Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 24, 2015

Synergistic health effects between chemical pollutants and electromagnetic fields

Gérard Ledoigt, Chaima Sta, Eric Goujon, Dalila Souguir and Ezzeddine El Ferjani

Abstract

Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health. Concomitant presence of various pesticides and their transformation products adds further complexity to chemical risk assessment since chronic inflammation is a key step for cancer promotion. Degradation of a parent molecule can produce several by-products which can trigger various toxic effects with different impacts on health and environment. For instance, the cocktail of sunlight irradiated sulcotrione pesticide has a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule, sulcotrione, and questions about the impact of photochemical process on environment. Adjuvants were shown to modify the biological features of pesticides. Addition of other elements, metals or biological products, can differently enhance cell toxicity of pesticides or electromagnetic radiations suggesting a synergy in living organisms. Electromagnetic fields spreading, pesticide by-products and mixtures monitoring become greater for environmental contamination evaluations.


Corresponding author: Pr. Gérard Ledoigt, Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Campus Universitaire des Cézeaux, UMR 547 PIAF, B.P. 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France, Phone: +33 473407908, Fax: +33 473407951, E-mail:

References

1. Escher BI, Fenner K. Recent advances in environmental risk assessment of transformation products. Environ Sci Technol 2011;45:3835–47.10.1021/es1030799Search in Google Scholar PubMed

2. Katagi T. Photodegradation of pesticides on plant and soil surfaces. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2004;182:1–189.10.1007/978-1-4419-9098-3_1Search in Google Scholar PubMed

3. Mangels G. Behavior of the imidazolinone herbicides in the aquatic environment. In: Shanner DL, O’Conner SL, editors. Imidazolinone Herbicides. CRC Press, 1991:183–90.Search in Google Scholar

4. Ter Halle A, Drncova D, Richard C. Phototransformation of the herbicide sulcotrione on maize cuticular wax. Environ Sci Technol 2006;40:2989–95.10.1021/es052266hSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

5. Mitsou K, Koulianou A, Lambropoulou D, Pappas P, Albanis T, et al. Growth rate effects, responses of antioxidant enzymes and metabolic fate of the herbicide Propanil in the aquatic plant Lemna minor. Chemosphere 2006;62:275–84.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.05.026Search in Google Scholar PubMed

6. Vulliet E, Emmelin C, Chovelon JM, Chouteau C, Clement B. Assessment of the toxicity of triasulfuron and its photoproducts using aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2004;23: 2837–43.10.1897/03-486.1Search in Google Scholar PubMed

7. Bjorklund E, Anskjaer GG, Hansen M, Styrishave B, Halling-Sorensen B. Analysis and environmental concentrations of the herbicide dichlobenil and its main metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM): A review. Sci Total Environ 2011;409:2343–56.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.02.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed

8. Carpenter DO. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Rev Environ Health 2013;28(4):159–72.10.1515/reveh-2013-0016Search in Google Scholar PubMed

9. Havas M. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system. Rev Environ Health 2013;28(2–3):75–84.10.1515/reveh-2013-0004Search in Google Scholar PubMed

10. Ferguson LR. Chronic inflammation and mutagenesis. Mutat Res 2010;690:3–11.10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2010.03.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

11. Filipic M. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability. Mutat Res 2012;733:69– 77.10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2011.09.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

12. Fragopoulou AF, Samara A, Antonelou MH, Xanthopoulou A, Papadopoulou A, et al. Brain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation. Electromagn Biol Med 2012;31(4):250–74.10.3109/15368378.2011.631068Search in Google Scholar PubMed

13. Wang WX, Vinocur B, Shoseyoy O, Altman A. Biotechnology of plant osmotic stress tolerance: Physiological and molecular considerations. Acta Hortic 2001;560:285–92.10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.560.54Search in Google Scholar

14. Wang WX, Vinocur B, Altman A. Plant response to drought, salinity and extreme temperature: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 2003;218:1–14.10.1007/s00425-003-1105-5Search in Google Scholar PubMed

15. Genuis SJ. Sensitivity-related illness: The escalating pandemic of allergy, food intolerance and chemical sensitivity. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:6047–61.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.08.047Search in Google Scholar PubMed

16. Mantovani A, Allavena P, Sica A, Balkwill F. Cancer-related inflammation. Nature 2008;454:436–44.10.1038/nature07205Search in Google Scholar PubMed

17. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 2006;160:1–40.10.1016/j.cbi.2005.12.009Search in Google Scholar PubMed

18. Hardell L, Sage C. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomed Pharmacother 2008;62:104–9.10.1016/j.biopha.2007.12.004Search in Google Scholar PubMed

19. Ledoigt G, Belpomme D. Cancer induction molecular pathways and HF-EMF irradiation. Adv Biol Chem 2013;3:177–86.10.4236/abc.2013.32023Search in Google Scholar

20. Friedman J, Kraus S, Hauptman Y, Schiff Y, Seger R. Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies. Biochem J 2007;405:559–68.10.1042/BJ20061653Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

21. Weisbrot D, Lin H, Ye L, Blank M, Goodman R. Effects of mobile phone radiation on reproduction and development in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Biochem 2003;89:48–55.10.1002/jcb.10480Search in Google Scholar PubMed

22. Ghezel-Ahmadi D, Engel A, Weidemann J, Budnik LT, Baur X, et al. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:774–8.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.11.023Search in Google Scholar PubMed

23. Ghezel-Ahmadi D. Response to Costa et al. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:4921.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.06.044Search in Google Scholar

24. Costa A, Branca V, Minoia C. Heavy metals exposure and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. To the Editor. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:4919–20.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.06.045Search in Google Scholar PubMed

25. Amara S, Abdelmelek H, Garrel C, Guiraud P, Douki T, et al. Influence of static magnetic field on cadmium toxicity: Study of oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat tissues. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2006;20:263–9.10.1016/j.jtemb.2006.07.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

26. Amara S, Douki T, Garrel C, Favier A, Ben Rhouma K, et al. Effects of static magnetic field and cadmium on oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat cortex brain and hippocampus. Toxicol Ind Health 2011;2:99–106.10.1177/0748233710381887Search in Google Scholar PubMed

27. Hassan NS, Abdelkawi SA. Assessing of plasma protein denaturation induced by exposure to cadmium, electromagnetic fields and their combined actions on rat. Electromagn Biol Med 2014;33(2):147–53.10.3109/15368378.2013.800101Search in Google Scholar PubMed

28. Ulku R, Akdag MZ, Erdogan S, Akkus Z, Dasdag S. Extremely low-frequency magnetic field decreased calcium, zinc and magnesium levels in costa of rat. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;143(1):359–67.10.1007/s12011-010-8855-2Search in Google Scholar PubMed

29. Foletti A, Ledda M, De Carlo F, Grimaldi S, Lisi A. Calcium ion cyclotron resonance (ICR), 7.0 Hz, 9.2 microT magnetic field exposure initiates differentiation of pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cells. Electromagn Biol Med 2010;29(3):63–71.10.3109/15368378.2010.482480Search in Google Scholar PubMed

30. Baltaci AK, Mogulkoc R, Salbacak A, Celik I, Sivrikaya A. The role of zinc supplementation in the inhibition of tissue damage caused by exposure to electromagnetic field in rat lung and liver tissues. Bratisl Lek Listy 2012;113(7):400–3.10.4149/BLL_2012_090Search in Google Scholar PubMed

31. Amara S, Abdelmelek H, Abidi R, Sakly M, Ben Rhouma K. Zinc prevents hematological and biochemical alterations induced by static magnetic field in rats. Pharmacol Rep 2005;57:616–22.Search in Google Scholar

32. Amara S, Abdelmelek H, Garrel C, Guiraud P, Douki T, et al. Zinc supplementation ameliorates static magnetic field-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2007;23:193–7.10.1016/j.etap.2006.09.001Search in Google Scholar PubMed

33. Ghodbane S, Amara S, Garrel C, Arnaud J, Ducros V, et al. Selenium supplementation ameliorates static magnetic field-induced disorders in antioxidant status in rat tissues. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2011;31:100–6.10.1016/j.etap.2010.09.010Search in Google Scholar PubMed

34. Mortazavi SM, Daiee E, Yazdi A, Khiabani K, Kavousi A, et al. Mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after magnetic resonance imaging and following mobile phone use. Pak J Biol Sci 2008;11(8):1142–46.10.3923/pjbs.2008.1142.1146Search in Google Scholar PubMed

35. Mortazavi SM, Neghab M, Anoosheh SM, Bahaeddini N, Mortazavi G, et al. High-field MRI and mercury release from dental amalgam fillings. Int J Occup Environ Med 2014;5:101–5.Search in Google Scholar

36. Mortazavi S, Mortazavi G. Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion: an unusual presentation-report of a rare case. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2015;5(2):152.10.4103/2141-9248.153638Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

37. Goujon E, Sta C, Trivella A, Goupil P, Richard C, et al. Genotoxicity of sulcotrione pesticide and photoproducts on Allium cepa root meristem. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2014;113:47–54.10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.06.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

38. Mesnage R, Defarge N, Spiroux de Vendômois J, Séralini G-E. Major pesticides are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles. BioMed Res Inter 2014;1–8.10.1155/2014/179691Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

39. Mesnage R, Bernay B, Séralini G-E. Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity. Toxicology 2013;313:122–8.10.1016/j.tox.2012.09.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

40. Sta C, Goujon E, Ferjani E, Ledoigt G. Toxicity of Sulcotrione and Grape Marc on Vicia faba Cells. J Agric Food Chem 2014;62:11777–85.10.1021/jf503323tSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

41. Clair E, Linn L, Travert C, Amiel C, Seralini G-E, et al. Effects of Roundup and glyphosate on three food microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Curr Microbiol 2012;64:486–91.10.1007/s00284-012-0098-3Search in Google Scholar PubMed

42. Mesnage R, Defarge N, Spiroux de Vendômois J, Séralini G-E. Potential toxic effects of glyphosate and its commercial formulations below regulatory limits. Food Chem Toxicol 2015;84:133–53.10.1016/j.fct.2015.08.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed

43. Dupas D, Dagorne M-A. Syndrome d’intolérance aux odeurs chimiques (SIOC): un diagnostic à ne pas manquer. Épidémiologie, diagnostic, traitement. Multiple chemical sensitivity: A diagnosis not to be missed. Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 2013;30(2):99–104.10.1016/j.rmr.2012.06.016Search in Google Scholar PubMed

44. Pigatto PD, Minoia C, Ronchi A, Brambilla L, Ferrucci SM, et al. Allergological and toxicological aspects in a multiple chemical sensitivity cohort. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013;2013: Article ID 356235, 12 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/356235.10.1155/2013/356235Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

45. De Luca C, Raskovic D, Pacifico V, Thai JC, Korkina L. The search for reliable biomarkers of disease in multiple chemical sensitivity and other environmental intolerances. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8:2770–97.10.3390/ijerph8072770Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

Received: 2015-9-11
Accepted: 2015-11-2
Published Online: 2015-11-24
Published in Print: 2015-12-1

©2015 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston