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Exposure assessment of lead from food and airborne dusts and biomonitoring in pregnant mothers, their fetus and siblings in Karachi, Pakistan and Shimotsuke, Japan

  • Fujio Kayama EMAIL logo , Zafar Fatmi , Akihiko Ikegami , Atsuko Mizuno , Mayumi Ohtsu , Nathern Mise , Xiaoyi Cui , Masanori Ogawa , Takako Sakamoto , Yoshiko Nakagi , Takahiko Yoshida , Ambreen Sahito , Shahla Naeem , Kulsoom Ghias , Hina Zuberi , Kanwal Tariq , Yayoi Kobayashi and Keiko Nohara


Aim: Exposure assessment of lead (Pb) and Arsenic (As) from food, water, and house dust intake were assessed among pregnant women, their children and fetuses in Pakistan and Japan, as well as their body burden of the metals in their blood.

Method: Fifty families which included a pregnant woman, a fetus and the 1–3-year-old siblings were recruited in Karachi and Khairpur in Pakistan, and Shimotsuke and Asahikawa in Japan, respectively. Their dietary exposure to Pb and As was measured in 3-day food duplicates and drinking water by ICP-MP. Pb in house dust and respirable dust was evaluated with an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Non-radioactive isotope Pb profiles of blood specimens will be compared with those of the exposure origins, such as food duplicates, respirable house dust, the soils nearby, and gasoline.

Results: Judging from the data collected and analyzed so far, contribution from dietary intake is highly correlated to higher body burden of Pb among Pakistani mothers. Additional data analyses will reveal the status of Pb and As body burden in Pakistani mothers, fetuses and their siblings, and causal sources of high body burden is delineated by Pb isotope profile analysis of different sources of Pb exposure.

Corresponding author: Fujio Kayama, Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimono, Tochigi, Japan, E-mail:


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Received: 2015-10-14
Accepted: 2015-10-14
Published Online: 2016-03-08
Published in Print: 2016-03-01

©2016 by De Gruyter

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