google Scholar

Hong, Y., Wu, M., Chen, G., Dai, Z., Zhang, Y., Chen, G., and Dong, X. (2016). 3D printed microfluidic device with microporous Mn2O3-modified screen printed electrode for real-time determination of heavy metal ions. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8: 32940–32947, in Google Scholar PubMed

Hou, X., Xiong, B., Wang, Y., Wang, L., and Wang, H. (2020a). Determination of trace lead and cadmium in decorative material using disposable screen-printed electrode electrically modified with reduced graphene oxide/L-cysteine/bi-film. Sensors 20: 1322, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Hou, X., Xiong, B., Wang, Y., Wang, L., and Wang, H. (2020b). Comparison of backing materials of screen printed electrochemical sensors for direct determination of the sub-nanomolar concentration of lead in seawater. Talanta 182: 549–557.10.1016/j.talanta.2018.02.005Search in Google Scholar PubMed

HTH Test to swim App. Available at: in Google Scholar

Huang, L., Tian, S., Zhao, W., Liu, K., and Guo, J. (2021). Electrochemical vitamin sensors: a critical review. Talanta 222: 121645, in Google Scholar PubMed

Huangfu, C., Fu, L., Li, Y., Li, X., Du, H., and Ye, J. (2013). Sensitive stripping determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on disposable graphene modified screen-printed electrode. Electroanalysis 25: 2238–2243, in Google Scholar

Huang, C.-Y. (2015). Design of a portable potentiostat with dualmicroprocessors for electrochemical biosensors. Univ. J. Electr. Electr. Eng. 3: 159–164, in Google Scholar

Ibáñez-Redín, G., Furuta, R.H., Wilson, D., Shimizu, F.M., Materon, E.M., Arantes, L.M.R.B., Melendez, M.E., Carvalho, A.L., Reis, R.M., Chaur, M.N., et al.. (2019). Screen-printed interdigitated electrodes modified with nanostructured carbon nano-onion films for detecting the cancer biomarker CA19-9. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 99: 1502–1508, in Google Scholar PubMed

Iglesias, D., Atienzar, P., Vázquez, E., Herrero, M.A., and García, H. (2017). Carbon nanohorns modified with conjugated terthienyl/terthiophene structures: additives to enhance the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials 7: 294, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Iijima, S. and Ichihashi, T. (1993). Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter. Nature 363: 603–605, in Google Scholar

Jacobs, J.A. and Testa, S.M. (2005). Overview of chromium (VI) in the environment: background and history. In: Guertin, J., Jacobs, J.A., and Avakian, C.P. (Eds.), Chromium (VI) handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, pp. 1–22.Search in Google Scholar

Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B.B., and Beeregowda, K.N. (2014). Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscipl. Toxicol. 7: 60–72, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Jian, J.M., Liu, Y.Y., Zhang, Y.L., Guo, X.S., and Cai, Q. (2013). Fast and sensitive detection of Pb2+ in foods using disposable screen-printed electrode modified by reduced graphene oxide. Sensors (Basel) 13: 13063–13075, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Jijana, A.N., Mphuthi, N., Shumbula, P., Vilakazi, S., and Sikhwivhilu, L. (2021). The ultra-sensitive electrochemical detection of As(III) in ground water using disposable L-cysteine/lipoic acid functionalized gold nanoparticle modified screen-printed electrodes. Electrocatalysis 12: 310–325, in Google Scholar

Kadara, R.O., Jenkinson, N., and Banks, C.E. (2009). Disposable bismuth oxide screen printed electrodes for the high throughput screening of heavy metals. Electroanalysis 21: 2410–2414, in Google Scholar

Kanyong, P., Rawlinson, S., and Davis, J. (2016). Gold nanoparticle modified screen-printed carbon arrays for the simultaneous electrochemical analysis of lead and copper in tap water. Microchim. Acta 183: 2361–2368, in Google Scholar

Khaled, E., Mohamed, G.G., and Awad, T. (2008). Disposal screen-printed carbon paste electrodes for the potentiometric titration of surfactants. Sens. Actuators B 135: 74–80, in Google Scholar

Khan, A.A.A., Ajab, H., Yaqub, A., and Abdullah, M.A. (2019). Bismuth/hydroxyapatite-modified carbon screen-printed electrode for heavy-metal ion detection in aqueous media. E3S Web Conf. 76: 02001, in Google Scholar

Khanmohammadi, A., Jalili Ghazizadeh, A., Hashemi, P., Afkhami, A., Arduini, F., and Bagheri, H. (2020). An overview to electrochemical biosensors and sensors for the detection of environmental contaminants. J. Iran. Chem. Soc. 17: 2429–2447, in Google Scholar

Kim, H., Jang, G., and Yoon, Y. (2020). Specific heavy metal/metalloid sensors: current state and perspectives. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 104: 907–914, in Google Scholar PubMed

Konash, A., Harris, A.R., Zhang, J., Elton, D., Hyland, M., Kennedy, G., and Bond, A.M. (2009). Theoretical and experimental evaluation of screen-printed tubular carbon-based ink disposable sensor well electrodes by dc and Fourier transformed ac voltammetry. J. Solid State Electrochem. 13: 551–563, in Google Scholar

Koudelkova, Z., Syrovy, T., Ambrozova, P., Moravec, Z., Kubac, L., Hynek, D., Richtera, L., and Adam, V. (2017). Determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and silver using a carbon paste electrode and a screen printed electrode modified with chromium(III) oxide. Sensors 17: 1832, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Kozakova, Z., Kuritka, I., Kazantseva, N.E., Babayan, V., Pastorek, M., Machovsky, M., Bazant, P., and Sáha, P. (2015). The formation mechanism of iron oxide nanoparticles within the microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis and its correlation with the structural and magnetic properties. Dalton Trans. 44: 21099–21108, in Google Scholar PubMed

Kudr, J., Zhao, L., Nguyen, E.P., Arola, H., Nevanen, T.K., Adam, V., Zitka, O., and Merkoçi, A. (2020). Inkjet- printed electrochemically reduced graphene oxide microelectrode as a platform for Ht-2 mycotoxin immunoenzymatic biosensing. Biosens. Bioelectron. 159: 112109, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lazanas, A.C., Tsirka, K., Paipetis, A.S., and Prodromidis, M.I. (2020). 2D bismuthene/graphene modified electrodes for the ultra-sensitive stripping voltammetric determination of lead and cadmium. Electrochim. Acta 336: 135726, in Google Scholar

Leach, R.H., Pierce, R.J., Hickman, E.P., Mackenzie, M.J., and Smith, H.G. (2007). The printing ink manual, 5th ed. Springer, Europe.Search in Google Scholar

Lesch, A., Cortés-Salazar, F., Prudent, M., Delobel, J., Rastgar, S., Lion, N., and Girault, H.H. (2014). Large scale inkjet-printing of carbon nanotubes electrodes for antioxidant assays in blood bags. J. Electroanal. Chem. 717–718: 61–68, in Google Scholar

Lezi, N., Economou, A., Dimovasilis, P., Trikalitis, P., and Prodromidis, M. (2012). Disposable screen-printed sensors modified with bismuth precursor compounds for the rapid voltammetric screening of trace Pb(II) and Cd(II). Anal. Chim. Acta 728: 1–8.10.1016/j.aca.2012.03.036Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Li, C., Iqbal, M., Lin, J., Luo, X., Jiang, B., Malgras, V., Wu, K.C.W., Kim, J., and Yamauchi, Y. (2018a). Electrochemical deposition: an advanced approach for templated synthesis of nanoporous metal architectures. Acc. Chem. Res. 51: 1764–1773, in Google Scholar PubMed

Li, Z., Xu, D., Zhang, D., and Yamaguchi, Y. (2021). A portable instrument for on-site detection of heavy metal ions in water. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 413: 3471–3477.10.1007/s00216-021-03292-wSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

Li, S.S., Zhou, W.Y., Jiang, M., Guo, Z., Liu, J.H., Zhang, L., and Huang, X.J. (2018b). Surface Fe(II)/Fe(III) cycle promoted ultra-highly sensitive electrochemical sensing of arsenic (III) with dumbbell-like Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Anal. Chem. 90: 4569–4577, in Google Scholar PubMed

Liang, Y., Ma, M., Zhang, F., Liu, F., Lu, T., Liu, Z., and Li, Y. (2021). Wireless microfluidic sensor for metal ion detection in water. ACS Omega 6: 9302–9309, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Lin, S., Wang, B., Yu, W., Castillo, K., Hoffman, C., Cheng, X., Zhao, Y., Gao, Y., Wang, Z., Lin, H., et al.. (2020). Design framework and sensing system for noninvasive wearable electroactive drug monitoring. ACS Sens. 5: 265–273, in Google Scholar PubMed

Liu, X., Yao, Y., Ying, Y., and Ping, J. (2019a). Recent advances in nanomaterial-enabled screen-printed electrochemical sensors for heavy metal detection. TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 115: 187–202, in Google Scholar

Liu, Y., Ma, C., Zhang, Q., Wang, W., Pan, P., Gu, L., Xu, D., Bao, J., and Dai, Z. (2019b). 2D electron gas and oxygen vacancy induced high oxygen evolution performances for advanced Co3O4/CeO2 nanohybrids. Adv. Mater. 31: 1900062, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lloyd, S., Fung, C., Deganello, D., Wang, R., Maffeis, T., Lau, S., and Teng, K. (2013). Flexographic printing-assisted fabrication of ZnO nanowire devices. Nanotechnology 24: 195602.10.1088/0957-4484/24/19/195602Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Loaiza, O.A., Campuzano, S., Pedrero, M., and Pingaron, J.M. (2008). Designs of Enterobacteriaceae Lac Z gene DNA gold screen printed biosensors. Electroanalysis 20: 1397–1405, in Google Scholar

Lopin, P. and Lopin, K.V.P. (2018). SoC-Stat: a single chip open source potentiostat based on a programmable system on a chip. PLoS One 13: e0201353, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Lu, D., Sullivan, C., Brack, E.M., Drew, C.P., and Kurup, P. (2020a). Simultaneous voltammetric detection of cadmium (II), arsenic (III) and selenium (IV) using gold nanostar–modified screen-printed carbon electrodes and modified Britton-Robinson buffer. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 412: 4113–4125, in Google Scholar PubMed

Lu, D., Sullivan, C., Brack, E.M., Drew, C.P., and Kurup, P. (2020b). Facile trace mercury (II) sensor using statistically optimized electrochemical Co-deposited gold nanofilm modified screen-printed carbon electrodes. IEEE Sens. J. 21: 2485–2494.10.1109/JSEN.2020.3022622Search in Google Scholar

Lukas, N., Jiri, K., Branislav, R.-N., Zbynek, H., Lukas, Z., Ludek, Z., Sona, K., Vojtech, A., Marketa, V., and Rene, K. (2015). Remote-controlled robotic platform for electrochemical determination of water contaminated by heavy metal ions. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 10: 3635–3643.Search in Google Scholar

Luong, J.H., Male, K.B., and Glennon, J.D. (2009). Boron-doped diamond electrode: synthesis, characterization, functionalization and analytical applications. Analyst 134: 1965–1979, in Google Scholar PubMed

Ma, Y., Hu, Z., Huo, K., Lu, Y., Hu, Y., Liu, Y., Hu, J., and Chen, Y. (2005). A practical route to the production of carbon nanocages. Carbon 43: 1667–1672, in Google Scholar

Maczuga, M., Economou, A., Bobrowski, A., and Prodromidis, M.I. (2013). Novel screen-printed antimony and tin voltammetric sensors foranodic stripping detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II). Electrochim. Acta 114: 758–765, in Google Scholar

Maduraiveeran, G. (2020). Bionanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensing platforms for biomedical applications. Anal. Methods 12: 1688–1701, in Google Scholar

Malakhova, N.A., Stojko, N.Y., and Brainina, K.Z. (2007). Novel approach to bismuth modifying procedure for voltammetric thick film carbon containing electrodes. Electrochem. Commun. 9: 221–227, in Google Scholar

Malinowska, E., Brzózka, Z., Kasiura, K., Egberink, R.J., and Reinhoudt, D.N. (1994). Lead selective electrodes based on thioamide functionalized calixarenes as ionophores. Anal. Chim. Acta 298: 253–258, in Google Scholar

Malzahn, K., Windmiller, J.R., Valdes-Ramirez, G., Schoning, M.J., and Wang, J. (2011). Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments. Analyst 136: 2912–2917, in Google Scholar PubMed

Mandil, A., Idrissi, L., and Amine, A. (2010). Stripping voltammetric determination of mercury (II) and lead(II) using screen-printed electrodes modified with gold films, and metal ion preconcentration with thiol-modified magnetic particles. Microchim. Acta 170: 299–305, in Google Scholar

Mann, T.S. and Mikkelsen, S.R. (2008). Antibiotic susceptibility testing at a screen-printed carbon electrode array. Anal. Chem. 80: 843–848, in Google Scholar PubMed

María-Hormigos, R., Gismera, M.J., Procopio, J.R., and Sevilla, M.T. (2016). Disposable screen-printed electrode modified with bismuth-PSS composites as high sensitive sensor for cadmium and lead determination. J. Electroanal. Chem. 767: 114–122, in Google Scholar

Martín-Yerga, D., González-García, M.B., and Costa-García, A. (2012). Use of nanohybrid materials as electrochemical transducers for mercury sensors. Sens. Actuators B 165: 143–150, in Google Scholar

McDonald, R.I., Weber, K., Padowski, J., Flörke, M., Schneider, C., Green, P.A., Gleeson, T., Eckman, S., Lehner, B., Balk, D., et al.. (2014). Water on an urban planet: urbanization and the reach of urban water infrastructure. Global Environ. Change 27: 96–105, in Google Scholar

McKeen, L.W. (2013). Introduction to use of plastics in food packaging. In: Plastic films in food packaging, 1016. William Andrew Publishing, Kidlington, Oxford, pp. 1–15.10.1016/B978-1-4557-3112-1.00001-6Search in Google Scholar

Metters, J.P., Kadara, R.O., and Banks, C.E. (2011). New directions in screen printed electroanalytical sensors: an overview of recent developments. The Analyst 136: 1067–1076, in Google Scholar PubMed

Mishra, R.K., Nawaz, M.H., Hayat, A., Nawaz, M.A.H., Sharma, V., and Marty, J.L. (2017). Electrospinning of graphene-oxide onto screen printed electrodes for heavy metal biosensor. Sens. Actuators B 247: 366–373, in Google Scholar

MoboSens: a water pollution sensor for your smartphone. Available at: in Google Scholar

Mohamed, G.G., Ali, T.A., El-Shahat, M.F., Al-Sabagh, A.M., and Migahed, M.A. (2010). New screen-printed ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric titration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in different civilic media. Electroanalysis 22: 2587–2599, in Google Scholar

Mohankumar, P., Ajayan, J., Mohanraj, T., and Yasodharan, R. (2021). Recent developments in biosensors for healthcare and biomedical applications: a review. Measurement 167: 108293, in Google Scholar

Mohd Bahar, A.A., Zakaria, Z., Isa, A.A.M., Dasril, Y., and Alahnomi, R.A. (2019). Real time microwave biochemical sensor based on circular SIW approach for aqueous dielectric detection. Sci. Rep. 9: 5467, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Molinero-Abad, B., Izquierdo, D., Perez, L., Escudero, I., and Arcos-Martínez, M. (2018). Comparison of backing materials of screen printed electrochemical sensors for direct determination of the sub-nanomolar concentration of lead in seawater. Talanta 182: 549–557.10.1016/j.talanta.2018.02.005Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Morozan, A. and Jaouen, F. (2012). Metal organic frameworks for electrochemical applications. Energy Environ. Sci. 5: 9269–9290.10.1039/c2ee22989gSearch in Google Scholar

Moya, A., Gabriel, G., Villa, R., and del Campo, F.J. (2017). Inkjet-printed electrochemical sensors. Curr. Opin. Electrochem. 3: 29–39, in Google Scholar

Muris, M., Pavlovsky, N.D., Bienfait, M., and Zeppenfeld, P. (2011). Where are the molecules adsorbed on single-walled nanotubes. Surf. Sci. 492: 67–74, in Google Scholar

Nantaphol, S., Channon, R.B., Kondo, T., Siangproh, W., Chailapakul, O., and Henry, C.S. (2017). Boron doped diamond paste electrodes for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. Anal. Chem. 89: 4100–4107, in Google Scholar PubMed

Nemiroski, A., Christodouleas, D.C., Hennek, J.W., Kumar, A.A., Maxwell, E.J., Fernández-Abedul, M.T., and Whitesides, G.M. (2014). Universal mobile electrochemical detector designed for use in resource-limited applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111: 11984–11989, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Niu, X., Chen, C., Teng, Y., Zhao, H., and Lan, M. (2012). Novel screen-printed gold nano film electrode for trace mercury (II) determination using anodic stripping voltammetry. Anal. Lett. 45: 764–773, in Google Scholar

Niu, X., Lan, M., Zhao, H., Chen, C., Li, Y., and Zhu, X. (2013). Review: electrochemical stripping analysis of trace heavy metals using screen-printed electrodes. Anal. Lett. 46: 2479–2502.10.1080/00032719.2013.805416Search in Google Scholar

Niu, P., Fernandez-Sanchez, C., Gich, M., Navarro-Hernandez, C., Fanjul-Bolado, P., and Roig, A. (2016a). Screen-printed electrodes made of a bismuth nanoparticle porous carbon nanocomposite applied to the determination of heavy metal ions. Microchim. Acta 183: 617–623, in Google Scholar

Niu, X., Zhang, H., Yu, M., Zhao, H., Lan, M., and Yu, C. (2016b). Combination of microporous hollow carbon spheres and nafion for the individual metal-free stripping detection of Pb2+ and Cd2+. Anal. Sci. 32: 943–949, in Google Scholar PubMed

Nguyen, H.L., Cao, H.H., Nguyen, D.T., and Nguyen, V.A. (2017). Sodium dodecyl sulfate doped polyaniline for enhancing the electrochemical sensitivity of mercury ions. Electroanalysis 29: 595–601, in Google Scholar

Noh, M.F.M. and Tothill, I.E. (2011). Determination of lead (II), cadmium (II) and copper (II) in waste-water and soil extracts on mercury film screen-printed carbon electrodes. Sens. Sains Malaysia 40: 1153–1163.Search in Google Scholar

Nontawong, N., Amatatongchai, M., Wuepchaiyaphum, W., Chairam, S., Pimmongkol, S., Panich, S., Tamuang, S., and Jarujamrus, P. (2018). Fabrication of a three-dimensional electrochemical paper-based device (3d-Epad) for individual and simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 13: 6940–6957, in Google Scholar

Pacificwater. Water quality test kit. Available at: in Google Scholar

Pagona, G., Mountrichas, G., Rotas, G., Karousis, N., Pispas, S., and Tagmatarchis, N. (2009). Properties, applications and functionalization of carbon nanohorns. Int. J. Nanotechnol. 6: 176–195, in Google Scholar

Payne, M. (2008). Lead in drinking water. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 179: 253–254, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Perez-Lopez, B. and Merkoç, A. (2011). Nanoparticles for the development of improved (bio)sensing systems. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 399: 1577–1590, in Google Scholar PubMed

Pérez-Ràfols, C., Serrano, N., Díaz-Cruz, J.M., Ariño, C., and Esteban, M. (2016). New approaches to antimony film screen-printed electrodes using carbon-based nanomaterials substrates. Anal. Chim. Acta 916: 17–23, in Google Scholar PubMed

Perez-Rafols, C., Bastos-Arrieta, J., Serrano, N., Díaz-Cruz, J.M., Ariño, C., De Pablo, J., and Esteban, M. (2017). Ag nanoparticles drop-casting modification of screen-printed electrodes for the simultaneous voltammetric determination of Cu (II) and Pb (II). Sensors 17: 1458, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Phadtare, V.D., Parale, V.G., Kulkarni, G.K., Velhal, N.B., Park, H.H., and Puri, V.R. (2017). Screen printed carbon nanotube thick film on alumina substrate. Ceram. Int. 43: 4612–4617, in Google Scholar

Piermarini, S., Micheli, L., Ammida, N.H.S., Palleschi, G., and Moscone, D. (2007). Electrochemical immunosensor array using a 96-well screen-printed microplate for aflatoxin B1 detection. Biosens. Bioelectron. 22: 1434–1440, in Google Scholar PubMed

Ping, J.F., Wu, J., Ying, Y.B., Wang, M.H., Liu, G., and Zhang, M. (2011). Development of a novel carbon composite electrode for trace determination of heavy metals in milk. Trans. ASABE 54: 1829–1835, in Google Scholar

Ping, J., Wu, J., and Ying, Y. (2012). Determination of trace heavy metals in milk using an ionic liquid and bismuth oxide nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode. Chin. Sci. Bull. 57: 1781–1787, in Google Scholar

Ping, J.F., Wang, Y.X., Wu, J., and Ying, Y.B. (2014). Development of an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified disposable bismuth film electrode and its application for stripping analysis of heavy metals in milk. Food Chem. 151: 65–71, in Google Scholar PubMed

Privett, B.J., Shin, J.H., and Schoenfisch, M.H. (2010). Electrochemical sensors. Anal. Chem. 82: 4723–4741, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Promphet, N., Rattanarat, P., Rangkupan, R., Chailapakul, O., and Rodthongkum, N. (2015). An electrochemical sensor based on graphene/polyaniline/polystyrene nanoporous fibers modified electrode for simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium. Sens. Actuators B 207: 526–534, in Google Scholar

Pungjunun, K., Chaiyo, S., Jantrahong, I., Nantaphol, S., Siangproh, W., and Chailapakul, O. (2018). Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of total arsenic using a gold nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode on a paper-based device. Microchim. Acta 185: 324, in Google Scholar PubMed

Puy-Llovera, J., Pérez-Ràfols, C., Serrano, N., Díaz-Cruz, J.M., Ariño, C., and Esteban, M. (2017). Selenocystine modified screen-printed electrode as an alternative sensor for the voltammetric determination of metal ions. Talanta 175: 501–506, in Google Scholar PubMed

Rawson, F.J., Purcell, W.M., Xu, J., Cowell, D.C., Fielden, P.R., Biddle, N., and Hart, J.P. (2007). Fabrication and characterization of novel screen-printed tubular microband electrodes, and their application to the measurement of hydrogen peroxide. Electrochim. Acta 52: 7248–7253, in Google Scholar

Reay, R.J., Kounaves, S.P., and Kovacs, G.T. (1994). An integrated CMOS potentiostat for miniaturized electroanalytical instrumentation. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference-ISSCC IEEE 94, pp. 162–163.10.1109/ISSCC.1994.344686Search in Google Scholar

Riman, D., Jirovsky, D., Hrbac, J., and Prodromidis, M.I. (2015). Green and facile electrode modification by spark discharge: bismuth oxide-screen printed electrodes for the screening of ultra-trace Cd(II) and Pb(II). Electrochem. Commun. 50: 20–23, in Google Scholar

Rueda-Holgado, F., Calvo-Blázquez, L., Cereceda-Balic, F., and Pinilla-Gil, E. (2016). A semiautomatic system for soluble lead and copper monitoring in atmospheric deposition by coupling of passive elemental fractionation sampling and voltammetric measurement on screen-printed gold electrodes. Microchem. J. 375: 20–25, in Google Scholar

Ruengpirasiri, P., Punrat, E., Chailapakul, O., and Chuanuwatanakul, S. (2017). Graphene oxide-modified electrode coated with in-situ antimony film for the simultaneous determination of heavy metals by sequential injection-anodic stripping voltammetry. Electroanalysis 29: 1022–1030, in Google Scholar

Saha, S., Pal, A., Kundu, S., Basu, S., and Pal, T. (2010). Photochemical green synthesis of calcium-alginate-stabilized Ag and Au nanoparticles and their catalytic application to 4-nitrophenol reduction. Langmuir 26: 2885–2893, in Google Scholar PubMed

Salim, A. and Lim, S. (2018). TM02 quarter-mode substrate-integrated waveguide resonator for dual detection of chemicals. Sensors 18: 1964, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Sanllorente-Méndez, S., Domínguez-Renedo, O., and Arcos-Martínez, M.J. (2009). Determination of arsenic(III) using platinum nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon-based electrodes. Electroanalysis 21: 635–639, in Google Scholar

Sapari, S., Razak, N.H.A., Hasbullah, S.A., Heng, L.Y., Chong, K.F., and Tan, L.L. (2020). A regenerable screen-printed voltammetric Hg(II) ion sensor based on tris-thiourea organic chelating ligand grafted graphene nanomaterial. J. Electroanal. Chem. 878: 114670, in Google Scholar

Seenivasan, R., Chang, W.J., and Gunasekaran, S. (2015). Highly sensitive detection and removal of lead ions in water using cysteine-functionalized graphene oxide/polypyrrole nanocomposite film electrode. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7: 15935–15943, in Google Scholar PubMed

SenSafe Water Metals Check. Available at: in Google Scholar

Shao, D.D., Jiang, Z.Q., Wang, X.K., Li, J.X., and Meng, Y.D. (2009). Plasma induced drafting carboxymethyl cellulose on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the removal of UO22+${\text{UO}}_{2}^{2+}$ from aqueous solution. J. Phys. Chem. B 113: 860–864.10.1021/jp8091094Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Shi, J., Tang, F., Xing, H., Zheng, H., Lianhua, B., and Wei, W. (2012). Electrochemical detection of Pb and Cd in paper-based microfluidic devices. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 23: 1124–1130, in Google Scholar

Shuai, H. and Lei, Y.J. (2016). Graphene ink fabricated screen printed electrode for Cd (II) and Pb (II) determination in Xiangjiang river. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 11: 7430–7439, in Google Scholar

Some, I.T., Sakira, A.K., Mertens, D., Ronkart, S.N., and Kauffmann, J.M. (2016). Determination of ground water mercury (II) content using a disposable gold modified screen printed carbon electrode. Talanta 152: 335–340, in Google Scholar PubMed

Song, Y.S., Muthuraman, G., Chen, Y.Z., Lin, C.C., and Zen, J.M. (2006). Screen printed carbon electrode modified with poly(L-lactide) stabilized gold nanoparticles for sensitive as(III) detection. Electroanalysis 18: 1763–1770, in Google Scholar

Song, W., Zhang, L., Shi, L., Li, D.W., Li, Y., and Long, Y.T. (2010). Simultaneous determination of cadmium (II), lead (II) and copper (II) by using a screen-printed electrode modified with mercury nano-droplets. Microchim. Acta 169: 321–326, in Google Scholar

Sosa, V., Serrano, N., Ariño, C., Díaz-Cruz, J.M., and Esteban, M. (2014). Sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode: A promising alternative to other bismuth modifications in the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb (II)ions in groundwater. Talanta 119: 348–352, in Google Scholar PubMed

Stradiotto, N.R., Yamanaka, H., and Zanoni, M.V.B. (2003). Electrochemical sensors: a powerful tool in analytical chemistry. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 14: 159–173, in Google Scholar

Stulík, K., Amatore, C., Holub, K., Marecek, V., and Kutner, W. (2000). Microelectrodes. Definitions, characterization, and applications (technical report). Pure Appl. Chem. 72: 1483–1492, in Google Scholar

Su, W.Y., Wang, S.M., and Cheng, S.H. (2011). Electrochemically pretreated screen-printed carbon electrodes for the simultaneous determination of aminophenol isomers. J. Electroanal. Chem. 651: 166–172, in Google Scholar

Tang, Z., Chen, H., Song, S., Fan, C., Zhang, D., and Wu, A. (2011). Disposable screen printed electrode coupled by recombinant drosophila melanogasteraacetylcholinesterase and multiwall carbon nanotubes for rapid detection of pesticides. J. AOAC Int. 94: 307–312, in Google Scholar

Tanasale, M.F., Latupeirissa, J., and Letelay, R. (2014). Adsorption of tartrazine dye by active carbon from mahagony (Swietenia mahagoni) rind. Indo. J. Chem. Res. 1: 104–109.Search in Google Scholar

Tchounwou, P.B., Ayensu, W.K., Ninashvili, N., and Sutton, D. (2003). Environmental exposures to mercury and its toxicopathologic implications for public health. Environ. Toxicol. 18: 149–175, in Google Scholar PubMed

Tchounwou, P.B., Centeno, J.A., and Patlolla, A.K. (2004). Arsenic toxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis—a health risks assessment and management approach. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 255: 47–55, in Google Scholar PubMed

Tchounwou, P.B., Yedjou, C.G., Patlolla, A.K., and Sutton, D.J. (2012). Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. Exper. Suppl. (Basel) 101: 133–164.10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Teo, W.E. and Ramakrishna, S. (2006). A review on electrospinning design and nanofibre assemblies. Nanotechnology 17: R89, in Google Scholar

Tortorich, R.P., Shamkhalichenar, H., and Choi, J.W. (2018). Inkjet-printed and paper-based electrochemical sensors. Appl. Sci. 8: 288, in Google Scholar

Torres-Rivero, K., Torralba-Cadena, L., Espriu-Gascon, A., Casas, I., Bastos-Arrieta, J., and Florido, A. (2019). Strategies for surface modification with Ag-shaped nanoparticles: electrocatalytic enhancement of screen-printed electrodes for the detection of heavy metals. Sensors 19: 4249, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Trachioti, M.G., Hrbac, J., and Prodromidis, M.I. (2018). Determination of Cd and Zn with “green” screen-printed electrodes modified with instantly prepared sparked tin nanoparticles. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 260: 1076–1083, in Google Scholar

Tseliou, F., Avgeropoulos, A., Falaras, P., and Prodromidis, M.I. (2017). Low dimensional Bi2Te3-graphene oxide hybrid film-modified electrodes for ultra-sensitive stripping voltammetric detection of Pb (II) and Cd (II). Electrochim. Acta 231: 230–237, in Google Scholar

Tu, J., Gan, Y., Liang, T., Wan, H., and Wang, P. (2018). A miniaturized electrochemical system for high sensitive determination of chromium (VI) by screen-printed carbon electrode with gold nanoparticles modification. Sens. Actuators 272: 582–588, in Google Scholar

Tummala, E.R.R. and Rymaszewski, E.J. (1997). Microelectronics packaging handbook: subsystem packaging. Part III, 2nd ed. USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Search in Google Scholar

Underwood, E.J. (1974). Factors influencing trace element needs and tolerances in man. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 5: 86–88, in Google Scholar

Wahyuni, W.T., Putra, B.R., Fauzi, A., Ramadhanti, D., Rohaeti, E., and Heryanto, R. (2021). A brief review on fabrication of screen-printed carbon electrode. Mater. Tech. 8: 210–218, in Google Scholar

Wan, H., Sun, Q., Li, H., Sun, F., Hu, N., and Wang, P. (2015). Screen-printed gold electrode with gold nanoparticles modification for simultaneous electrochemical determination of lead and copper. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 209: 336–342, in Google Scholar

Wang, G., Wu, M., Chu, L.T., and Chen, T.H. (2021). Portable microfluidic device with thermometer-like display for real-time visual quantitation of Cadmium (II) contamination in drinking water. Anal. Chim. Acta 1160: 338444, in Google Scholar PubMed

Wang, H., Zhao, G., Zhang, Z., Yi, Y., Wang, Z., and Liu, G. (2017a). A portable electrochemical workstation using disposable screen-printed carbon electrode decorated with multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid and bismuth film for Cd (II) and Pb (II) determination. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 12: 4702–4713, in Google Scholar

Wang, H., Zhao, G., Yin, Y., Wang, Z., and Liu, G. (2017b). Screen- printed electrode modified by bismuth/Fe3O4 nanoparticle/ionic liquid composite using internal standard normalization for accurate determination of Cd (II) in soil. Sensors 18: 6, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Wang, J. and Tian, B. (1992). Screen-printed stripping voltammetric potentiometric electrodes for decentralized testing of trace lead. Anal. Chem. 64: 1706–1709, in Google Scholar

Wang, J., Tian, B., Nascimento, V.B., and Angnes, L. (1998). Amperometric type immunosensor based on unmodified screen printed electrode (SPE) for precise detection of antigen concentration in a sample solution. Electrochim. Acta 43: 3459, in Google Scholar

Watersafe -WS425W-Well-Water-Test kit (2022), Available at (2022).Search in Google Scholar

Wei, Y., Yang, R., Liu, J.H., and Huang, X.J. (2013). Selective detection toward Hg(II) and Pb(II) using polypyrrole/carbonaceous nanospheres modified screen-printed electrode. Electrochim. Acta 105: 218–223, in Google Scholar

Whitesides, G.M. (2006). The origins and the future of microfluidics. Nature 442: 368–373, in Google Scholar PubMed

Williams, D.E. (2020). Electrochemical sensors for environmental gas analysis. Curr. Opin. Electrochem. 22: 145–153, in Google Scholar

Xie, X., Stueben, D., and Berner, Z. (2005). The application of microelectrodes for the measurements of trace metals in water. Anal. Lett. 38: 2281–2300, in Google Scholar

Xing, S., Xu, H., Chen, J., Shi, G., and Jin, L. (2011). Nafion stabilized silver nanoparticles modified electrode and its application to Cr (VI) detection. J. Electroanal. Chem. 652: 60–65, in Google Scholar

Yamuna, A., Hong, C.Y., Chen, S.M., Chen, T.W., Alabdullkarem, E.A., Soylak, M., AL-Anazy, M.M., Ali, M.A., and Liu, X. (2021). Highly selective simultaneous electrochemical detection of trace level of heavy metals in water samples based on the single-crystalline Co3O4 nanocubes modified electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem. 887: 11515, in Google Scholar

Yang, G., Yan, W., Wang, J., and Yang, H. (2014). Fabrication and formation mechanism of Mn2O3 hollow nanofibers by single-spinneret electrospinning. CrystEngComm 16: 6907–6913, in Google Scholar

Yao, Y., Wu, H., and Ping, J. (2019). Simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in honey and milk samples using a single-walled carbon nanohorns modified screen-printed electrochemical sensor. Food Chem. 274: 8–15, in Google Scholar PubMed

Yunus, Y., Mahadzir, N.A., Mohamed Ansari, M.N., Tg Abd Aziz, T.H., Mohd Afdzaluddin, A., Anwar, H., Wang, M., and Ismail, A.G. (2022). Review of the common deposition methods of thin-film pentacene, its derivatives, and their performance. Polymers 14: 1112, in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Zaouak, O., Authier, L., Cugnet, C., Castetbon, A., and Potin-Gautier, M. (2009). Bismuth-coated screen-printed microband electrodes for on-field labile cadmium determination. Electroanalysis 21: 689–695, in Google Scholar

Zaouak, O., Authier, L., Cugnet, C., Castetbon, A., and Potin-Gautier, M. (2010). Electroanalytical device for cadmium speciation in waters. Part 1: development and characterization of a reliable screen printed sensor. Electroanalysis 22: 1151–1158, in Google Scholar

Zhang, M., Wang, Y., Pan, D., Li, Y., Yan, Z., and Xie, J. (2017a). Nitrogen-doped 3D graphene/MWNTs 8nanoframework-embedded Co3O4 for high electrochemical performance supercapacitors. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 5: 5099–5107, in Google Scholar

Zhang, W., Xu, Y., and Zou, X. (2017b). A ZnO-RGO-modified electrode coupled to microwave digestion for the determination of trace cadmium and lead in six species fish. Anal. Methods 9: 4418–4424, in Google Scholar

Zhang, W., Wang, R., Luo, F., Wang, P., and Lin, Z. (2020). Miniaturized electrochemical sensors and their point-of-care applications. Chin. Chem. Lett. 31: 589–600, in Google Scholar

Zhao, Z., Zhang, J., Wang, W., Sun, Y., Li, P., Hu, J., Chen, L., and Gong, W. (2019). Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Co3O4-rGO/CNTs composites towards highly sensitive nitrite detection. Appl. Surf. Sci. 485: 274–282, in Google Scholar

Zheng, Q., Yu, Y., and Wu, J. (2015). Detection of cadmium content of lily by carbon nanoparticles modified screen-printed electrode. Trans. Chin. Soc. Agric. Eng. 31: 274–280.Search in Google Scholar

Zhu, J., Wei, S., Chen, M., Gu, H., Rapole, S.B., Pallavkar, S., Ho, T.C., Hopper, J., and Guo, Z. (2013). Magnetic nanocomposites for environmental remediation. Adv. Powder Technol. 24: 459–467, in Google Scholar

Žurga, N., Majer, D., and Finšgar, M. (2021). Pb (II) Determination in a single drop using a modified screen-printed electrode. Chemosensors 9: 38, in Google Scholar

Received: 2022-01-27
Accepted: 2022-07-15
Published Online: 2022-11-11

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 7.2.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow