Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 27, 2015

Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences

  • Mary Redmayne EMAIL logo and Olle Johansson

Abstract

Our environment is now permeated by anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, and individuals of all ages are exposed for most of each 24 h period from transmitting devices. Despite claims that children are more likely to be vulnerable than healthy adults to unwanted effects of this exposure, there has been no recent examination of this, nor of comparative risk to the elderly or ill. We sought to clarify whether research supports the claim of increased risk in specific age-groups. First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications. We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.


Corresponding author: Mary Redmayne, Population Health Research on Electromagnetic Energy (PRESEE), Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne 3004, Australia, Phone: +61 3 99030285, Fax: +61 3 99030556, E-mail:

Acknowledgments

Mr. Brian Stein, Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, UK, the Irish Campaign against Microwave Pollution, and the Irish Doctors Environmental Association (IDEA; Cumann Comhshaoil Dhoctúirí na hÉireann) are gratefully acknowledged for their general support.

  1. Funding sources: Mary Redmayne is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council grant for the Centre for Research Excellence on Health Effects of Electromagnetic Energy (NHMRC CRE1060205). Olle Johansson is supported by the Karolinska Institute, and a grant from Mr. Einar Rasmussen, Kristiansand S, Norway. The funders had no role in concept, analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

  2. Conflict of interest statement: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare, either financial or otherwise.

  3. Author affiliations additional to those on the title page: Mary Redmayne: Adjunct research fellow, Victoria University of Wellington; Member of TE-007 Standard Australia Committee; Scientific Advisor to the Environmental Health Trust (all of these are non-stipendiary).

References

1. Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones. Mobile phones and health. Didcot, Oxon.: National Radiological Protection Board, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

2. Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones. Clarification of issues discussed in the report: National Radiation Protection Board; 2000, 16 June [cited 2012 27 November]. Available at: http://www.iegmp.org.uk/report/clarification.htm.Search in Google Scholar

3. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency. Mobile phones and children. ARPANSA, 2012. Updated February 2013.Search in Google Scholar

4. Ministry of Health. Cellphones Wellington: MoH; 2014 [cited 2014 29 September]. Available at: http://www.health.govt.nz/your-health/healthy-living/environmental-health/household-items-and-electronics/cellphones.Search in Google Scholar

5. Environmental Working Group. Cell phone radiation: Science review on cancer risks and children’s health. Washington D.C.: EWG, 2009 September 9. Report No.Search in Google Scholar

6. European Environment Agency, WHO Regional Office for Europe. Children’s health and environment: A review of evidence. Luxembourg, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

7. SCENIHR. Research needs and methodology to address the remaining knowledge gaps on the potential health effects of EMF. Opinion. Brussels: European Commission, 2009.Search in Google Scholar

8. Schüz J. Mobile phone use and exposures in children. Bioelectromagnetics 2005;Suppl 7:S45–50.10.1002/bem.20129Search in Google Scholar

9. Martens L. Electromagnetic safety of children using wireless phones: A literature review. Bioelectromagnetics 2005;Suppl 7:S133–7.10.1002/bem.20150Search in Google Scholar

10. Thomas S, Benke G, Dimitriadis C, Inyang I, Sim M, et al. Use of mobile phones and changes in cognitive function in adolescents. Occup Environ Med 2010;67:861–6.10.1136/oem.2009.054080Search in Google Scholar

11. Health Council of the Netherlands. Influence of radiofrequency telecommunication signals on children’s brains. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2011:2011/20E.Search in Google Scholar

12. Redmayne M. Wireless phone use by young New Zealanders: Health and policy implications. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

13. Kim JW, Char BH, Yang JS, Lim BG. Intermittent rhythmic delta activity (IRDA) in children. J Korean Child Neurol Soc 1997;5(1):38–43.Search in Google Scholar

14. Gennaro D, Quarato P, Onorati P, Colazza G, Mari F, et al. Localizing significance of temporal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (TIRDA) in drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Clin Neurophysio 2003;114:80–8.10.1016/S1388-2457(02)00332-2Search in Google Scholar

15. Boro AD, Haut S. Abnormal slow waves: Medscape; 2012 [cited 2014 March]. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1139025-overview#aw2aab6b4.Search in Google Scholar

16. Palva S, Palva JM. New vistas for α-frequency band oscillations. Trends Neurosci 2007;30(4):150–8.10.1016/j.tins.2007.02.001Search in Google Scholar

17. Niedermeyer E. Alpha rhythms as physiological and abnormal phenomena. Int J Psychophysiol 1997;26(1–3):31–49.10.1016/S0167-8760(97)00754-XSearch in Google Scholar

18. Klimesch W. EEG-alpha rhythms and memory processes. Int J Psychophysiol 1997;26:31–49.10.1016/S0167-8760(97)00773-3Search in Google Scholar

19. Mazaheri A. Brain wave patterns can predict blunders, new study finds: UC Davis; 2009, March 23 [cited 2012 22 January]. Available at: http://news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=9031.Search in Google Scholar

20. Farber D, Knyazeva MG. Electrophysiological correlates of interhemispheric interaction in ontogenesis. In: Ramaeker G, Njiokiktjien C, editors. Pediatric Behavioural Neurology. Amsterdam: Suyi Publications, 1991.Search in Google Scholar

21. Knyazeva MG. Splenium of corpus callosum: patterns of interhemispheric interaction in children and adults. Nerual Plast 2013;2013:1–12.10.1155/2013/639430Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

22. Arns M, Conners CK, Kraemer HC. A decade of EEG theta/beta ratio research in ADHD: A meta-analysis. J Atten Disord 2012;17(5):374–83.10.1177/1087054712460087Search in Google Scholar PubMed

23. Huber R, Treyer V, Borbély A, Schuderer J, Gottselig J, et al. Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG. J Sleep Res 2002;11(4):289–95.10.1046/j.1365-2869.2002.00314.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

24. Hinrikus H, Bachmann M, Lass J, Tuulik V. Effect of modulated at different low frequencies microwave radiation on human EEG. Environmentalist 2009;29:215–9.10.1007/s10669-009-9215-7Search in Google Scholar

25. Croft RJ, Leung SW, McKenzie RJ, Loughran SP, Iskra S, et al. Effects of 2G and 3G mobile phones on human alpha rhythms: resting EEG in adolescents, young adults, and the elderly. Bioelectromagnetics 2010;31(6):434–44.10.1002/bem.20583Search in Google Scholar

26. Vecchio F, Babiloni C, Ferreri F, Buffo P, Cibelli G, et al. Mobile phone emission modulates inter-hemispheric functional coupling of EEG alpha rhythms in elderly compared to young subjects. Clin Neurophysiol 2010;121(2):163–71.10.1016/j.clinph.2009.11.002Search in Google Scholar

27. Croft RJ, Hamblin DL, Spong J, Wood AW, McKenzie RJ, et al. The effect of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the alpha rhythm of human electroencephalogram. Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29(1):1–10.10.1002/bem.20352Search in Google Scholar

28. Curcio G, Ferrara M, Moroni F, D’Inzeo G, Bertini M, et al. Is the brain influenced by a phone call?: An EEG study of resting wakefulness. Neuro Res 2005;53(3):265–70.10.1016/j.neures.2005.07.003Search in Google Scholar

29. Lowden A, Åkerstedt T, Ingre M, Wiholm C, Hillert L, et al. Sleep after mobile phone exposure in subjects with mobile phone-related symptoms. Bioelectromagnetics 2011;32:4–14.10.1002/bem.20609Search in Google Scholar

30. D’Costa H, Trueman G, Tang L, Abdel-rahman U, Abdel-rahman W, et al. Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 2003;26(4):162–7.10.1007/BF03179176Search in Google Scholar

31. Vecchio F, Babiloni C, Ferreri F, Curcio G, Fini R, et al. Mobile phone emission modulates interhemispheric functional coupling of EEG alpha rhythms. Eur J Neurosci 2007;25(6):1908–13.10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05405.xSearch in Google Scholar

32. Croft RJ, Chandler JS, Burgess AP, Barry RJ, Williams JD, et al. Acute mobile phone operation affects neural function in humans. Clin Neurophysiol 2002;113(10):1623–32.10.1016/S1388-2457(02)00215-8Search in Google Scholar

33. Kramarenko AV, Tan U. Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human EEG: A brain mapping study. Int J Neurosci 2003;113(7):1007–19.10.1080/00207450390220330Search in Google Scholar PubMed

34. Lustenberger C, Murbach M, Dürr R, Schmid MR, Kuster N, et al. Stimulation of the brain with radiofrequency electromagnetic field pulses affects sleep-dependent performance improvment. Brain Stimul 2013;6:805–11.10.1016/j.brs.2013.01.017Search in Google Scholar

35. Barry RJ, Clarke AR, Hajos M, Dupuy FE, McCarthy R, et al. EEG coherence and symptom profiles of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Clin Neurophysiol 2011;122:1327–32.10.1016/j.clinph.2011.01.007Search in Google Scholar

36. Murias M, Swanson JM, Srinivasan R. Functional connectivity of frontal cortex in healthy and ADHD children reflected in EEG coherence. Cereb Cortex 2007;17(8):1788–99.10.1093/cercor/bhl089Search in Google Scholar

37. Reiher J, Beaudry M, Leduc CP. Temporal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (TIRDA) in the diagnosis of complex partial epilepsy: Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Can J Neurol Sci 1989;16(4):398–401.10.1017/S0317167100029450Search in Google Scholar

38. Epilepsy Foundation and Epilepsy Therapy Project. Complex partial seizures Landover, MD: Epilepsy Foundation and Epilepsy Therapy Project; 2014 [cited 2014 21 February]. Available at: http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/aboutepilepsy/seizures/partialseizures/complexpartial/.Search in Google Scholar

39. RNCNIRP. Russian National Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection: 2008 report. Geneva: 2008. Annual report to the International EMF Project overseen by the World Health Organisation. Retrieved on 20 November 2014 from http://www.who.int/peh-emf/project/mapnatreps/RUSSIA%20report%202008.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

40. Lange-Küttner C. The importance of reaction times for developmental science: What a difference milliseconds make. Int J Developmental Sci 2012;6:51–5.10.3233/DEV-2012-11089Search in Google Scholar

41. Barrouillet P, Gavens N, Vergauwe E, Gaillard V, Camos V. Working memory span development: A time-based resource-sharing model account. Dev Psychol 2009;45(2):477–90.10.1037/a0014615Search in Google Scholar

42. Salthouse TA. Aging and measures of processing speed. Biol Psychol 2000;54(1–3):35–54.10.1016/S0301-0511(00)00052-1Search in Google Scholar

43. Pederson T. As we age, loss of brain connections slows our reaction time 2013 [cited 2013 3 April]. Available at: http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/09/13/as-we-age-loss-of-brain-connections-slows-our-reaction-time/18031.html.Search in Google Scholar

44. Barth A, Winker R, Ponocny-Seliger E, Mayrhofer W, Ponocny I, et al. A meta-analysis for neurobehavioural effects due to electromangnetic field exposure emitted by GSM mobile phones. Occup Environ Med 2008;65:342–6.10.1136/oem.2006.031450Search in Google Scholar PubMed

45. Abramson MJ, Benke GP, Dimitriadis C, Inyang IO, Sim MR, et al. Mobile telephone use is associated with changes in cognitive function in young adolescents. Bioelectromagnetics 2009;30(8):678–86.10.1002/bem.20534Search in Google Scholar PubMed

46. Preece AW, Goodfellow S, Wright MG, Butler SR, Dunn EJ, et al. Effect of 902 MHz mobile phone transmission on cognitive function in children. Bioelectromagnetics 2005;Suppl 7:S138–43.10.1002/bem.20128Search in Google Scholar PubMed

47. Preece AW, Iwi G, Davies-Smith A, Wesnes K, Butler S, et al. Effect of a 915-MHz simulated mobile phone signal on cognitive function in man. Int J Radiat Biol 1999;75(4):447–56.10.1080/095530099140375Search in Google Scholar PubMed

48. Leung SW, Croft RJ, McKenzie RJ, Iskra S, Silber B, et al. Effects of 2G and 3G mobile phones on performance and electrophysiology in adolescents, young adults and older adults. Clin Neurophysiol 2011;122(11):2203–16.10.1016/j.clinph.2011.04.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

49. Aldad TS, Gan G, Gao X-B, Taylor HS. Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 Mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice. Sci Rep 2012;2:312.10.1038/srep00312Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

50. Barth A, Ponocny I, Gnambs T, Winker R. No effects of short-term exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic fields on human cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Bioelectromagnetics 2012;33(2):159–65.10.1002/bem.20697Search in Google Scholar PubMed

51. Keetley V, Wood AW, Spong J, Stough C. Neuropsychological sequelae of digital mobile phone exposure in humans. Neuropsychologia 2006;44(10):1843–8.10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.03.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

52. Ray PD, Huang B-W, Tsuji Y. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and redox regulation in cellular signaling. Cell Signal 2012;24(5):981–90.10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.01.008Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

53. Ikeda M, Ikeda-Sagara M, Okada T, Clement P, Urade Y, et al. Brain oxidation is an initial process in sleep induction. Neuroscience 2005;130:1029–40.10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.09.057Search in Google Scholar PubMed

54. Nunomurer A, Hofer T, Moreira PI, Castellani RJ, Smioth MA. RNA oxidation in alzheimer disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. Acta Neuropathol 2009;118:151–66.10.1007/s00401-009-0508-1Search in Google Scholar PubMed

55. Andriollo-Sanchez M, Hininger-Favier I, Meunier N, Venneria E, O’Connor JM, et al. Age-related oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in middle-aged and older European subjects: the ZENITH study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59(2):S58–62.10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602300Search in Google Scholar PubMed

56. Nazıroğlu M, Yüksel M, Köse S, Özkaya M. Recent reports of Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced radiation on oxidative stress and reproductive signaling pathways in females and males. J Membrane Biol 2013;246(12):869–75.10.1007/s00232-013-9597-9Search in Google Scholar PubMed

57. Nazıroğlu M, ÇIğ B, Doğan S, Uğuz AC, Dilek S, et al. 2.45 GHz wireless devices induce oxidative stress and proliferation through cytosolic Ca(2+) influx in human leukemia cancer cells. Int J Radiat Biol 2012;88:449–56.10.3109/09553002.2012.682192Search in Google Scholar PubMed

58. Lu Y-S, Huang B-T, Huang Y-X. Reactive oxygen species formation and apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell induced by 900 MHz mobile phone radiation. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2012;2012:1–8.Search in Google Scholar

59. Fragopoulou AF, Margaritis LH. Brain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation. Electromagn Biol Med 2012;31(4):250–74.10.3109/15368378.2011.631068Search in Google Scholar PubMed

60. Kesari KK, Kumar S, Behari J. 900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain. Electromagn Biol Med 2011;30(4):219–34.10.3109/15368378.2011.587930Search in Google Scholar PubMed

61. Xu S, Zhou Z, Zhang L, Yu Z, Zhang W, et al. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochrondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons. Brain Res 2010;1311:189–96.10.1016/j.brainres.2009.10.062Search in Google Scholar PubMed

62. De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro. PLoS One 2009;4(7):e6446.10.1371/journal.pone.0006446Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

63. Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, et al. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: An in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril 2009;92(4):1318–25.10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.08.022Search in Google Scholar PubMed

64. Hamzany Y, Feinmesser R, Shpitzer T, Mizrachi A, Hilly O, et al. Is human saliva an indicator of the adverse health effects of using mobile phones? Antioxid Redox Signal 2013;18(6):622–7.10.1089/ars.2012.4751Search in Google Scholar PubMed

65. Çiğ B, Nazıroğlu M. Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells. BBA–Biomembranes 2015;1848(10, Part B):2756–65.10.1016/j.bbamem.2015.02.013Search in Google Scholar PubMed

66. Karasek M. Melatonin, human aging, and age-related diseases. Exp Gerontol 2004;39:1723–9.10.1016/j.exger.2004.04.012Search in Google Scholar PubMed

67. Slominski A, Pisarchik A, Semak I, Sweatman T, Wortsman J, et al. Serotoninergic and melatoninergic systems are fully expressed in human skin. FASEB J 2002;16:896–8.10.1096/fj.01-0952fjeSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

68. Srinivasan V, Pandi-Perumal SR, Maestroni GJM, Esquifino AI, Hardeland R, et al. Role of melatonin in neurodegenerative diseases. Neurotox Res 2005;7(4):293–318.10.1007/BF03033887Search in Google Scholar PubMed

69. Burch J, Reif J, Noonan C, Ichinose T, Bachand A, et al. Melatonin metabolite excretion among cellular telephone users. Int J Radiat Biol 2002;78:1029–36.10.1080/09553000210166561Search in Google Scholar PubMed

70. Wood AW, Loughran SP, Stough C. Does evening exposure to mobile phone radiation affect subsequent melatonin production? Int J Radiat Biol 2006;82(2):69–76.10.1080/09553000600599775Search in Google Scholar PubMed

71. Mann K, Wagner P, Brunn G, Hassan F, Hiernke C, et al. Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromangetic fields on the neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrinology 1998;67:139–44.10.1159/000054308Search in Google Scholar PubMed

72. Radon K, Parera D, Rose D-M, Jung D, Vollrath L. No effects of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic fields on melatonin, cortisol, and selected markers of the immune system in man. Bioelectromagnetics 2001;22:280–7.10.1002/bem.51Search in Google Scholar PubMed

73. Oktem F, Ozguner F, Mollaoglu H, Koyu A, Efkan U. Oxidative damage in the kidney induced by 900-MHz-emitted mobile phone: Protection by melatonin. Arch Med Res 2005;36:350–5.10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.03.021Search in Google Scholar PubMed

74. Gavella M, Lipovac V. Antioxidative effect of melatonin on human spermatozoa. Arch Andrology 2000;44:23–7.10.1080/014850100262371Search in Google Scholar PubMed

75. Colak C, Parlakpinar H, Ermis N, Tagluk ME, Colak C, et al. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from 3G mobile phone on heart rate, blood pressure and ECG parameters in rats. Toxicol Ind Health 2012;28(7):629–38.10.1177/0748233711420468Search in Google Scholar PubMed

76. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Researchers discover how melatonin production is switched off Rockville, MD: National Institute of Health, 1998 [cited 2012 7 August]. Available at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/releases/mel98.cfm.Search in Google Scholar

77. Sroykham W, Wongsawat Y. Effects of LED-backlit computer screen and emotional self-regulation on human melatonin production. In: EMBS I, editor. 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS; 3-7 July; Osaka2013.10.1109/EMBC.2013.6609847Search in Google Scholar PubMed

78. Cajochen C, Frey S, Anders D, Späti J, Bues M, et al. Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance. J Appl Physiol 2011;110:1432–8.10.1152/japplphysiol.00165.2011Search in Google Scholar PubMed

79. Williams DA, Xu H, Cancelas JA. Children are not little adults: just ask their hematopoietic stem cells. J Clin Invest 2006;116(10):2593–6.10.1172/JCI30083Search in Google Scholar

80. Santner-Nanan B, Seddiki N, Zhu E, Quent V, Kelleher A, et al. Accelerated age-dependent transition of human regulatory T cells to effector memory phenotype. Int Immunol 2008;20(3):375–83.10.1093/intimm/dxm151Search in Google Scholar

81. Müschen M, Warskulat U, Beckmann MW. Defining CD95 as a tumor suppressor gene. J Mol Med 2000;78:312–25.10.1007/s001090000112Search in Google Scholar

82. Markovà E, Malmgren LO, Belyaev IY. Microwaves from mobile phones inhibit 53BP1 focus formation in human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells: possible mechanistic link to cancer risk. Environ Health Persp 2010;118:394–9.10.1289/ehp.0900781Search in Google Scholar

83. Belyaev IY, Markova E, Hillert L, Malmgren LO, Persson BR. Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics 2009;30(2):129–41.10.1002/bem.20445Search in Google Scholar

84. Lee S-S, Kim H-R, Kim M-S, Park S, Yoon E-S, et al. Influence of Smartphone Wi-Fi Signals on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells. J Craniofac Surg 2014;25(5):1902–7.10.1097/SCS.0000000000000939Search in Google Scholar

85. Velizarov S, Raskmark P, Kwee S. The effects of radiofrequency fields on cell proliferation are non-thermal. Bioelectroch Bioener 1999;48(1):177–80.10.1016/S0302-4598(98)00238-4Search in Google Scholar

86. Leszczynski D, Joenväärä S. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation 2002;70:120–9.10.1046/j.1432-0436.2002.700207.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

87. Chen C, Ma Q, Liu C, Deng P, Zhu G, et al. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:5103.10.1038/srep05103Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

88. Capri M, Salvioli S, Altilia S, Sevini F, Remondini D, et al. Age-Dependent Effects of in Vitro Radiofrequency Exposure (Mobile Phone) on CD95+ T Helper Human Lymphocytes. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1067(1):493–9.10.1196/annals.1354.071Search in Google Scholar PubMed

89. Behrens A, van Deursen JM, Rudolph KL, Schumacher B. Impact of genomic damage and ageing on stem cell function. Nat Cell Biol 2014;16(3):201–7.10.1038/ncb2928Search in Google Scholar

90. Redmayne M, Smith E, Abramson MJ. The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health 2013;12:90.10.1186/1476-069X-12-90Search in Google Scholar

91. Division of Sleep Medicine. Healthy sleep: changes in sleep with age Boston, MA: Harvard Medical School; 2007 [updated 18 December 2007; cited 2014 28 July]. Available at: http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/science/variations/changes-in-sleep-with-age.Search in Google Scholar

92. Vyazovskiy VV, Harris KD. Sleep and the single neuron: the role of global slow oscillations in individual cell rest. Nature 2013;14:443–51.Search in Google Scholar

93. Inoué S, Honda K, Komoda Y. Sleep as neuronal detoxification and restitution. Behav Brain Res 1995;69(1–2):91–6.10.1016/0166-4328(95)00014-KSearch in Google Scholar

94. Joseph W, Vermeeren G, Verloock L, Martens L. Estimation of whole-body SAR from electromagnetic fields using personal exposure meters. Bioelectromagnetics 2009;31(4):286–95.10.1002/bem.20561Search in Google Scholar PubMed

95. Wiart J, Hadjem A, Varsier N, Conil E. Numerical dosimetry dedicated to children RF exposure. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2011;107(3):421–7.10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2011.10.002Search in Google Scholar PubMed

96. Christ A, Gosselin M-C, Christopoulou M, Khun S, Kuster N. Age dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users. Phys Med Biol 2010;55(7):1767–83.10.1088/0031-9155/55/7/001Search in Google Scholar PubMed

97. Gandhi OP, Lazzi G, Furse CM. Electromagnetic absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz. IEEE Trans Microwave Theor Techniq 1996;44(10):1884–97.10.1109/22.539947Search in Google Scholar

98. Joseph W, Frei P, Röösli M, Vermeeren G, Bolte J, et al. Between-country comparison of whole-body SAR from personal exposure data in urban areas. Bioelectromagnetics 2012;33(8):682–94.10.1002/bem.21737Search in Google Scholar PubMed

99. Foster KR, Chou CK. Are children more exposed to radio frequency energy from mobile phones than adults? IEEE Access 2014;2:1497–509.10.1109/ACCESS.2014.2380355Search in Google Scholar

100. Morris RD, Morgan LL, Davis D. Children absorb higher doses of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones than adults. IEEE Access 2015; in print.10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2478701Search in Google Scholar

101. Peyman A, Gabriel C, Grant EH, Vermeeren G, Martens L. Variation of the dielectric properties of tissues with age: The effect on the values of SAR in children when exposed to walkie-talkie devices. Phys Med Biol 2009;54:227–41.10.1088/0031-9155/54/2/004Search in Google Scholar PubMed

102. Redmayne M, Johansson O. Could myelin damage from radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure help explain the functional impairment electrohypersenstivity? A review of the evidence. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 2014;17(5):247–58.10.1080/10937404.2014.923356Search in Google Scholar PubMed

103. Sage C, Johansson O, Sage SA. Personal digital assistant (PDA) cell phone units produce elevated extremely-low frequency electromagnetic field emissions. Bioelectromagnetics 2007;28(5):386–92.10.1002/bem.20315Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Received: 2015-9-23
Accepted: 2015-11-2
Published Online: 2015-11-27
Published in Print: 2015-12-1

©2015 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 6.2.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2015-0030/html
Scroll Up Arrow