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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 25, 2014

Reducing the use of carcinogens: the Massachusetts experience

Molly M. Jacobs, Rachel I. Massey, Heather Tenney and Elizabeth Harriman

Abstract

Toxics use reduction (TUR) is one part of a comprehensive cancer prevention strategy. TUR emphasizes reducing the use of cancer-causing chemicals by improving manufacturing processes and identifying and adopting safer alternatives. This analysis draws on 20 years of data collected from industries reporting to the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act (TURA) program to assess trends in the use and release of chemicals associated with cancer. We used a master list of known and suspected carcinogens developed from authoritative sources and a list of carcinogens grouped by their association with 11 cancer sites to analyze trends in use and release of chemicals by industrial facilities reporting to the TURA program from 1990 to 2010. The trend analysis shows that reported use and releases of carcinogens by these Massachusetts companies have decreased dramatically over time. Reported use declined 32% from 1990 to 2010, and reported releases declined 93% from 1991 to 2010 (1991 is when additional industrial sectors, including electric utilities, were phased into the program). Particularly large reductions were achieved in the use of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and cadmium and cadmium compounds. The analysis of groups of chemicals associated with specific cancer sites shows similar trends. Important opportunities for further reductions in many carcinogens, including formaldehyde, hexavalent chromium, and a variety of halogenated compounds are identified. Continued work to minimize the use of carcinogens can help to reduce the burden of cancer in Massachusetts and elsewhere.


Corresponding author: Molly M. Jacobs, Department of Work Environment/Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA; and Toxics Use Reduction Institute, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA, E-mail:

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge comments provided by Rick Reibstein, Office of Technical Assistance, on a draft of this article. This article draws upon material presented in a report by the same authors (2014), Opportunities for Cancer Prevention: Trends in the Use and Release of Carcinogens in Massachusetts. Toxics Use Reduction Institute Methods and Policy Report #29. Comments on the data were provided by Susan Peck (Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection), and by staff members at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health: Bureau of Environmental Health (Community Assessment and Environmental Toxicology Programs), Bureau of Health Information Research Statistics and Evaluation (Massachusetts Cancer Registry), and Bureau of Community Health and Prevention (Comprehensive Cancer Prevention and Control), among others.

Appendix

Appendix A

Chemicals reported to the TURA Program (1990–2010) and evidence source for the association with specific cancer types (bladder, brain/CNS, breast/mammary gland, kidney, leukemia, liver).

CAS number*Chemical nameBladderBrain/CNSBreastKidneyLeukemiaLiver
75-07-0AcetaldehydeD tox [benign only]D toxˆ
79-06-1AcrylamideD tox, epi; ED epi
107-13-1AcrylonitrileD toxD tox; ED tox
97-56-3o-AminoazotolueneD toxD tox; ED tox
7440-38-2 DEP #1001Arsenic and arsenic compoundsA1; C1; D epiA2; D toxC2; D epiD tox, epiˆA2; D epi
71-43-2BenzeneA2D tox; EA1; B1; C1ˆ; D tox, epi
75-27-4BromodichloromethaneA1D toxD tox
106-99-01,3-ButadieneD tox; ED toxA1; B2; C1ˆ; D tox, epiD tox
7440-43-9 DEP #1004Cadmium and cadmium compoundsD epiA2; C2; D epiD toxD tox
56-23-5Carbon tetrachlorideD tox; EA2; D epiD tox, epi
67-66-3ChloroformD epiD toxD tox
8001-58-9CreosotesA1; B2; C2
96-12-81,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropaneD tox; ED tox
106-46-7p-DichlorobenzeneD toxD tox, epiD tox
612-83-93,3′-Dichlorobenzidine dihydrochlorideD tox, epiD tox; ED toxD tox
117-81-7di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)D tox
123-91-11,4-DioxaneD tox; ED toxD tox
DEP #1060Dioxin and dioxin compoundsA2D toxD tox
106-89-8EpichlorohydrinB2; D epi
107-06-2Ethylene dichlorideD tox; ED epiˆD tox
75-21-8Ethylene oxideD tox [benign only]A2; C2; D tox [benign only], epi; EA1; B1; C2ˆ; D toxˆ [benign only], epi
96-45-7Ethylene thioureaD toxD tox
50-00-0FormaldehydeD epiA2; B2; C1ˆ; D epi
118-74-1HexachlorobenzeneD epiD tox [benign only]D tox
302-01-2HydrazineED toxD tox
7439-92-1 DEP #1026Lead and lead compoundsD epiA2; D tox]A2; D toxD tox
75-55-82-MethylaziridineD toxD tox; ED tox
101-14-44,4′-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)A1; B2 D tox, epiD tox; ED tox
75-09-2Methylene ChlorideA2; D epiA2; D tox [benign only], epi; ED epiD epiˆD tox, epi
90-94-8Michler’s ketoneD tox
DEP #1040Polycyclic aromatic compoundsA2; B2; C2 [soots]; D toxA2; D tox; ED tox
DEP #1029Nickel compoundsD toxD tox [benign only]
98-95-3NitrobenzeneD epiD tox [benign only]; ED tox [benign only]D tox [benign only]
127-18-4PerchloroethyleneA2; C2 [dry cleaning]D toxD tox
DEP #1045Polychlorinated alkanesD toxD toxD tox
1336-36-3Polychlorinated biphenylsD epiA2; D epiD epiˆA1; B2; C2, D tox, epi
100-42-5StyreneD tox; EC2ˆ, D epi
62-56-6ThioureaD tox [benign only]
91-08-7 584-84-9 26471-62-5Toluene DiisocyanatesD tox [benign only]; ED tox [benign only]
79-01-6TrichloroethyleneA2; B2; D tox, epiA2; D toxA1; B2; C2; D tox, epi

*Including identification number assigned by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP #) where relevant. A1: “Strong” evidence according to Clapp RW et al. Appendix F of President’s Cancer Panel. Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk: What We Can Do Now. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. April 2010. A2: “Suggestive” evidence according to Clapp RW et al., April 2010. B1: “Strong” evidence according to Siemiatycki J, et al. Listing occupational carcinogens. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112(15):1447–59. B2: “Suggestive” evidence according to Siemiatycki J, et al., 2004. C1: “Sufficient” evidence according to Cogliano VJ, et al. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011:103(24):1827–39. C1ˆ: “Sufficient” evidence for leukemia and/or lymphoma. Same source as C1. C2: “Limited” evidence according to Cogliano VJ, et al., 2011. C2ˆ: “Limited” evidence for leukemia and/or lymphoma. Same source as C2. D tox: Support from toxicological evidence according to evidence summarized in National Toxicology Program. 12th Report on Carcinogens (Roc). Available at: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/roc12/INDEXC5F2.HTM?objectid=035E57E7-BDD9-2D9B-AFB9D1CADC8D09C1. If “benign only” is noted, this corresponds to “some evidence of carcinogenicity” by the National Toxicology Program. D toxˆ: Based on evidence for lymphatic, hemolymphoreticular, or lymphohematopoietic cancers. Evidence source same as D tox. D epi: Support from epidemiologic evidence according to evidence summarized in National Toxicology Program. 12th Report on Carcinogens (ROC). D epiˆ: Based on evidence for lymphatic, hemolymphoreticular, or lymphohematopoietic cancers. Evidence source same as D epi. E: Evidence according to Rudel R et al. Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiology, chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention. Cancer 2007;108:2635–66.

Appendix B

Chemicals reported to the TURA Program (1990–2010) and evidence source for the association with specific cancer types (lung, NHL, pancreatic, prostate, testicular).

CAS number*Chemical nameLungNHLPancreaticProstateTesticular
75-07-0AcetaldehydeD epiD toxˆD tox [benign only]
79-06-1AcrylamideD tox [benign only]B2; D epi
107-13-1AcrylonitrileD tox, epi
97-56-3o-AminoazotolueneD tox [benign only]
7440-38-2

DEP #1001
Arsenic and arsenic compoundsA1; B1; C1; D tox, epiD tox, epiˆA2; C2; D epi
71-43-2BenzeneA2; D toxA2; C1ˆ, D epi
98-07-7BenzotrichlorideD tox, epiD toxˆ
106-99-01,3-ButadieneD toxA2; B2; C1ˆ, D epiˆD toxD tox
56-23-5Carbon tetrachlorideD epi
7440-43-9

DEP #1004
Cadmium and cadmium compoundsA1; B1; C1; D tox, epiD toxˆA2A2; C2; D tox, epiD tox
DEP #1012Chromium VI and chromium VI compoundsA1; B1; C1; D tox, epi
8001-58-9CreosotesA1, B2
96-12-81,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropaneD tox
612-83-93,3′-Dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride
117-81-7di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)D tox [benign only]D tox [benign only]
DEP #1060Dioxin and dioxin compoundsA1; B2; C2; D tox, epiA1; B2; C2ˆ; D tox, epiA2
106-89-8EpichlorohydrinB2; D epi
107-06-2Ethylene dichlorideD tox [benign only]D tox, epiˆD epi
75-21-8Ethylene oxideD tox [benign only]C2ˆ, D epi
50-00-0FormaldehydeD tox, epiC1ˆ, D epi, toxˆ
118-74-1HexachlorobenzeneD epi
302-01-2HydrazineD tox, epi
7439-92-1

DEP #1026
Lead and lead compoundsA2; D tox [benign only], epiD tox
101-14-44,4′-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)D tox
75-09-2Methylene ChlorideD toxD epiˆD epiD epi
DEP #1029Nickel compoundsA1; B1; C1; D tox, epiA2
7440-02-0Nickel (metallic)D tox
98-95-3NitrobenzeneD tox
127-18-4PerchloroethyleneA2; B2; C2ˆ; D epi
1336-36-3Polychlorinated biphenylsD toxA2; D epiˆD tox [benign only]D epi
DEP #1040Polycyclic aromatic compoundsA1; B2; D toxD toxˆA2
DEP #1095Silica, crystallineA1; B1; C1; D tox
7664-93-9

8014-95-7
Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acidA2; B2; C2
100-42-5StyreneD toxA2; D epiD epi
91-08-7Toluene Diisocyanate AD tox [benign only]
584-84-9Toluene Diisocyanate BD tox [benign only]
26471-62-5Toluene diisocyanatesD tox [benign only]
79-01-6TrichloroethyleneA2; B2; C2ˆ; D tox, epiD epiD tox

*Including identification number assigned by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP #) where relevant. A1: “Strong” evidence according to Clapp RW et al. Appendix F of President’s Cancer Panel. Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk: What We Can Do Now. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. April 2010. A2: “Suggestive” evidence according to Clapp RW et al., April 2010. B1: “Strong” evidence according to Siemiatycki J, et al. Listing occupational carcinogens. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112(15):1447-59. B2: “Suggestive” evidence according to Siemiatycki J, et al., 2004. C1: “Sufficient” evidence according to Cogliano VJ, et al. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011:103(24):1827-39. C1ˆ: “Sufficient” evidence for leukemia and/or lymphoma. Same source as C1. C2: “Limited” evidence according to Cogliano VJ, et al., 2011. C2ˆ: “Limited” evidence for leukemia and/or lymphoma. Same source as C2. D tox: Support from toxicological evidence according to evidence summarized in National Toxicology Program. 12th Report on Carcinogens (Roc). Available at: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/roc12/INDEXC5F2.HTM?objectid=035E57E7-BDD9-2D9B-AFB9D1CADC8D09C1. If “benign only” is noted, this corresponds to “some evidence of carcinogenicity” by the National Toxicology Program. D toxˆ: Based on evidence for lymphatic, hemolymphoreticular, or lymphohematopoietic cancers. Evidence source same as D tox. D epi: Support from epidemiologic evidence according to evidence summarized in National Toxicology Program. 12th Report on Carcinogens (ROC). D epiˆ: Based on evidence for lymphatic, hemolymphoreticular, or lymphohematopoietic cancers. Evidence source same as D epi. E: Evidence according to Rudel R et al. Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiology, chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention. Cancer 2007;108:2635–66.

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Received: 2014-7-10
Accepted: 2014-10-10
Published Online: 2014-11-25
Published in Print: 2014-12-6

©2014 by De Gruyter

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