Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 2, 2014


  • Golara Honari EMAIL logo


Photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) is a hypersensitivity reaction mounting from skin exposure to generally harmless amounts of ultraviolet and/or visible light in the presence of a photoreactive allergen. These reactions are typically delayed type (Gell and Coombs type IV) reactions and require pre-sensitization to photoallergens. Phototoxic reactions are clinically similar and often difficult to differentiate from photoallergies, but they are caused by interaction of light with photoirritants and do not require sensitization. The main investigative technique to diagnose PACD is photopatch testing, which is not commonly used; therefore, PACD may be overlooked in many patients. Currently, leading contact photosensitizers are sunscreens and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This article provides an overview on photocontact allergies.

Corresponding author: Golara Honari, Department of Dermatology, Kaiser Permanente, Family Health Center, 3rd Floor, 276 International Circle, San Jose, CA 95119, USA; and Department of Dermatology, University of California – San Francisco, Surge Building Suite 110, 90 Medical Center Way, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA, Phone: +1-408-9723590/1-415-4762468, Fax: +1-415-7535304, E-mail:


1. Lim HW, Hawk JLM. Photodermatologic disorders. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, editors. Dermatology, vol. 2, 3rd ed. China: Elsevier, 2012:1467–86.Search in Google Scholar

2. Wilkinson DS. Photodermatitis due to tetrachlorsalicylanilide. Br J Dermatol 1961;73:213–9.10.1111/j.1365-2133.1961.tb14435.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

3. Wilkinson DS. Two cases of photodermatitis due to tetrachlorsalicylanilide (TCSA). Proc R Soc Med 1961;54:817–8.10.1177/003591576105400935Search in Google Scholar

4. Calnan CD, Harman RR, Wells GC. Photodermatitis from soaps. Br Med J 1961;2:1266.10.1136/bmj.2.5262.1266Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

5. Hochsattel R, Gall H, Weber L, Kaufmann R. Photoallergic reaction to olaquindox. Hautarzt 1991;42:233–6.Search in Google Scholar

6. Boulitrop-Morvan C, Collet E, Dalac S, Bailly N, Jeanmougin M, et al. Photoallergy to hexamidine. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1993;9:154–5.Search in Google Scholar

7. Kumar A, Freeman S. Photoallergic contact dermatitis in a pig farmer caused by olaquindox. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35: 249–50.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1996.tb02370.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

8. Ramsay CA. Transient and persistent photosensitivity due to musk ambrette. Clinical and photobiological studies. Br J Dermatol 1984;111:423–9.Search in Google Scholar

9. Schauder S, Schroder W, Geier J. Olaquindox-induced airborne photoallergic contact dermatitis followed by transient or persistent light reactions in 15 pig breeders. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:344–54.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1996.tb02415.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

10. Thune P, Eeg-Larsen T. Contact and photocontact allergy in persistent light reactivity. Contact Dermatitis 1984;11:98–107.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1984.tb00935.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

11. Albes B, Marguery MC, Schwarze HP, Journe F, Loche F, et al. Prolonged photosensitivity following contact photoallergy to ketoprofen. Dermatology 2000;201:171–4.10.1159/000018466Search in Google Scholar PubMed

12. Hawk JL, Magnus IA. Chronic actinic dermatitis – an idiopathic photosensitivity syndrome including actinic reticuloid and photosensitive eczema [proceedings]. Br J Dermatol 1979; 101 (Suppl 17):24.Search in Google Scholar

13. Norris PG, Hawk JL. Chronic actinic dermatitis. A unifying concept. Arch Dermatol 1990;126:376–8.10.1001/archderm.1990.01670270108018Search in Google Scholar

14. Hawk JL. Chronic actinic dermatitis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2004;20:312–4.10.1111/j.1600-0781.2004.00129.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

15. Paek SY, Lim HW. Chronic actinic dermatitis. Dermatol Clin 2014;32:355–61, viii–ix.10.1016/j.det.2014.03.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

16. Chew AL, Bashir SJ, Hawk JL, Palmer R, White IR, et al. Contact and photocontact sensitization in chronic actinic dermatitis: a changing picture. Contact Dermatitis 2010;62:42–6.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01658.xSearch in Google Scholar

17. Megahed M, Holzle E, Plewig G. Persistent light reaction associated with photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette and allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance mix. Dermatologica 1991;182:199–202.10.1159/000247784Search in Google Scholar

18. Menage H, Ross JS, Norris PG, Hawk JL, White IR. Contact and photocontact sensitization in chronic actinic dermatitis: sesquiterpene lactone mix is an important allergen. Br J Dermatol 1995;132:543–7.10.1111/j.1365-2133.1995.tb08708.xSearch in Google Scholar

19. DeLeo VA, Suarez SM, Maso MJ. Photoallergic contact dermatitis. Results of photopatch testing in New York, 1985 to 1990. Arch Dermatol 1992;128:1513–8.10.1001/archderm.1992.01680210091015Search in Google Scholar

20. Vachiramon V, Wattanakrai P. Photoallergic contact sensitization to 6-methylcoumarin in poikiloderma of civatte. Dermatitis 2005;16:136–8.Search in Google Scholar

21. Wojnarowska F, Calnan CD. Contact and photocontact allergy to musk ambrette. Br J Dermatol 1986;114:667–75.10.1111/j.1365-2133.1986.tb04874.xSearch in Google Scholar

22. Torinuki W, Kumai N, Miura T. Chronic photosensitive dermatitis due to phenothiazines. Tohoku J Exp Med 1982;138:223–6.10.1620/tjem.138.223Search in Google Scholar

23. Torinuki W. Contact dermatitis to biperiden and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist. Tohoku J Exp Med 1995;176:249–52.10.1620/tjem.176.249Search in Google Scholar

24. Menz J, Muller SA, Connolly SM. Photopatch testing: a six-year experience. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18(Pt 1):1044–7.10.1016/S0190-9622(88)70102-4Search in Google Scholar

25. Wolverton JE, Soter NA, Cohen DE. Fentichlor photocontact dermatitis: a persistent enigma. Dermatitis 2013;24:77–81.10.1097/DER.0b013e318284da45Search in Google Scholar PubMed

26. Foti C, Bonamonte D, Conserva A, Stingeni L, Lisi P, et al. Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen: evaluation of cross-reactivities by a combination of photopatch testing and computerized conformational analysis. Curr Pharm Des 2008;14:2833–9.10.2174/138161208786369696Search in Google Scholar PubMed

27. Vigan M, Girardin P, Desprez P, Adessi B, Aubin F, et al. Photocontact dermatitis due to ketoprofen and photosensitization to tetrachlorosalicylanide and to Fenticlor®. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002;129(Pt 1):1125–7.Search in Google Scholar

28. European Multicentre Photopatch Test Study (EMCPPTS) Taskforce. A European multicentre photopatch test study. Br J Dermatol 2012;166:1002–9.10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.10857.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

29. Darvay A, White IR, Rycroft RJ, Jones AB, Hawk JL, et al. Photoallergic contact dermatitis is uncommon. Br J Dermatol 2001;145:597–601.10.1046/j.1365-2133.2001.04458.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

30. Bryden AM, Moseley H, Ibbotson SH, Chowdhury MM, Beck MH, et al. Photopatch testing of 1155 patients: results of the U.K. multicentre photopatch study group. Br J Dermatol 2006;155:737–47.10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07458.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

31. Scalf LA, Davis MD, Rohlinger AL, Connolly SM. Photopatch testing of 182 patients: a 6-year experience at the Mayo Clinic. Dermatitis 2009;20:44–52.10.2310/6620.2008.08049Search in Google Scholar

32. Goossens A. Photoallergic contact dermatitis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2004;20:121–5.10.1111/j.1600-0781.2004.00092.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

33. Polefka TG, Meyer TA, Agin PP, Bianchini RJ. Effects of solar radiation on the skin. J Cosmet Dermatol 2012;11:134–43.10.1111/j.1473-2165.2012.00614.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

34. Diffey BL, Kochevar IE. Basic principles of photobiology. In: Lim HW, Honigsmnn H, Hawk JLM, editors. Photodermatology. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007:15–27.Search in Google Scholar

35. Wondrak GT, Jacobson MK, Jacobson EL. Endogenous UVA-photosensitizers: mediators of skin photodamage and novel targets for skin photoprotection. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2006;5:215–37.10.1039/B504573HSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

36. Matsumura Y, Ananthaswamy HN. Toxic effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;195: 298–308.10.1016/j.taap.2003.08.019Search in Google Scholar PubMed

37. Fujimoto N, Danno K, Wakabayashi M, Uenishi T, Tanaka T. Photosensitivity with eosinophilia due to ambroxol and UVB. Contact Dermatitis 2009;60:110–3.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2008.01470.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

38. Anders A, Altheide HJ, Knalmann M, Tronnier H. Action spectrum for erythema in humans investigated with dye lasers. Photochem Photobiol 1995;61:200–5.10.1111/j.1751-1097.1995.tb03961.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

39. de Gruijl FR. Action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis. Recent Results Cancer Res 1995;139:21–30.10.1007/978-3-642-78771-3_2Search in Google Scholar

40. Hwang YJ, Park HJ, Hahn HJ, Kim JY, Ko JH, et al. Immediate pigment darkening and persistent pigment darkening as means of measuring the ultraviolet A protection factor in vivo: a comparative study. Br J Dermatol 2011;164:1356–61.10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10225.xSearch in Google Scholar

41. Parrish JA, Jaenicke KF, Anderson RR. Erythema and melanogenesis action spectra of normal human skin. Photochem Photobiol 1982;36:187–91.10.1111/j.1751-1097.1982.tb04362.xSearch in Google Scholar

42. Emmett EA. Drug photoallergy. Int J Dermatol 1978;17:370–9.10.1111/ijd.1978.17.5.370Search in Google Scholar

43. Serrano G, Bonillo J, Aliaga A, Gargallo E, Pelufo C. Piroxicam-induced photosensitivity. in vivo and in vitro studies of its photosensitizing potential. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984;11:113–20.10.1016/S0190-9622(84)70144-7Search in Google Scholar

44. Yamada S, Tanaka M, Kawahara Y, Inada M, Ohata Y. Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to diphenhydramine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 1998;38:282.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1998.tb05746.xSearch in Google Scholar

45. Moser J, Hye A, Lovell WW, Earl LK, Castell JV, et al. Mechanisms of drug photobinding to proteins: photobinding of suprofen to human serum albumin. Toxicol In Vitro 2001;15:333–7.10.1016/S0887-2333(01)00033-9Search in Google Scholar

46. Lovell WW. A scheme for in vitro screening of substances for photoallergenic potential. Toxicol In Vitro 1993;7:95–102.10.1016/0887-2333(93)90117-NSearch in Google Scholar

47. Tokura Y. Immune responses to photohaptens: implications for the mechanisms of photosensitivity to exogenous agents. J Dermatol Sci 2000;23(Suppl 1):S6–9.10.1016/S0923-1811(99)00071-7Search in Google Scholar

48. Saint-Mezard P, Krasteva M, Chavagnac C, Bosset S, Akiba H, et al. Afferent and efferent phases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) can be induced after a single skin contact with haptens: evidence using a mouse model of primary ACD. J Invest Dermatol 2003;120:641–7.10.1046/j.1523-1747.2003.12093.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

49. Gerberick F, Aleksic M, Basketter D, Casati S, Karlberg AT, et al. Chemical reactivity measurement and the predicitve identification of skin sensitisers. The report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop 64. Altern Lab Anim 2008;36:215–42.10.1177/026119290803600210Search in Google Scholar PubMed

50. Mutschler J, Gimenez-Arnau E, Foertsch L, Gerberick GF, Lepoittevin JP. Mechanistic assessment of peptide reactivity assay to predict skin allergens with kathon CG isothiazolinones. Toxicol In Vitro 2009;23:439–46.10.1016/j.tiv.2009.01.014Search in Google Scholar PubMed

51. Rustemeyer T, van Hoogstraten IM, von Blomberg ME, Scheper RJ. Mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis. In: Rustemeyer T, Elsner P, John SM, Maibach HI, editors. Kanerva’s occupational dermatology, 2nd ed. Heidelberg: Springer, 2012:113–46.Search in Google Scholar

52. Iversen L, Johansen C. Inflammasomes and inflammatory caspases in skin inflammation. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2008;8: 697–705.10.1586/14737159.8.6.697Search in Google Scholar PubMed

53. Margarida Gonçalo. Phototoxic and photoallergic reactions. In: Johansen JD, Frosch PJ, Lepoittevin JP, editors. Contact dermatitis, 5th ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011:361–76.Search in Google Scholar

54. Francalanci S, Gola M, Giorgini S, Muccinelli A, Sertoli A. Occupational photocontact dermatitis from olaquindox. Contact Dermatitis 1986;15:112–4.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1986.tb01305.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

55. Emmert B, Schauder S, Palm H, Hallier E, Emmert S. Disabling work-related persistent photosensitivity following photoallergic contact dermatitis from chlorpromazine and olaquindox in a pig breeder. Ann Agric Environ Med 2007;14:329–33.Search in Google Scholar

56. Zhang XM, Nakagawa M, Kawai K, Kawai K. Erythema-multiforme-like eruption following photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone. Contact Dermatitis 1998;38:43–4.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1998.tb05637.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

57. Verma KK, Sirka CS, Ramam M, Sharma VK. Parthenium dermatitis presenting as photosensitive lichenoid eruption. A new clinical variant. Contact Dermatitis 2002;46:286–9.10.1034/j.1600-0536.2002.460507.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

58. Kerr A, Ferguson J. Photoallergic contact dermatitis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2010;26:56–65.10.1111/j.1600-0781.2010.00494.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

59. Ibbotson SH. Photoallergic contact dermatitits: clinical aspects. In: Maibach HI, Honari G, editors. Applied dermatotoxicology: clinical aspects. Ann Arbor MI, USA: Academic Press, Elsevier; 2014:85–108.10.1016/B978-0-12-420130-9.00005-0Search in Google Scholar

60. Kerr A, Becher G, Ibbotson S, Ferguson J. Action spectrum for etofenamate photoallergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 2011;65:117–8.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2011.01920.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

61. Collins P, Ferguson J. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to oxybenzone. Br J Dermatol 1994;131:124–9.10.1111/j.1365-2133.1994.tb08469.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

62. Cripps DJ, Enta T. Absorption and action spectra studies on bithionol and halogenated salicylanilide photosensitivity. Br J Dermatol 1970;82:230–42.10.1111/j.1365-2133.1970.tb12430.xSearch in Google Scholar

63. Giovinazzo VJ, Ichikawa H, Kochevar IE, Armstrong RB, Harber LC. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to musk ambrette: action spectra in guinea pigs and man. Photochem Photobiol 1981;33:773–7.10.1111/j.1751-1097.1981.tb05490.xSearch in Google Scholar

64. Pollock B, Wilkinson SM. Photopatch test method: influence of type of irradiation and value of day-7 reading. Contact Dermatitis 2001;44:270–2.10.1034/j.1600-0536.2001.440502.xSearch in Google Scholar

65. Bruynzeel DP, Ferguson J, Andersen K, Gonçalo M, English J, et al. Photopatch testing: a consensus methodology for Europe. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004;18:679–82.10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01053.xSearch in Google Scholar

66. Duguid C, O’Sullivan D, Murphy GM. Determination of threshold UV-A elicitation dose in photopatch testing. Contact Dermatitis 1993;29:192–4.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1993.tb03536.xSearch in Google Scholar

67. Batchelor RJ, Wilkinson SM. Photopatch testing – a retrospective review using the 1 day and 2 day irradiation protocols. Contact Dermatitis 2006;54:75–8.10.1111/j.0105-1873.2006.00760.xSearch in Google Scholar

68. Gonçalo M, Ferguson J, Bonevalle A, Bruynzeel DP, Gimenez-Arnau A, et al. Photopatch testing: recommendations for a European photopatch test baseline series. Contact Dermatitis 2013;68:239–43.10.1111/cod.12037Search in Google Scholar

69. Kerr AC, Niklasson B, Dawe RS, Escoffier AM, Krasteva M, et al. A double-blind, randomized assessment of the irritant potential of sunscreen chemical dilutions used in photopatch testing. Contact Dermatitis 2009;60:203–9.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01516.xSearch in Google Scholar

70. Hasan T, Jansen CT. Photopatch test reactivity: effect of photoallergen concentration and UVA dosaging. Contact Dermatitis 1996;34:383–6.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1996.tb02237.xSearch in Google Scholar

71. Neumann NJ, Holzle E, Lehmann P, Benedikter S, Tapernoux B, et al. Pattern analysis of photopatch test reactions. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1994;10:65–73.Search in Google Scholar

72. Neumann NJ, Holzle E, Plewig G, Schwarz T, Panizzon RG, et al. Photopatch testing: the 12-year experience of the German, Austrian, and Swiss photopatch test group. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;42(Pt 1):183–92.10.1016/S0190-9622(00)90124-5Search in Google Scholar

73. Wilkinson DS, Fregert S, Magnusson B, Bandmann HJ, Calnan CD, et al. Terminology of contact dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol 1970;50:287–92.Search in Google Scholar

74. Bourke J, Coulson I, English J, British Association of Dermatologists. Guidelines for care of contact dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 2001;145:877–85.10.1046/j.1365-2133.2001.04499.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

75. Waters AJ, Sandhu DR, Lowe G, Ferguson J. Photocontact allergy to PABA in sunscreens: the need for continued vigilance. Contact Dermatitis 2009;60:172–73.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2008.01448.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

76. Cardoso JC, Canelas MM, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A. Photopatch testing with an extended series of photoallergens: a 5-year study. Contact Dermatitis 2009;60:325–9.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01550.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

77. Infante Hernando L, Serra-Baldrich E, Dordal T, Puig Sanz L. Photoallergic contact dermatitis caused by benzophenones in magazine inks. Contact Dermatitis 2013;69:124–6.10.1111/cod.12072Search in Google Scholar PubMed

78. Le Coz CJ, Lepoittevin JP. Dictionary of contact allergens: chemical structures, sources, and references. In: Johansen JD, Frosch PJ, Lepoittevin JP, editors. Contact dermatitis. Berlin: Springer, 2011:1121–248.Search in Google Scholar

79. Le Coz CJ, Bottlaender A, Scrivener JN, Santinelli F, Cribier BJ, et al. Photocontact dermatitis from ketoprofen and tiaprofenic acid: cross-reactivity study in 12 consecutive patients. Contact Dermatitis 1998;38:245–52.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1998.tb05737.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

80. Murphy GM, White IR. Photoallergic contact dermatitis to 2-ethoxyethyl-p-methoxycinnamate. Contact Dermatitis 1987;16:296.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1987.tb01470.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

81. Monzon S, Abos T, Saenz D, Perez-Cinto N, Montijano R, et al. Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to isoamyl-p-methoxycinnamate. J Invest Allergol Clin Immunol 2009;19:415–6.Search in Google Scholar

82. Kimura K, Katoh T. Photoallergic contact dermatitis from the sunscreen ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (Parsol MCX). Contact Dermatitis 1995;32:304–5.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1995.tb00788.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

83. Ghazavi MK, Johnston GA. Photo-allergic contact dermatitis caused by isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate in an ‘organic’ sunscreen. Contact Dermatitis 2011;64:115–6.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2010.01839.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

84. Karlsson I, Vanden Broecke K, Martensson J, Goossens A, Borje A. Clinical and experimental studies of octocrylene’s allergenic potency. Contact Dermatitis 2011;64:343–52.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2011.01899.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

85. Pentinga SE, Kuik DJ, Bruynzeel DP, Rustemeyer T. Do ‘cinnamon-sensitive’ patients react to cinnamate UV filters? Contact Dermatitis 2009;60:210–3.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01527.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

86. Hannuksela M, Salo H. The repeated open application test (ROAT). Contact Dermatitis 1986;14:221–7.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1986.tb01229.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

87. Buckley DA, O’Sullivan D, Murphy GM. Contact and photocontact allergy to dibenzoylmethanes and contact allergy to methylbenzylidene camphor. Contact Dermatitis 1993;29:47.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1993.tb04543.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

88. Kockler J, Robertson S, Oelgemoller M, Davies M, Bowden B, et al. Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane. Profiles Drug Subst Excip Relat Methodol 2013;38:87–111.10.1016/B978-0-12-407691-4.00003-4Search in Google Scholar PubMed

89. Schauder S, Ippen H. Photoallergic and allergic contact dermatitis from dibenzoylmethanes. Photodermatol 1986;3:140–7.Search in Google Scholar

90. Karlsson I, Hillerstrom L, Stenfeldt AL, Martensson J, Borje A. Photodegradation of dibenzoylmethanes: potential cause of photocontact allergy to sunscreens. Chem Res Toxicol 2009;22:1881–92.10.1021/tx900284eSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

91. Hughes TM, Martin JA, Lewis VJ, Stone NM. Allergic contact dermatitis to drometrizole trisiloxane in a sunscreen with concomitant sensitivities to other sun screens. Contact Dermatitis 2005;52:226–7.10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.0566a.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

92. Carrotte-Lefebvre I, Bonnevalle A, Segard M, Delaporte E, Thomas P. Contact allergy to octocrylene. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48:46–7.10.1034/j.1600-0536.2003.480108_2.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

93. Pascoe D, Moreau L, Sasseville D. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics. Dermatitis 2010;21:127–37.10.2310/6620.2010.09099Search in Google Scholar

94. Pereira N, Coutinho I, Andrade P, Gonçalo M. The UV filter Tinosorb M, containing decyl glucoside, is a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Dermatitis 2013;24:41–3.10.1097/DER.0b013e31827cd36fSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

95. Gonzalez-Perez R, Trebol I, Garcia-Rio I, Arregui MA, Soloeta R. Allergic contact dermatitis from methylene-bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (Tinosorb M). Contact Dermatitis 2007;56:121.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.00961.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

96. de Groot AC, van Zuuren EJ, Hissink D. Contact allergy to Tinosorb® M: recommendations for diagnostic improvement. Contact Dermatitis 2014;70:251–4.10.1111/cod.12159Search in Google Scholar PubMed

97. Ophaswongse S, Maibach H. Topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis and phototoxicity. Contact Dermatitis 1993;29:57–64.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1993.tb03483.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

98. Hindsen M, Zimerson E, Bruze M. Photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen in southern Sweden. Contact Dermatitis 2006;54:150–7.10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.00778.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

99. Pigatto PD, Guzzi G, Schena D, Guarrera M, Foti C, et al. Photopatch tests: an Italian multicentre study from 2004 to 2006. Contact Dermatitis 2008;59:103–8.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2008.01374.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

100. Matthieu L, Meuleman L, Van Hecke E, Blondeel A, Dezfoulian B, et al. Contact and photocontact allergy to ketoprofen. The Belgian experience. Contact Dermatitis 2004;50:238–41.10.1111/j.0105-1873.2004.00323.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

101. Leroy D, Dompmartin A, Szczurko C, Michel M, Louvet S. Photodermatitis from ketoprofen with cross-reactivity to fenofibrate and benzophenones. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1997;13:93–7.10.1111/j.1600-0781.1997.tb00123.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

102. Kladna A, Aboul-Enein HY, Kruk I, Lichszteld K, Michalska T. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and fenofibrate. Biopolymers 2006;82:99–105.10.1002/bip.20402Search in Google Scholar PubMed

103. Karlsson I, Persson E, Ekebergh A, Martensson J, Borje A. Ketoprofen-induced formation of amino acid photoadducts: possible explanation for photocontact allergy to ketoprofen. Chem Res Toxicol 2014;27:1294–303.10.1021/tx5001656Search in Google Scholar PubMed

104. Figueiredo A, Ribeiro CA, Gonçalo S, Caldeira MM, Poiares-Baptista A, et al. Piroxicam-induced photosensitivity. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17:73–9.10.1111/j.1600-0536.1987.tb02664.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

105. Canelas MM, Cardoso JC, Gonçalo M, Figueiredo A. Photoallergic contact dermatitis from benzydamine presenting mainly as lip dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 2010;63:85–8.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2010.01707.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

106. Frosch PJ, Weickel R. Photocontact allergy caused by benzydamine (tantum). Hautarzt 1989;40:771–3.Search in Google Scholar

107. Alvarez-Garrido H, Sanz-Munoz C, Martinez-Garcia G, Miranda-Romero A. Lymphomatoid photocontact dermatitis to benzydamine hydrochloride. Contact Dermatitis 2010;62:117–9.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01676.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

108. Lasa Elgezua O, Gorrotxategi PE, Gardeazabal Garcia J, Raton Nieto JA, Perez JL. Photoallergic hand eczema due to benzydamine. Eur J Dermatol 2004;14:69–70.Search in Google Scholar

109. Hariya T, Osawa J, Kitamura K, Ikezawa Z. Piroxicam has at least two epitopes for contact photoallergy. J Dermatol Sci 1993;6:219–24.10.1016/0923-1811(93)90042-NSearch in Google Scholar

110. Kowalzick L, Ziegler H. Photoallergic contact dermatitis from topical diclofenac in solaraze gel. Contact Dermatitis 2006;54:348–9.10.1111/j.0105-1873.2006.0645f.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

111. Montoro J, Rodriguez M, Diaz M, Bertomeu F. Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac. Contact Dermatitis 2003;48:115.10.1034/j.1600-0536.2003.480212_1.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

112. Fernandez-Jorge B, Goday-Bujan JJ, Murga M, Molina FP, Perez-Varela L, et al. Photoallergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac with cross-reaction to aceclofenac: two case reports. Contact Dermatitis 2009;61:236–7.10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01596.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

113. Tokura Y, Seo N, Fujie M, Takigawa M. Quinolone-photoconjugated major histocompatibility complex class II-binding peptides with lysine are antigenic for T cells mediating murine quinolone photoallergy. J Invest Dermatol 2001;117:1206–11.10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.01504.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

114. Kerr A, Woods J, Ferguson J. Photocontact allergic and phototoxic studies of chlorproethazine. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2008;24:11–5.10.1111/j.1600-0781.2008.00324.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

115. Maibach HI, Honari G. Applied dermatotoxicology: clinical aspects. Ann Arbor MI, USA: Elsevier; 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2014-8-27
Accepted: 2014-9-1
Published Online: 2014-10-2
Published in Print: 2014-8-1

©2014 by De Gruyter

Downloaded on 25.9.2023 from
Scroll to top button