Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 6, 2013

Ultrafine particles in urban ambient air and their health perspectives

  • Sushil Kumar EMAIL logo , Mukesh K. Verma and Anup K. Srivastava


Ultrafine particles (UfPs, PM<0.1) are constituents of urban ambient air aerosol. We have reviewed literature on UfPs in urban ambient air and their health perspectives. Generally traffic-linked and of anthropogenic origin, these are toxicants and a health risk factor for urban subjects. UfPs occur in single and agglomerate forms. Studies on the number concentrations of UfPs show tens of thousand times greater levels in urban aerosol than in nonurban aerosol. These nanosize pollutants seem to have more aggressive implications than other respirable fractions of urban aerosol. In literature, it is hypothesized that a chronic exposure to their high number concentrations and their vast surface area, transporting various toxicants, injure tissues or cells and induce inflammation or, eventually, adverse health effects. UfPs are deposited deep in the tissues, translocate, and skip the innate clearance mechanisms. After retention for a long time, these can infiltrate into the interstitium and permeate cells. Traffic-linked UfPs have been found to be toxic to the respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. At the molecular level, UfPs influence signaling cascade, actin-cytoskeleton pathway, immunoregulation, reactive oxygen species generation to trigger histaminic response, mast cell activation, and pro-inflammatory changes; their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are also tacit in view of the carcinogenic potential of diesel exhaust in humans. The molecular changes are proposed to be the subclinical effects that manifest disease exacerbations or the predisposition of subjects to pathologies after exposure to UfP. A legislatively regulated monitoring of UfP-contaminated urban ambient air environment is also endorsed to reduce the disease load or its exacerbation that is growing in diesel exhaust (a human carcinogen)-polluted urban areas.

Corresponding author: Sushil Kumar, PhD, Environmental Carcinogenesis Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Postal Box 80, Lucknow 226001, India, Phone: +1-522-222-7586 ext. 311, Fax: +1-522-262-8227, E-mail: ;

Grateful acknowledgement is due to the Indian Council of Medical Research for providing research fellowship to one of the authors (M.K.V.).


1. Oberdörster G. Ultrafine particles in the urban air: to the respiratory tract and beyond. Environ Health Perspect 2000;110:A440–1.10.1289/ehp.110-a440Search in Google Scholar

2. Lin CC, Chen SJ, Huang KL, Lee WJ, Lin WY, et al. PAHs, PAH-induced carcinogenic potency and particle extract induced cytotoxicity of traffic related nano-ultrafine particles. Environ Sci Technol 2008;42:4229–35.10.1021/es703107wSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

3. Kittelson DB, Watts WF, Johnson JP. Fine particle (nanoparticle) emissions on Minnesota highways. Final Report, Minnesota Department of Transportation, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

4. Zhu Y, Hinds WC, Kim S, Sioutas C. Concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles near a major highway. Air Waste Manage Assoc 2002;52:1032–42.10.1080/10473289.2002.10470842Search in Google Scholar PubMed

5. Frank BP, Tang S, Lanni T, Grygas J, Rideout G, et al. The effect of fuel type and after treatment method on ultrafine particle emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine. Aerosol Sci Technol 2007;41:1029–39.10.1080/02786820701697531Search in Google Scholar

6. Dennekamp M, Howarth S, Dick CA, Cherrie JW, Donaldson K, et al. Ultrafine particles and nitrogen oxides generated by gas and electric cooking. Occup Environ Med 2001;58:511–6.10.1136/oem.58.8.511Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

7. Daisey JM. Tracers for assessing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: what are they tracing. Environ Health Perspect 1999;107:319–27.10.1289/ehp.99107s2319Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

8. Valente P, Forastiere F, Bacosi A, Cattani G, Di Carlo S, et al. Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from secondhand smoke in public places before and after the smoking ban, Italy. Tob Control 2007;16:312–7.10.1136/tc.2006.019646Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

9. Buonanno G, Ficco G, Stabile L. Size distribution and number concentration of particles at the stack of a municipal waste incinerator. Waste Manage 2009;29:749–55.10.1016/j.wasman.2008.06.029Search in Google Scholar PubMed

10. Chen Y, Zhi Y, Shah N, Huggins F, Huffman GP. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of ultrafine coal fly ash particles. Environ Sci Technol 2005;39:1144–51.10.1021/es049871pSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

11. Donaldson K, Stone V, Clouter A, Renwick L, MacNee W. Ultrafine particles. Occup Environ Med 2001;58:211–6.10.1136/oem.58.3.211Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

12. Morawska L, Moore MR, Ristovski ZD. Desktop literature review and analysis: health effects of ultrafine particles. Canberra, Australia: Australian Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

13. Aalto P, Cyrys J, Von Klot S, Peters A, Zetzsche K. Aerosol particle number concentration measurements in five European cities using TSI-3022 condensation particle counter over a three-year period during health effects of air pollution on susceptible subpopulations. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 2005;55:1064–76.10.1080/10473289.2005.10464702Search in Google Scholar

14. Kreyling WG, Semmler-Behnke M, Moller W. Ultrafine particle-lung interactions: does size matter? J Aerosol Med 2006;19:74–83.10.1089/jam.2006.19.74Search in Google Scholar

15. Politis M, Pilnis C, Lekkas TD. Ultrafine particles and health effects: dangerous like no other PM? Review and analysis. Global NEST J 2008;10:439–52.Search in Google Scholar

16. IARC. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol 46. Diesel and gasoline engine exhausts and some nitroarenes. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1989:41.Search in Google Scholar

17. Venkatraman C, Friedlander SK. Size distribution of PAH and elemental carbon. Environ Sci Technol 1994;28:555.Search in Google Scholar

18. Finlayson-Pitts BJ, Pitts JN. Tropospheric air pollution: ozone, airborne toxics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particles. Science 1997;276:1045–52.10.1126/science.276.5315.1045Search in Google Scholar

19. Spurny KR. On the physics, chemistry, and toxicology of ultrafine anthropogenic, atmospheric aerosols (UAAA): new advances. Toxicol Lett 1998;96–97:253–61.10.1016/S0378-4274(98)00080-0Search in Google Scholar

20. Park K, Heo Y, Putra HE. Ultrafine metal concentration in atmospheric aerosols in urban Gwangju. Korea Aerosol Air Qual Res 2008;8:411–22.10.4209/aaqr.2008.09.0037Search in Google Scholar

21. Cohen B, Xiong J, Li W. The influence of charge on the deposition behavior of aerosol particles with emphasis of singly charged nanometer size particles. In: Marijmissen JMC, Gradon L, editors. Aerosol inhalation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 1996:127–42.Search in Google Scholar

22. Yeh HC, Muggenburg BA, Harkema JR. In-vivo deposition of inhaled ultrafine particles in the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys. Aerosol Sci Technol 1997;27:465–70.10.1080/02786829708965486Search in Google Scholar

23. Schauer JJ, Rogge WF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Cass GR. Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers. Atmos Environ 1996;30:3837–55.10.1016/1352-2310(96)00085-4Search in Google Scholar

24. Shi JP, Harrison RM. Investigation of ultrafine particle formation during diesel exhaust dilution. Environ Sci Technol 1999;33:3730–6.10.1021/es981187lSearch in Google Scholar

25. Hitchins VM, Meritt K. Decontaminating particles exposed to bacterial endotoxin (LPS). J Biomed Mater Res 1999;46:434–7.10.1002/(SICI)1097-4636(19990905)46:3<434::AID-JBM17>3.0.CO;2-LSearch in Google Scholar

26. Wichmann HE. Diesel exhaust particles. Inhal Toxicol 2007;19:241–4.10.1080/08958370701498075Search in Google Scholar

27. Scheepers PT, Bos RP. Combustion of diesel fuel from a toxicological perspective. I. Origin of Incomplete Combustion Products. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1992;64:149–61.Search in Google Scholar

28. Sydbom A, Blomberg A, Parnia S, Stenfors N, Sandstrom T, et al. Health effects of diesel exhaust emissions. Eur Respir J 2001;17:733–46.10.1183/09031936.01.17407330Search in Google Scholar PubMed

29. Allen JO, Dookeran KM, Smith KA, Sarofim AF, Taghizadeh I, et al. Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in Massachusetts. Environ Sci Technol 1996;30:1023–31.10.1021/es950517oSearch in Google Scholar

30. Chien SM, Huang YJ. Sizes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition distributions of nano, ultrafine, fine, and coarse particulates emitted from a four-stroke motorcycle. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2010;45:1768–74.10.1080/10934529.2010.513289Search in Google Scholar PubMed

31. Beck-Speier I, Dayal N, Karg E, Maier KL, Roth C, et al. Agglomerates of ultrafine particles of elemental carbon and TiO2 induce generation of lipid mediators in alveolar macrophages. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109:613–8.10.1289/ehp.01109s4613Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

32. Gerde P, Muggenburg BA, Lundborg M, Dahl AR. The rapid alveolar absorption of diesel soot-adsorbed benzo[a]pyrene: bioavailability, metabolism and dosimetry of an inhaled particle-borne carcinogen. Carcinogenesis 2001;22:741–9.10.1093/carcin/22.5.741Search in Google Scholar PubMed

33. Elbert W, Taylor PE, Andreae MO, Pöschl U. Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions. Atmos Chem Phys 2007;7:4569–88.10.5194/acp-7-4569-2007Search in Google Scholar

34. Vilavert L, Nadal M, Figueras MJ, Kumar V, Domingo JL. Levels of chemical and microbiologic pollutants in the vicinity of a waste incineration plant and human health risks: temporal trends. Chemosphere 2011;84:1476–83.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.041Search in Google Scholar PubMed

35. Liu J, Ballaney M, Al-alem U, Quan C, Jin X, et al. Combined inhaled diesel exhaust particles and allergen exposure alter methylation of T helper genes and IgE production in vivo. Toxicol Sci 2008;102:76–81.10.1093/toxsci/kfm290Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

36. Ibald-Mulli A, Wichmann HE, Kreyling W, Peters A. Epidemiological evidence on health effects of ultrafine particles. J Aerosol Med 2002;15:189–201.10.1089/089426802320282310Search in Google Scholar PubMed

37. Martins LD, Martins JA, Freitas ED, Mazzoli CR, Gonçalves FLT, et al. Potential health impact of ultrafine particles under clean and polluted urban atmospheric conditions: a model-based study. Air Qual Atmos Health 2010;3:29–39.10.1007/s11869-009-0048-9Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

38. Penttinen P, Timonen KL, Tittanen P, Mirme A, Ruuskanen J, et al. Ultrafine particles in urban air and respiratory health among adult asthmatics. Eur Respir J 2001;17:428–35.10.1183/09031936.01.17304280Search in Google Scholar

39. Levy JI, Bennett DH, Melly SJ, Spengler JD. Influence of traffic patterns on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in Roxbury, Massachusetts. J Exp Anal Environ Epidemiol 2003;13:364–71.10.1038/sj.jea.7500289Search in Google Scholar

40. Noble CA, Mukerjee S, Gonzales M, Rodes CE, Lawless PA, et al. continuous measurement of fine and ultrafine particulate matter, criteria pollutants and meteorological conditions in urban El Paso, Texas. Atmos Environ 2003;37:827–40.10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00935-4Search in Google Scholar

41. Andersen ZJ, Wahlin P, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Ketzel M, Scheike T, et al. Size distribution and total number concentrations of ultrafine and accumulation mode particles and hospital admissions in children and the elderly in Copenhagen, Denmark. Occup Environ Med 2008;65:458–66.10.1136/oem.2007.033290Search in Google Scholar PubMed

42. Andersen ZJ, Olsen TS, Andersen KK, Loft S, Ketzel M, et al. Association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and hospital admissions for stroke in Copenhagen, Denmark. Eur Heart J 2010;31:2034–40.10.1093/eurheartj/ehq188Search in Google Scholar PubMed

43. Lonati G, Crippa M, Ozgen S, Gianelle V. Number concentrations of nano-, ultrafine and fine particles in Milan. Chem Eng Trans 2008;16:105–12.Search in Google Scholar

44. Diapouli E, Chaloulakou A, Spyrellis N. Levels of ultrafine particles in different microenvironments – implications to children exposure. Sci Total Environ 2007;388:128–36.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.07.063Search in Google Scholar PubMed

45. Salma I, Borsös T, Weidinger T, Aalto P, Hussein T, et al. Production, growth, and properties of ultrafine atmospheric aerosol particles in an urban environment. Atmos Chem Phys 2011;11:1339–53.10.5194/acp-11-1339-2011Search in Google Scholar

46. Sharma N, Kuniyal JC, Singh M, Sharma P, Chand K, et al. Atmospheric ultrafine aerosol number concentration and its correlation with vehicular flow at two sites in the western Himalayan region: Kullu-Manali, India. J Earth Syst Sci 2011;120:281–90.10.1007/s12040-011-0046-9Search in Google Scholar

47. Varikoden H, Kumar VS, Sampath S, Muralidas S, Mohankumar G. Diurnal and spatial variations of condensation particles in Kerala, South India. Curr Sci 2008;94:233–7.Search in Google Scholar

48. Kivekas N, Sum J, Zhan M, Kerminent VM, Hyvarinen A, et al. Long-term particle size distribution measurements at Mount Waliguan, a high-altitude site in inland China. Atmos Chem Phys 2009;9:5461–74.10.5194/acp-9-5461-2009Search in Google Scholar

49. Komppula M, Lihavainen H, Hyvärinen AP, Kerminen VM, Panwar TS, et al. Physical properties of aerosol particles at a Himalayan background site in India. J Geophys Res 2009;114:D12202.10.1029/2008JD011007Search in Google Scholar

50. Maso MD, Sogacheva L, Anisimov MP, Arshinov M, Baklanov A, et al. Aerosol particle formation events at two Siberian stations inside the boreal forest. Boreal Environ Res 2008;13:81–92.Search in Google Scholar

51. Zhu Y, Hinds WC, Krudysz M, Kuhn T, Froines J, et al. Penetration of ultrafine particles into indoor environments. Aerosol Sci 2005;36:303–22.10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.09.007Search in Google Scholar

52. McGarry P, Morawska L, He C, Jayaratne R, Falk M, et al. Exposure to particles from laser printers operating within office workplaces. Environ Sci Technol 2011;45:6444–52.10.1021/es200249nSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

53. Witschger O, Fabriès JF. Particules ultra-fines et santé au travail 1 – caractéristiques et effets potentiels sur la santé. INRS, Hygiène et sécurité du travail. Cahiers de notes documentaries-2e trimestre 2005.Search in Google Scholar

54. Ferin J, Oberdöster G, Penney DP. Pulmonary retention of the ultrafine and fine particles in rats. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1992;6:535–42.10.1165/ajrcmb/6.5.535Search in Google Scholar PubMed

55. Ferin J, Oberdöster G, Sonderholm SC, Gelein R. The rate of dose delivery affects pulmonary interstitialization of particles in rats. Ann Occup Hyg 1994;38:289–93.Search in Google Scholar

56. Sturm R. Theoretical and experimental approaches to the deposition and clearance of ultrafine carcinogens in the human respiratory tract. Thorac Cancer 2011;2:61–8.10.1111/j.1759-7714.2011.00042.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

57. Oberdörster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, et al. Extra pulmonary translocation of ultrafine carbon particles following whole body inhalation exposure of rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2002;65:1531–43.10.1080/00984100290071658Search in Google Scholar PubMed

58. Oberdörster G, Sharp Z, Atudorei V, Elder A, Gelein R, et al. Translocation of inhaled ultrafine particles to the brain. Inhal Toxicol 2004;16:437–45.10.1080/08958370490439597Search in Google Scholar PubMed

59. Oberdörster G. Pulmonary effects of inhaled ultrafine particles. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2001;74:1–8.10.1007/s004200000185Search in Google Scholar PubMed

60. Oberdörster G, Gelein RM, Ferin J, Weiss B. Association of particulate air pollution and acute mortality: involvement of ultrafine particles. Inhal Toxicol 1995;7:111–24.10.3109/08958379509014275Search in Google Scholar PubMed

61. Ferin J, Oberdöster G, Sonderholm SC, Gelein R. Pulmonary tissue access of ultrafine particles. J Aerosol Med 1991;4:57–68.10.1089/jam.1991.4.57Search in Google Scholar

62. Li N, Sioutas C, Cho A, Schmitz D, Misra C, et al. Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Environ. Health Perspect 2003;111:455–60.10.1289/ehp.6000Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

63. Bunn HJ, Dinsdale D, Smith T, Grigg J. Ultrafine particles in alveolar macrophages from normal children. Thorax 2001;56:932–4.10.1136/thorax.56.12.932Search in Google Scholar

64. Cheng KH, Swift DL. Calculation of total deposition of ultrafine aerosols in human extra-thoracic and intra-thoracic regions. Aerosol Sci Technol 1995;22:194–201.10.1080/02786829509508887Search in Google Scholar

65. Soutar CA, Miller BG, Gregg N, Jones AD, Cullen RT, et al. Assessment of human risk from exposure to low toxicity occupational dust. Ann Occup Hyg 1997;41:123–33.10.1016/S0003-4878(96)00014-2Search in Google Scholar

66. Schwartz J, Marcus A. Mortality and air pollution in London: a time series analysis. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131:185–94.10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115473Search in Google Scholar

67. Oberdörster G. Significance of particle parameters in the evaluation of exposure dose relationships of inhaled particles. Inhal Toxicol 1996;8:73–89.10.1080/02726359608906690Search in Google Scholar

68. Peters A, Wichman HE, Tuch T, Heinrich J, Heyder J. Respiratory effects are associated with the number of ultrafine particulates. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:1376–83.10.1164/ajrccm.155.4.9105082Search in Google Scholar

69. Pekkanen J, Timonen KL, Ruuskanen A, Reponen A, Mirme A. Effects of ultrafine and fine particles in urban air or peak expiratory flow among children with asthmatic symptoms. Environ Res 1997;74:24–33.10.1006/enrs.1997.3750Search in Google Scholar

70. Johnston CJ, Finkelstein JN, Mercer P, Corson N, Gelein R, et al. Pulmonary effects induced by ultrafine PTFE particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2000;168:208–15.10.1006/taap.2000.9037Search in Google Scholar

71. Neas L. Fine particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Fuel Process Technol 2000;65/66:55–67.10.1016/S0378-3820(99)00076-4Search in Google Scholar

72. Mills NL, Donaldson K, Hadoke PW, Boon NA, MacNee W, et al. Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2009;6:36–44.10.1038/ncpcardio1399Search in Google Scholar PubMed

73. Liao CM, Chio CP, Chen WY, Ju YR, Li WH, et al. Lung cancer risk in relation to traffic related nano/ultrafine particle bound PAHs exposure: a preliminary probabilistic assessment. J Hazard Mater 2011;190:150–8.10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.03.017Search in Google Scholar

74. Baan RA. Carcinogenic hazards from inhaled carbon-black, titanium dioxide, and talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibres: recent evaluations by an IARC Monographs Working Group. Inhal Toxicol 2007;19:213–28.10.1080/08958370701497903Search in Google Scholar

75. IARC. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol 93. carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

76. Donaldson K, Li YY, MacNee W. Ultrafine (nanometer) particle mediated lung injury. J Aerosol Sci 1998;29:553–60.10.1016/S0021-8502(97)00464-3Search in Google Scholar

77. Timblin CR, Shukla A, Berlanger I, Berube KA, Churg A, et al. Ultrafine airborne particles cause increase in proto-oncogene expression and proliferation in alveolar epithelial cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002;179:98–104.10.1006/taap.2001.9343Search in Google Scholar PubMed

78. Wilson MR, Lightbody JH, Donaldson K, Sales J, Stone V. Interactions between ultrafine particles and transition metals in vivo and in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002;184:172–9.10.1006/taap.2002.9501Search in Google Scholar PubMed

79. Elder A, Gelein R, Finkelstein J, Phipps R, Frampton M, et al. On road exposure to highway aerosol. 2. Exposures of aged, compromised rats. Inhal Toxicol 2004;16:41–53.10.1080/08958370490443222Search in Google Scholar PubMed

80. Granum B, Lovik M. The effects of particles on allergic immune responses. Toxicol Sci 2002;65:7–17.10.1093/toxsci/65.1.7Search in Google Scholar PubMed

81. Xia T, Korge P, Weiss JN, Li N, Indira Venkatesen M, et al. Quinones and aromatic chemical compounds in particulate matter induce mitochondrial dysfunction: implications for ultrafine particle toxicity. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:1347–58.10.1289/ehp.7167Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

82. Monteiller C, Tran L, MacNeeW, Faux S, Jonezs A, et al. The pro-inflammatory effects of low toxicity low solubility particles, nanoparticles and fine particles, on epithelial cells in vitro: the role of surface area. Occup Environ Med 2007;64:609–15.10.1136/oem.2005.024802Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

83. Reibman J, Hsu Y, Chen LC, Kumar A, Su WC, et al. Size fractions of ambient particulate matter induce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human bronchial epithelial cells by mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2002;27:455–62.10.1165/rcmb.2001-0005OCSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

84. Nair KC, Bihari V, Pangtey BS, Pathak MK, Fareed M, et al. Respiratory health problems associated to infrastructural development among residents living near Special Economic Zone in India. Clean Techn Environ Policy 2011;13:697–702.10.1007/s10098-010-0337-xSearch in Google Scholar

85. Ferin J, Oberdöster G, Penney DP, Sonderholm SC. Increased pulmonary toxicity of ultrafine particles. J Aerosol Sci 1990;21:381–4.10.1016/0021-8502(90)90064-5Search in Google Scholar

86. Oberdörster G, Ferin J, Finkelstein J, Wade P, Corson N. Increased pulmonary toxicity of ultrafine particles? Lung lavage studies. J Aersol Sci 1990;21:384–7.10.1016/0021-8502(90)90065-6Search in Google Scholar

87. Moller W, Hofer T, Ziesenis A, Karg E, Heyder J. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunction in macrophages. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002;182:197–207.10.1006/taap.2002.9430Search in Google Scholar PubMed

88. Brunshidle TP, Konowalchuk B, Nabeel I, Sullivan JE. A review of the measurement, emission, particles: characteristics and potential human health impacts of ultrafine particles, 2003. Available at: in Google Scholar

89. Stolzel M, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Pitz M, Wolke G, et al. Daily mortality and particulate matter in different size classes in Erfurt Germany. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2007;17:458–67.10.1038/sj.jes.7500538Search in Google Scholar PubMed

90. Samet JM, Rappold A, Graff D, Cascio WE, Berntsen JH, et al. Concentrated ambient ultrafine particle exposure induces cardiac changes in young healthy volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009;179:1034–42.10.1164/rccm.200807-1043OCSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

91. Sorenson M, Daneshwar B, Hansen M, Dragsted LO, Hertel O, et al. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood. Environ Health Perspect 2003;111:161–6.10.1289/ehp.111-1241344Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

92. Liu L, Breitner S, Schneider A, Cyrys J, Brüske I, et al. Size-fractioned particulate air pollution and cardiovascular emergency room visits in Beijing, China. Environ Res 2013;121:52–63.10.1016/j.envres.2012.10.009Search in Google Scholar PubMed

93. Araujo JA, Barajas B, Kleinman M, Wang X, Bennett BJ, et al. Ambient particulate pollutants in the ultrafine range promote early atherosclerosis and systemic oxidative stress. Circ Res 2008;102:589–96.10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.164970Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

94. Cozzi E, Hazarika S, Stallings HW III, Cascio WE, Devlin RB, et al. Ultrafine particulate matter exposure augments ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2006;291:H894–903.10.1152/ajpheart.01362.2005Search in Google Scholar PubMed

95. Elder A, Couderc JP, Gelein R, Eberly S, Cox C, et al. Effects of on-road highway aerosol exposures on autonomic responses in aged, spontaneously hypertensive rats. Inhal Toxicol 2007;19:1–12.10.1080/08958370600985735Search in Google Scholar

96. Bos I, Jacobs L, Nawrot TS, de Geus B, Torfs R, et al. No exercise-induced increase in serum BDNF after cycling near a major traffic road. Neurosci Lett 2011;500:129–32.10.1016/j.neulet.2011.06.019Search in Google Scholar

97. Yokota S, Takashima H, Ohta R, Saito Y, Miyahara T, et al. Nasal instillation of nano-particle-rich diesel exhaust particles slightly affects emotional behavior and learning capability in rats. J Toxicol Sci 2011;36:267–76.10.2131/jts.36.267Search in Google Scholar

98. Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto S, Fujitani Y, Hirqno S, Fijimaki H. Nanoparticle rich diesel exhausts affects hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and NMDA receptor subunit expression in female mice. Nanotoxicology 2012;13:543–53.10.3109/17435390.2011.590904Search in Google Scholar

99. Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Diesel exhaust as a model xenobiotic in allergic inflammation. Immunol Pharmacol 2000;48:325–7.10.1016/S0162-3109(00)00234-4Search in Google Scholar

100. Yang W, Lee S, Lee J, Bae Y, Kim D. Silver nanoparticle-induced degranulation observed with quantitative phase microscopy. J Biomed Opt 2010;15:045005.10.1117/1.3470104Search in Google Scholar

101. Bot I, van Berkel TJC, Biessen EAL. Mast cells: pivotal players in cardiovascular diseases. Curr Cardiol Rev 2008;4:170–8.10.2174/157340308785160624Search in Google Scholar

102. Tsien A, Diaz-Sanchez D, Ma J, Saxon A. The organic component of diesel exhaust particles and phenanthrene, a major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content, enhances IgE production by IgE-secreting EBV-transformed human B cells in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1997;142:256–63.10.1006/taap.1996.8063Search in Google Scholar

103. Barfknecht TR, Hites RA, Cavaliers EL, Thilly WG. Human cell mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components of diesel emissions. Dev Toxicol Environ Sci 1982;10:277–94.Search in Google Scholar

104. Fujimaki H, Ushio H, Nohara K, Naoya U. Induction of the imbalance of helper T-cell functions in mice exposed to diesel exhaust. Sci Total Environ 2001;270:113–21.10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00789-0Search in Google Scholar

105. Bruske I, Hampel R, Socher MM, Ruckerl R, Schneider A, et al. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential while blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Inhal Toxicol 2010;22:245–52.10.3109/08958370903207274Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

106. Zhou YM, Zhong CY, Kennedy IM, Leppert VJ, Pinkerton KE. Oxidative stress and NFkappaB activation in the lungs of rats: a synergistic interaction between soot and iron particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2003;190:157–69.10.1016/S0041-008X(03)00157-1Search in Google Scholar

107. Becker S, Soukup J. Coarse (PM(2.5–10)), fine(PM(2.5)), and ultrafine air pollution particles induce/increase immune costimulatory receptors on human blood-derived monocytes but not on alveolar macrophages. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2003;66:847–59.10.1080/15287390306381Search in Google Scholar PubMed

108. Lundborg M, Dahlen SE, Johard U, Gerde P, Jarstrand C, et al. Aggregates of ultrafine particles impair phagocytosis of microorganisms by human alveolar macrophages. Environ Res 2006;100:197–204.10.1016/j.envres.2005.08.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

109. Lundborg M, Bouhafs R, Gerde P, Ewing P, Camner P, et al. Aggregates of ultrafine particles modulate lipid peroxidation and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages. Environ Res 2007;104:250–7.10.1016/j.envres.2007.01.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

110. Pagano P, De Zaiacomo T, Scarcella E, Bruni S, Calamosca M. Mutagenic activity of total and particle sized fractions of urban particulate matter. Environ Sci Technol 1996;30:3512–6.10.1021/es960182qSearch in Google Scholar

111. Vinzents PS, Loller P, Sorensen M, Knudsen LE, Hertel O, et al. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:1485–90.10.1289/ehp.7562Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

112. Don Porto Carero A, Hoet PH, Versscheve L, Schoerters G, Nemery R. Genotoxic effects of carbon black particles, diesel exhaust particles and urban air particulates and their extracts on a human alveoli epithelial cell line (A549) and a human monocytic cell line (THP). Environ Mol Mutagen 2001;37:155–63.10.1002/em.1023Search in Google Scholar PubMed

113. Risom L, Moller P, Loft S. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage by particulate air pollution. Mutat Res 2005;592:119–37.10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.06.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed

114. Kawanaka Y, Matsumoto E, Sakamoto K, Yun SJ. Estimation of the contribution of ultrafine particles to lung deposition of particle-bound mutagens in the atmosphere. Sci Total Environ 2011;409:1033–6.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.11.035Search in Google Scholar PubMed

115. Heinrich U, Fuhst R, Rittinghausen S, Cruetzenberg O, Bellman B, et al. Chronic inhalation exposure of Wistar rats and two different strains of mice to diesel engine exhaust, carbon black, and titanium dioxide. Inhal Toxicol 1995;7:533–6.10.3109/08958379509015211Search in Google Scholar

116. Penttinen P, Timonen KL, Tittanen P, Mirme A, Ruuskanen J, et al. Number concentration and size of particles in urban air: effects on spirometric lung function in adult asthmatic subjects. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109:319–23.10.1289/ehp.01109319Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

117. Osunsanya T, Prescott G, Seaton A. Acute respiratory effects of particles: mass or number? Occup Environ Med 2001;58:154–9.10.1136/oem.58.3.154Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

118. Pekkanen J, Peters A, Hoek G, Tittanen P, Brunekreef B, et al. Particulate air pollution and risk of ST-segment depression during repeated sub-maximal exercise tests among subjects with coronary heart disease. The Exposure and Risk Assessment for Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Ambient Air (ULTRA) study. Circulation 2002;106:933–8.10.1161/01.CIR.0000027561.41736.3CSearch in Google Scholar

119. Berger A, Zareba W, Schneider A, Ruckerl R, Ibald-Mulli A, et al. Runs of ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia triggered by air pollution in patients with coronary heart disease. J Occup Environ Med 2006;48:1149–58.10.1097/01.jom.0000245921.15916.03Search in Google Scholar PubMed

120. Schmitt MT, Graff DW, Rappold AG, Hinderliter A, Devlin RB. Cardiovascular changes in people with metabolic syndrome exposed to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS). Abstract. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009;179:A1181.10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2009.179.1_MeetingAbstracts.A1181Search in Google Scholar

121. Stone V, Brown DM, Watt N, Ritchie H, Wilson M, et al. Ultrafine particle-mediated activation of macrophages: intercellular calcium signalling and oxidative stress. Inhal Toxicol 2000;12:345–51.10.1080/08958378.2000.11463244Search in Google Scholar PubMed

122. Terzano C, Di Stefano F, Conti V, Graziani E, Petroianni A. Air pollution ultrafine particles: toxicity beyond the lung. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2010;10:809–21.Search in Google Scholar

123. Byrne JD, Baugh JA. The significance of nanoparticles in particle induced pulmonary fibrosis McGill J Med 2008;11:43–50.10.26443/mjm.v11i1.455Search in Google Scholar

124. Cheng CS, Campbell M, Li Q, Li G, Auld H, et al. Differential and combined impacts of extreme temperatures and air pollution on human mortality in southcentral Canada. Part I: historical analysis. Air Qual Atmos Health 2009;1:209–22.10.1007/s11869-009-0027-1Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2013-7-19
Accepted: 2013-9-8
Published Online: 2013-11-06
Published in Print: 2013-11-01

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston

Downloaded on 4.6.2023 from
Scroll to top button